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The effects of social support and confidence in the health care system on the likelihood of hiring a health advocate  [cached]
Terry A Cronan,Jordan A Carlson,Jenny Imberi,et al
Psychology Research and Behavior Management , 2010,
Abstract: Terry A Cronan1,2, Jordan A Carlson1, Jenny Imberi1, Miguel Villodas2, Elaina Vasserman-Stokes1, Ana Dowell11Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 2Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego, CA, USABackground: In response to the increasing complexity of the health care system, the field of health advocacy has emerged. However, little is known about factors that may influence a person’s likelihood of hiring a health advocate.Purpose: This study was designed to examine factors that influence a person’s likelihood of hiring a health advocate.Methods: The participants were 889 randomly selected community members who were assigned to read one of six vignettes. Social support and confidence in the health care system were manipulated in the vignettes. Social support was either high or low and overall confidence was high, moderate, or low. The dependent variables were participants’ likelihood of hiring a health advocate and the hourly rate participants were willing to pay for a health advocate for six different services.Results: The results indicated that social support did not affect the likelihood of hiring a health advocate; however, confidence in the health care system did affect the likelihood of hiring a health advocate. Participants who read vignettes, in which the patient was described as having lower overall confidence levels, indicated a greater likelihood of hiring a health advocate than participants who read the vignettes in which the patient was described as having high confidence.Conclusions: More research is needed to determine other factors that may influence the likelihood of hiring a health advocate and whether hiring a health advocate is a cost-effective way to improve the quality of health care by reducing the number of medical mistakes and improving patient-provider communication.Keywords: health advocate, advocacy, social support, confidence, services for hire
The effects of social support and confidence in the health care system on the likelihood of hiring a health advocate
Terry A Cronan, Jordan A Carlson, Jenny Imberi, et al
Psychology Research and Behavior Management , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S9149
Abstract: ts of social support and confidence in the health care system on the likelihood of hiring a health advocate Original Research (4677) Total Article Views Authors: Terry A Cronan, Jordan A Carlson, Jenny Imberi, et al Published Date March 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 41 - 50 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S9149 Terry A Cronan1,2, Jordan A Carlson1, Jenny Imberi1, Miguel Villodas2, Elaina Vasserman-Stokes1, Ana Dowell1 1Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 2Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Background: In response to the increasing complexity of the health care system, the field of health advocacy has emerged. However, little is known about factors that may influence a person’s likelihood of hiring a health advocate. Purpose: This study was designed to examine factors that influence a person’s likelihood of hiring a health advocate. Methods: The participants were 889 randomly selected community members who were assigned to read one of six vignettes. Social support and confidence in the health care system were manipulated in the vignettes. Social support was either high or low and overall confidence was high, moderate, or low. The dependent variables were participants’ likelihood of hiring a health advocate and the hourly rate participants were willing to pay for a health advocate for six different services. Results: The results indicated that social support did not affect the likelihood of hiring a health advocate; however, confidence in the health care system did affect the likelihood of hiring a health advocate. Participants who read vignettes, in which the patient was described as having lower overall confidence levels, indicated a greater likelihood of hiring a health advocate than participants who read the vignettes in which the patient was described as having high confidence. Conclusions: More research is needed to determine other factors that may influence the likelihood of hiring a health advocate and whether hiring a health advocate is a cost-effective way to improve the quality of health care by reducing the number of medical mistakes and improving patient-provider communication.
Social content matching in MapReduce  [PDF]
Gianmarco De Francisci Morales,Aristides Gionis,Mauro Sozio
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Matching problems are ubiquitous. They occur in economic markets, labor markets, internet advertising, and elsewhere. In this paper we focus on an application of matching for social media. Our goal is to distribute content from information suppliers to information consumers. We seek to maximize the overall relevance of the matched content from suppliers to consumers while regulating the overall activity, e.g., ensuring that no consumer is overwhelmed with data and that all suppliers have chances to deliver their content. We propose two matching algorithms, GreedyMR and StackMR, geared for the MapReduce paradigm. Both algorithms have provable approximation guarantees, and in practice they produce high-quality solutions. While both algorithms scale extremely well, we can show that StackMR requires only a poly-logarithmic number of MapReduce steps, making it an attractive option for applications with very large datasets. We experimentally show the trade-offs between quality and efficiency of our solutions on two large datasets coming from real-world social-media web sites.
