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Molecular Phylogeny of the Philippine Endemic Genus Antherostele Bremek. (Rubiaceae) Inferred from ITS Data (nrDNA) and Its Conservation Status  [PDF]
Jasper John A. Obico, Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.310169
Abstract: Antherostele Bremek. is an understudied genus of Rubiaceae endemic to the Philippines formerly comprising four species of shrubs or small trees distributed in Luzon and Visayas. In this first molecular study of the genus, the ITS (nrDNA) was utilized to determine the monophyly of Antherostele, reconstruct its phylogeny, and resolve its placement in Rubiaceae. Furthermore, an update on the assessment of its conservation status of the included species in the genus was done. Antherostele is monophyletic and is nested within the tribe Urophylleae of subfamily Rubioideae which confirms its segregation from Urophyllum and its placement within Urophylleae as proposed by earlier authors based on morphology. However, the relationships of Urophylleae members remain unresolved. Antherostele is united by reflexed corolla, hairs on upper side of the corolla lobes and syngenesious stamens. The montane A. luzoniensis with small leaves is found to be sister to the rest of Antherostele species. Antherostele is hypothesized to originate from montane regions and diversified by forming larger leaves following dispersal to the shaded forest understory. From the five species of Antherostele currently recognized in the study, two are endangered (A. banahaensis, A. grandistipula) and three are critically endangered including a new species (A. callophylla, A. luzoniensis, A. sp. nov.) following the criteria of IUCN.
nrDNA ITS analysis of Paecilomyces farinosus isolates
粉拟青霉种内nrDNA ITS分析

HUANG Bo,WANG Cheng Shu,WANG Bin,FAN Mei Zhen,LI Zeng Zhi Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Control of Anhui,Anhui Agricultural University,Hefei Systematic Mycology & Lichenology Laboratory,Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,
黄勃
,王成树,王滨,樊美珍,李增智

生物多样性 , 2003,
Abstract: nrDNA ITS(ITS1 5.8S ITS2) regions of 20 isolates of Paecilomyces farinosus were sequenced, and its correct ITS sequence was obtained. The results showed that the ITS of P. farinosus reported by Korean researchers was actually that of P. tenuipes . Two unidentified Korean isolates of Paecilomyces (KACC40219 and KACC40221) were identified as P. farinosus based on molecular data. The neighbour joining tree showed that P. farinosus is monophyletic, and the teleomorph of P. farinosus was tentatively identified as a Cordyceps species.Sequence polymorphisms of the nrDNA ITS region exist among different isolates of P. farinosus with the same geographic origins. The molecular data proved that genetic diversity of different isolates of P. farinosus is not related to geographic origins and hosts.
The GATT and Its Implications on the Philippine Economy
Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1994,
Abstract: In this position paper, the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry believes that General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) member-countries definitely stand to benefit from the agreement resulting from the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations. The Philippines, in particular, stands to profit from a) concessions given by developed or highly industrialized countries in the form of tariff reductions for many of its agricultural products and b) preferential treatment because of the treaty’s Most Favored Nation component. Whatever losses the Philippines may suffer because of the latest GATT treaty are minimal and short-term. Even tourism is projected to receive a boost from the new treaty. The paper seeks to show that GATT is a necessary step for the standardization and simplification of multilateral trade, allowing its members to fully reap the benefits of a system based on comparative advantage. GATT should also be viewed as an indication of the direction that world trade is headed towards in the near future. If the Philippines does not fully comply with GATT’s requirements or implement measures that will allow it to compete in a liberalized global economy, it will not only find itself immediately at odds with its trading partners, but it will also find itself incapable of internally reforming its economic structures in order to attain sustainability. In this age of international trade liberalization, it is no longer economically sound to stand apart from the rest of the world.
SPECIAL SECTION: The GATT and Its Implications on the Philippine Economy
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2009,
Abstract: In this position paper, the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry believes that General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) member-countries definitely stand to benefit from the agreement resulting from the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations. The Philippines, in particular, stands to profit from a) concessions given by developed or highly industrialized countries in the form of tariff reductions for many of its agricultural products and b) preferential treatment because of the treaty’s Most Favored Nation component. Whatever losses the Philippines may suffer because of the latest GATT treaty are minimal and short-term. Even tourism is projected to receive a boost from the new treaty. The paper seeks to show that GATT is a necessary step for the standardization and simplification of multilateral trade,allowing its members to fully reap the benefits of a system based on comparative advantage. GATT should also be viewed as an indication of the direction that world trade is headed towards in the near future. If the Philippines does not fully comply with GATT’s requirements or implement measures that will allow it to compete in a liberalized global economy, it will not only find itself immediately at odds with its trading partners, but it will also find itself incapable of internally reforming its economic structures in order to attain sustainability. In this age of international trade liberalization, it is no longer economically sound to stand apart from the rest of the world.
Incomplete Concerted Evolution of nrDNA ITS in Cornus subg. Syncarpea (Cornaceae)
四照花亚属的nrDNA ITS致同进化不完全

