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Divorcing China: The Swing from the Patrilineal Genealogy of China to the Matrilineal Genealogy of Taiwan in Taiwan’s National Imagination
Yin C. Chuang
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs , 2011,
Abstract: This paper explores the popular concept of the relationship between Taiwan and China as a feminine/ masculine dichotomy which has been constructed within Taiwan’s national imagination. First, I will focus on how this dichotomy has been created within the process of identity-shifting in Taiwan since the 1990s as manifested in Taiwanese pop songs. Second, I will demonstrate how it has been appropriated within the process of nation-building. Two primary questions will be addressed: How is the national imagination of Taiwan in Taiwanese pop songs constructed through maternal and feminine images? How is the matrilineal genealogy in Taiwanese pop songs appropriated by the opposition camp, namely the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), to mobilize voters? I will investigate, from a cultural studies perspective, how cultural imagination has come to serve as the vehicle to formulate resistance, mobilize voters, gain power and, most importantly, reconstruct Taiwanese nationalism within Taiwan’s political limbo for decades. Furthermore, Margaret Somers’ discussion (1993, 1994, 1995a, 1995b, 1995c; Somers and Gibson 1994) of narrative identity is adopted as the framework for this paper in order to look at how identities are constructed within and across multiple realms. My research methods consist of conducting in-depth interviews and analysing texts.
Rural Girls Educational Challenges in Tanzania: A Case Study of Matrilineal Society
Gervas Machimu,Josephine Joseph Minde
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.10.15
Abstract: This study investigated Rural Girls Educational Challenges in Tanzania particularly the matrilineal society (Luguru) where women hold very influential positions in terms of property rights influencing their daily lives. Therefore, the study examined the influence matrilineal system in girls education. Data were collected using a checklist and questionnaires supported by personal observation and formal discussion with key informants. The study was based in four schools randomly selected out of 13 secondary schools in the study area by 2006. It involved 116 respondents (80 students, 32 teachers and four school administrators). Surprisingly, findings shows that although, the number of rural girls who are enrolled in secondary schools is increasing in the study area the risk of them to drop out asserted to be high than boys. Pregnancy, early marriage and truancy noted to be the contributing factors. Again girls were mostly engaged in domestic chores thus eroding their study time. In addition, hostels, distance and transport status were other prominent educational challenges facing both rural girls and boys as well. The study provides also analytical findings on the influence of women in Luguru society (matrilineal system) in educating female students since women in this society have strong authority in terms of inheritance compared to those in patrilineal system.
Aleena Sebastian
Journal of South Asian Studies , 2013,
Abstract: The present study is critical about the view that ‘textually defined Islamic practices’ are in confrontation with ‘un-Islamic’ matrilineal practices. Engaging with an idea of lived Islam while attempting to understand everyday life of the Muslims enables one to be sensitive to various ways in which Islam and local customs co-exist in Muslim societies. An exploration of matrilineal practices among Koyas of Kozhikode enable one to see how custom and religion co-exist in everyday life in muslim societies which entail dimensions of accommodation, negotiation and contestation. Koyas who constitute a minority Muslim group among Kerala Muslims embrace matriliny as part of their everyday engagement through diverse ways which is related to the specificity of nature of Islamization in Kerala, diverse colonial legacies and socio-economic transformations in post-colonial period. The study therefore tries to argue that Islam is diverse in practice and modifications in matrilineal practices among Koyas of Kozhikode are not due to the impact of Islam alone but through the interplay of multitude of interacting factors such as colonialism, post-Independence developments and neo-liberal trends.
The Continuity of Matrilineal Systems Within a Market Economy
. Yonariza
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1998,
Abstract: The disintegration of matrilineal societies in the last century has been closely linked to their integration into the market economy. This trend suggests that matrilineal systems or the lineage system organized through the female line will soon vanish as subsistence economies yield to expanding markets. The new prosperity generated by market-oriented production allows the men to become equal members of the women-centered society. Gender roles and rights in matrilineal societies are altered and ultimately this way of life is abolished. The case of Silayang, Minangkabau in West Sumatra provides an exception. Its matrilineal society has persisted despite the dominant presence of Islam, a pillar of patriarchy; the Dutch occupation; and its departure from pure subsistence agriculture via rubber export. Silayang is proof that a matrilineal system will not only survive but also thrive within a market economy, and that economic change does not necessarily bring about social disintegration.