The Role of Immigration as a Social Network on Shaping Entrepreneurship Tendency: A Research on Balkan Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Turkey  [cached]
Ali Tas,Umut Sanem Citci,Yusuf Cesteneci Cesteneci
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2714
Abstract: The main purpose of the current study is to explain immigration concept and the effects of social networks occurring in the grounds of immigration on the entrepreneurship tendencies of immigrant entrepreneurs especially for the sampling of Balkan immigrant entrepreneurs. Keeping this main purpose in mind, interviews were made with 17 Balkan immigrant entrepreneurs. First of all, the data obtained from this research show that social networks occurring in the grounds of immigration are used by immigrant entrepreneurs in a specific way for forming work conception, providing necessary information and support to set up business, supplying with required finance and choosing the staff. Besides, the results of this research display that Balkan immigrant entrepreneurs living in Turkey would rather make use of group dynamics and sources on the basis of individual pragmatism than keep and protect them as a closed social network. Key words: I m m i g r a n t s ; I m m i g r a t i o n entrepreneurship; Social networks; Balkan immigrants
Book Review of "Getting Ahead: Social Mobility, Public Housing and Immigrant Networks" 2011. New York University Press, by Silvia Dominguez.  [cached]
Stephen J. Sills
Sociation Today , 2011,
Abstract: Sylvia Dominguez’s book "Getting Ahead: Social mobility, Public Housing, and Immigrant Networks" fits neatly in the tradition of Cecilia Menjivar, Pierette Hondaneu-Sotelo, Mary Romero and other recent longitudinal ethnographic studies of immigrant women’s social support networks. Dominquez attempts in this text to bridge the gap between studies of urban poverty and public housing and that of the assimilation and immigrant incorporation literatures. She notes that the "literature on social mobility among residents of high poverty neighborhoods is unproductively divided into theories to explain the experience of low income African Americans living in areas of concentrated black poverty , and less prolific literature to explain the experiences of immigrants living in similarly segregated neighborhoods."
Human Matching Behavior in Social Networks: An Algorithmic Perspective  [PDF]
Lorenzo Coviello, Massimo Franceschetti, Mathew D. McCubbins, Ramamohan Paturi, Andrea Vattani
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041900
Abstract: We argue that algorithmic modeling is a powerful approach to understanding the collective dynamics of human behavior. We consider the task of pairing up individuals connected over a network, according to the following model: each individual is able to propose to match with and accept a proposal from a neighbor in the network; if a matched individual proposes to another neighbor or accepts another proposal, the current match will be broken; individuals can only observe whether their neighbors are currently matched but have no knowledge of the network topology or the status of other individuals; and all individuals have the common goal of maximizing the total number of matches. By examining the experimental data, we identify a behavioral principle called prudence, develop an algorithmic model, analyze its properties mathematically and by simulations, and validate the model with human subject experiments for various network sizes and topologies. Our results include i) a -approximate maximum matching is obtained in logarithmic time in the network size for bounded degree networks; ii) for any constant , a -approximate maximum matching is obtained in polynomial time, while obtaining a maximum matching can require an exponential time; and iii) convergence to a maximum matching is slower on preferential attachment networks than on small-world networks. These results allow us to predict that while humans can find a “good quality” matching quickly, they may be unable to find a maximum matching in feasible time. We show that the human subjects largely abide by prudence, and their collective behavior is closely tracked by the above predictions.
Social Status and Anti-Immigrant Attitudes in Europe: An Examination from the Perspective of Social Dominance Theory  [cached]
Beate Küpper,Carina Wolf,Andreas Zick
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2010,
Abstract: A full test of the Social Dominance Theory model addressed immigration as one of the most prominent current intergroup conflicts in Europe. The hypothesis that members of high status groups tend to discriminate members of low status groups because they are more prone to Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and refer more to legitimising myths such as prejudice was tested using representative samples from eight European countries (N = 1000 each), considering income and migrant background as social status indicators, SDO, anti-immigrant prejudice and diversity beliefs, and the intention to discriminate immigrants. The results confirm that individuals with higher SDO are more likely to discriminate immigrants, partly because of stronger anti-immigrant prejudice and partly because they believe less in diversity. However, the results question the role of social status. Contrary to the expectations of Social Dominance Theory, individuals with lower income are more prone to SDO and have stronger anti-immigrant attitudes and weaker diversity beliefs. The impact of migrant background was weak and ambivalent. We suggest reconsidering the role of social status to stress status maintenance and enhancement as general social motives. Regardless of their social position, people seemingly try to enhance their relative position by devaluing lower status groups.
Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral  [cached]
Ivert Anna-Karin,Svensson Robert,Adler Hans,Levander Sten
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-5-6
Abstract: Background In the Swedish society, as in many other societies, many children and adolescents with mental health problems do not receive the help they need. As the Swedish society becomes increasingly multicultural, and as ethnic and economic residential segregation become more pronounced, this study utilises ethnicity and neighbourhood context to examine referral pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) clinics. Methods The analysis examines four different sources of referrals: family referrals, social/legal agency referrals, school referrals and health/mental health referrals. The referrals of 2054 children aged 11-19 from the Stockholm Child-Psychiatric Database were studied using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Results indicate that ethnicity played an important role in how children and adolescents were referred to CAP-clinics. Family referrals were more common among children and adolescents with a Swedish background than among those with an immigrant background. Referrals by social/legal agencies were more common among children and adolescents with African and Asian backgrounds. Children with Asian or South American backgrounds were more likely to have been referred by schools or by the health/mental health care sector. A significant neighbourhood effect was found in relation to family referrals. Children and adolescents from neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were more likely to be referred to CAP-clinics by their families in comparison to children from other neighbourhoods. Such differences were not found in relation in relation to the other sources of referral. Conclusions This article reports findings that can be an important first step toward increasing knowledge on reasons behind differential referral rates and uptake of psychiatric care in an ethnically diverse Swedish sample. These findings have implications for the design and evaluation of community mental health outreach programs and should be considered when developing measures and strategies intended to reach and help children with mental health problems. This might involve providing information about the availability and accessibility of health care for children and adolescents with mental health problems to families in certain neighbourhoods and with different ethnic backgrounds.
Matching Entities Across Online Social Networks  [PDF]
Olga Peled,Michael Fire,Lior Rokach,Yuval Elovici
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Online Social Networks (OSNs), such as Facebook and Twitter, have become an integral part of our daily lives. There are hundreds of OSNs, each with its own focus in that each offers particular services and functionalities. Recent studies show that many OSN users create several accounts on multiple OSNs using the same or different personal information. Collecting all the available data of an individual from several OSNs and fusing it into a single profile can be useful for many purposes. In this paper, we introduce novel machine learning based methods for solving Entity Resolution (ER), a problem for matching user profiles across multiple OSNs. The presented methods are able to match between two user profiles from two different OSNs based on supervised learning techniques, which use features extracted from each one of the user profiles. By using the extracted features and supervised learning techniques, we developed classifiers which can perform entity matching between two profiles for the following scenarios: (a) matching entities across two OSNs; (b) searching for a user by similar name; and (c) de-anonymizing a user's identity. The constructed classifiers were tested by using data collected from two popular OSNs, Facebook and Xing. We then evaluated the classifiers' performances using various evaluation measures, such as true and false positive rates, accuracy, and the Area Under the receiver operator Curve (AUC). The constructed classifiers were evaluated and their classification performance measured by AUC was quite remarkable, with an AUC of up to 0.982 and an accuracy of up to 95.9% in identifying user profiles across two OSNs.
Social Service Utilization, Sense of Community, Family Functioning and the Mental Health of New Immigrant Women in Hong Kong  [PDF]
Qiaobing Wu,Julian Chun-Chung Chow
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10051735
Abstract: Drawing upon a sample of 296 new immigrant women in Hong Kong, this study investigated how social service utilization, family functioning, and sense of community influenced the depressive symptoms of new immigrant women. Results of the structural equation modeling suggested that family functioning and sense of community were both significantly and negatively associated with the depression of new immigrant women. Utilization of community services also influenced the depression of immigrant women indirectly through the mediating effect of sense of community. Implications of the research findings for mental health intervention were discussed.
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