HU Zhao-feng,XIANG Qiu-yun,
胡兆锋
,向秋云,黄宏文

热带亚热带植物学报 , 2013,
Abstract: The subgenus Syncarpea, which belongs to genus of Cornus (Cornaceae), includes five species and eight subspecies in China. nrDNA ITS sequences of 21 individuals from 4 species, with 1 to 2 populations for each species, in the subgenus were amplified and used to test the existence of incomplete concerted evolution and pseudogenes. Intra-genomic polymorphism was detected in the internal transcribed spacer (including ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) regions of these species. The analyses of G+C content, 5.8S conserved motifs and minimum free energy of 5.8S secondary structures suggested that there were putative pseudogenes of nrDNA in these species. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences resulted in five clades with variants from the same accession commonly being placed in two or more clades and species were grouped differently among clades. These results demonstrated the existence of incomplete concerted evolution of ITS within individuals of Syncarpea, which could be explained by incomplete lineage sorting, possible hybridization or polyploidy and resulted in the polymorphism of ITS and the difficulty in morphology-based species delineation in the subgenus.
Phylogeny of Botryosphaeria species based on ITS-nrDNA sequences
葡萄座腔菌属ITS-nrDNA的分子系统学分析

YU Zhong-Dong,ZHAO Guan-Cheng,DAN Jing-Ya,REN Zheng-Zheng,
余仲东
,赵官成,淡静雅,任争争

菌物学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Based on maximum parsimony phylogeny tree of ITS-nrDNA sequences of 22 isolates collected from Shaanxi Province and 40 isolates downloaded from GenBank, Botryosphaeria species from China were clustered into two groups: BDGroup1 was composed of B. dothidea isolates, and BDGroup2 from Guanzhong region of Shaanxi Province was a distant related group. Cultivation characteristics, conidial size and pathogenicity of the Chinese isolates indicated that pathogens of apple ring rot disease, apple stem dry rot disease, pear ring rot disease and peach gummosis had high homogenous with B. dothidea, and they were all clustered in BDGroup1, supporting the idea that B. dothide and B. berengeriana are synonymous. The MP (Maximum parsimony) tree also showed that B. ribis was not the synonym species of B. dothidea, and B. ribis was more homogenous with B. parva Pennycook & Samuels. The other Botryosphaeria species were also discussed in this paper.
The Philippine historical earthquakecatalog: its development, current stateand future directions  [cached]
M. L. P. Bautista,B. C. Bautista
Annals of Geophysics , 2004, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3307
Abstract: This report will trace the development of the historical earthquake catalog of the Philippines, assess its present state and recommend future research directions. The current Philippine historical earthquake catalog is culled from various catalogs, both global and local, that were developed since the first Philippine catalog by Perrey was published in 1860. While early global catalogs gave simple mention of earthquakes in the Philippines, more focused earthquake catalogs about the Philippines gave more explicit descriptions of earthquake accounts and adopted descriptions by local historians. Over the years, various historians and seismologists continued to compile their catalogs whose contents depended on the author?s perspectives and purposes. These works varied from simple listings to others including detailed descriptions. It was only recently that an attempt made to parameterize the magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine historical earthquakes using magnitude-felt area relations was done. A more detailed catalog, however, is now underway that will show details of intensity distribution for each significant historical earthquake. By comparing the historical catalog with the recent catalog and assuming that the recent catalog is complete, we find that there are still a substantial amount of historical earthquakes that needs to be reviewed and located. Possible sources of new information are local libraries, museums and archives in the Philippines, Spain and other Southeast Asian countries to which the country was in contact with during historical times.
nrDNA-ITS区序列在植物系统与进化研究中的应用
Application of nrDNA-ITS Sequences in Plant Phylogeny and Evolution
 [PDF]