Bo Fibiger - Nekrolog
J?rgen Bang
L?ring og Medier , 2010,
Abstract: Bo Fibiger 1945 - 2008
Patrilineal Perspective on the Austronesian Diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia  [PDF]
Jun-Dong He, Min-Sheng Peng, Huy Ho Quang, Khoa Pham Dang, An Vu Trieu, Shi-Fang Wu, Jie-Qiong Jin, Robert W. Murphy, Yong-Gang Yao, Ya-Ping Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036437
Abstract: The Cham people are the major Austronesian speakers of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and the reconstruction of the Cham population history can provide insights into their diffusion. In this study, we analyzed non-recombining region of the Y chromosome markers of 177 unrelated males from four populations in MSEA, including 59 Cham, 76 Kinh, 25 Lao, and 17 Thai individuals. Incorporating published data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), our results indicated that, in general, the Chams are an indigenous Southeast Asian population. The origin of the Cham people involves the genetic admixture of the Austronesian immigrants from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) with the local populations in MSEA. Discordance between the overall patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA in the Chams is evidenced by the presence of some Y chromosome lineages that prevail in South Asians. Our results suggest that male-mediated dispersals via the spread of religions and business trade might play an important role in shaping the patrilineal gene pool of the Cham people.
A homogenous nature of native Chinese duck matrilineal pool
Da-Qian He, Qing Zhu, Shi-Yi Chen, Hui-Ying Wang, Yi-Ping Liu, Yong-Gang Yao
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-298
Abstract: In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region segments in 278 domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) from 19 indigenous breeds/populations and 70 wild mallard samples and analyzed them together with the 101 control region sequences from published sources. Fifty-two samples were then sequenced for a cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene fragment to solidify the pattern emerged from the control region sequences. All domestic duck and wild mallard haplotypes were essentially indistinguishable and were clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. There was no geographic differentiation and breed/population-specific distribution of duck lineages.Our results showed that unlike other domesticated farm animals in China such as chicken, cattle, goat, and yak with multiple matrilineal components, the matrilineal pool of Chinese ducks was homogenous.Domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) play a key role in the agricultural and economic sectors of Asia. There are numerous domestic duck breeds in China including 27 indigenous breeds, two introduced breeds, and a few developing breeds according to the 2004 systematic field investigation [1]. About 70% of the recorded breeds are distributed along the mid to downstream regions of the Yangtze and Pearl rivers, as well as, in the coastal districts [1]. With the increasing demand for duck products, including meat, eggs, and down feathers, the duck breeding industry has flourished in China. In comparison to other domestic animals in China, the present conservation situation for local duck genetic resources is above average. Despite this, the overall population size of eight renowned breeds (Beijing duck, Youxian Sheldrake, Liancheng white duck, Jianchang duck, Jinding duck, Shaoxing duck, Putian black duck, and Gaoyou duck) has seen a sharp decline during the last decade. Fortunately, these local breeds are included in the National Genetic Resources Protection list http://www.agri.gov.cn/blgg/t20060609_6264
Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Finnish patients with matrilineal diabetes mellitus
Heidi K Soini, Jukka S Moilanen, Saara Finnila, Kari Majamaa
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-350
Abstract: We examined the nucleotide variation in complete mtDNA sequences of 64 Finnish patients with matrilineal diabetes. We used conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis and sequencing to detect sequence variation. We analysed the pathogenic potential of nonsynonymous variants detected in the sequences and examined the role of the m.16189?T>C variant. Controls consisted of non-diabetic subjects ascertained in the same population. The frequency of mtDNA haplogroup V was 3-fold higher in patients with diabetes. Patients harboured many nonsynonymous mtDNA substitutions that were predicted to be possibly or probably damaging. Furthermore, a novel m.13762?T>G in MTND5 leading to p.Ser476Ala and several rare mtDNA variants were found. Haplogroup H1b harbouring m.16189?T?