刘锡红, 张磊, 李刚, 覃瑞, 刘虹
Botanical Research (BR) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/BR.2014.31007
Abstract:
本文就核rDNA (nrDNA)ITS区序列在植物系统与进化研究中的应用进行了讨论。nrDNA是植物系统发育研究中广泛应用的重要核基因片段5.8S rDNAnrDNA的内转录间隔区分为ITS1ITS2两部分。被子植物中ITS1的长度为165~298 bpITS2的长度为177~266 bp;裸子植物中ITS片段较长,且其长度变化主要由ITS1的长度变异所致。由于ITS序列变异较快,能够提供较丰富的变异位点和信息位点,已成为被子植物较低分类阶元的系统发育和分类研究中的重要分子标记,为探讨多倍体复合体网状进化关系,异源多倍体的起源提供了重要的系统学信息。
The application of nuclear rDNA ITS sequences in plant phylogeny and evolution analysis was discussed in this paper. Nuclear rDNA is an important nuclear gene fragment, which had been widely used in phylogenetic studies. The internal transcribed spacer of nuclear rDNA was divided into ITS1 and ITS2 by 5.8S rDNA. The length of ITS1 ranges from 165 bp to 298 bp in angiosperms, and the length of ITS2 ranges from 177 bp to 266 bp. ITS sequence is relatively longer in gymnosperms. It much depends on the length of ITS1. As mutate quickly, ITS sequences are capable of providing many variable sites and informative sites, which has become an important molecular marker in plant
O gênero sulamericano Gynocraterium Bremek. (Acanthaceae, Nelsonioideae)
Braz, Denise Monte;Monteiro, Reinaldo;
Acta Amazonica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672011000400001
Abstract: the monotypic genus gynocraterium bremek. has been known to be restricted to the guiana, but recently was cited to other south american countries. based on a revision of collections from 52 national and foreign herbaria, it is here demonstrated its occurrence in other localities, including the brazilian amazon forest. a revision on the genus to the neotropics is here presented, with ratification of its description, and for gynocraterium guianense bremek. aspects of its morphology are for the first time illustrated, as well as description and sem photographs of the pollen grains. diagnostic features, phenology and new aspects on the distribution are listed to g. guianense, which is restricted to the amazon region.
Phylogenetic relationships within Chamaecrista sect. Xerocalyx (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) inferred from the cpDNA trnE-trnT intergenic spacer and nrDNA ITS sequences
Torres, Davi Coe;Lima, Jo?o Paulo Matos Santos;Fernandes, Afranio Gomes;Nunes, Edson Paula;Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572011000200014
Abstract: chamaecrista belongs to subtribe cassiinae (caesalpinioideae), and it comprises over 330 species, divided into six sections. the section xerocalyx has been subjected to a profound taxonomic shuffling over the years. therefore, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis using a cpdna trne-trnt intergenic spacer and nrdna its/5.8s sequences from cassiinae taxa, in an attempt to elucidate the relationships within this section from chamaecrista. the tree topology was congruent between the two data sets studied in which the monophyly of the genus chamaecrista was strongly supported. our analyses reinforce that new sectional boundaries must be defined in the chamaecrista genus, especially the inclusion of sections caliciopsis and xerocalyx in sect. chamaecrista, considered here paraphyletic. the section xerocalyx was strongly supported as monophyletic; however, the current data did not show c. ramosa (microphyllous) and c. desvauxii (macrophyllous) and their respective varieties in distinct clades, suggesting that speciation events are still ongoing in these specimens.
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