>?C and m.3010?G?>?A was found to be more frequent in patients with diabetes than in controls.Mildly deleterious nonsynonymous mtDNA variants and rare population-specific haplotypes constitute genetic risk factors for maternally inherited diabetes.Mitochondria play a key role in metabolism, heat production and apoptosis and contribute to aging and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [1,2]. Above all, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that is the energy form driving cellular processes. Both nuclear genome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) code for the subunits of the respiratory chain complexes that catalyse the reactions of OXPHOS. Maternally inherited mtDNA consists of 16 569 base pairs and codes for 13 proteins of the respiratory chain, while the remaining more than 70 subunits are encoded by the nuclear genome. Furthermore, mtDNA encodes 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs required for mitochondrial protein synthesis.MtDNA is more prone to mutations than nuclear DNA leading to variation that can be used as a tool in population genetics. Certain polymorphisms mark branch points in the phylogenetic tree of human mtDNA and define population-specific haplogroups
Multiplex genotyping system for efficient inference of matrilineal genetic ancestry with continental resolution
Mannis van Oven, Mark Vermeulen, Manfred Kayser
Investigative Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2041-2223-2-6
Abstract: Three multiplex genotyping assays, based on single-base primer extension technology, were developed targeting a total of 36 coding-region mtDNA variants that together differentiate 43 matrilineal haplo-/paragroups. These include the major diagnostic haplogroups for Africa, Western Eurasia, Eastern Eurasia and Native America. The assays show high sensitivity with respect to the amount of template DNA: successful amplification could still be obtained when using as little as 4 pg of genomic DNA and the technology is suitable for medium-throughput analyses.We introduce an efficient and sensitive multiplex genotyping system for bio-geographic ancestry inference from mtDNA that provides resolution on the continental level. The method can be applied in forensics, to aid tracing unknown suspects, as well as in population studies, genealogy and personal ancestry testing. For more complete inferences of overall bio-geographic ancestry from DNA, the mtDNA system provided here can be combined with multiplex systems for suitable autosomal and, in the case of males, Y-chromosomal ancestry-sensitive DNA markers.Establishing the geographic region of a person's genetic origin - also called bio-geographic ancestry - is of forensic relevance when the short tandem repeat (STR) profile of trace DNA found at a crime scene does not match that of a suspect or does not yield any matches in a criminal DNA database because it may provide investigative leads to finding unknown persons [1]. Similarly, such information can be useful for locating antemortem samples or putative relatives of unidentified body remains, including disaster victim identification [2]. Furthermore, inferring geographic information from DNA data is important in population history studies [3,4] and has gained attention in the growing field of personal ancestry testing [5,6].Several years of intensive research into the understanding of the geographic distribution of human genetic diversity present in the non-recombining mit
On the motivic commutative ring spectrum BO  [PDF]
Ivan Panin,Charles Walter
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We construct an algebraic commutative ring T- spectrum BO which is stably fibrant and (8,4)- periodic and such that on SmOp/S the cohomology theory (X,U) -> BO^{p,q}(X_{+}/U_{+}) and Schlichting's hermitian K-theory functor (X,U) -> KO^{[q]}_{2q-p}(X,U) are canonically isomorphic. We use the motivic weak equivalence Z x HGr -> KSp relating the infinite quaternionic Grassmannian to symplectic $K$-theory to equip BO with the structure of a commutative monoid in the motivic stable homotopy category. When the base scheme is Spec Z[1/2], this monoid structure and the induced ring structure on the cohomology theory BO^{*,*} are the unique structures compatible with the products KO^{[2m]}_{0}(X) x KO^{[2n]}_{0}(Y) -> KO^{[2m+2n]}_{0}(X x Y). on Grothendieck-Witt groups induced by the tensor product of symmetric chain complexes. The cohomology theory is bigraded commutative with the switch map acting on BO^{*,*}(T^{2}) in the same way as multiplication by the Grothendieck-Witt class of the symmetric bilinear space <-1>.
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