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FEEDING ECOLOGY OF THE WHITE-CHEEK GIBBON (HYLOBATES CONCOLOR LEUCOGENYS)
白颊长臂猿的食性研究

Hu Yu,
扈宇
,许宏伟,杨德华

生态学报 , 1990,
Abstract: The paper presents the feeding and the food category of the white-cheek gibbon (H.c.leucogenys)in the whole year in Meng La Natural Conservation Area, Yunnan Province.White-cheek gibbons prefer extremely selective fruits, and nextly leaves, young shoots and leaves, flowers, and only occasionally Some small animals. The plant materials account for 93.60%.The ratio of the feeding time in each day among fruits, leaves, flowers, young shoots and leaves and animals are 38.63%, 35.52%, 4.67%, 17.29% and 3.89% The animals materials account for 6.40% and mainly compose of insects.
A Chromosomal Inversion Unique to the Northern White-Cheeked Gibbon  [PDF]
Lucia Carbone, Alan R. Mootnick, Tilo Nadler, Pierre Moisson, Oliver Ryder, Christian Roos, Pieter J. de Jong
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004999
Abstract: The gibbon family belongs to the superfamily Hominoidea and includes 15 species divided into four genera. Each genus possesses a distinct karyotype with chromosome numbers varying from 38 to 52. This diversity is the result of numerous chromosomal changes that have accumulated during the evolution of the gibbon lineage, a quite unique feature in comparison with other hominoids and most of the other primates. Some gibbon species and subspecies rank among the most endangered primates in the world. Breeding programs can be extremely challenging and hybridization plays an important role within the factors responsible for the decline of captive gibbons. With less than 500 individuals left in the wild, the northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys leucogenys, NLE) is the most endangered primate in a successful captive breeding program. We present here the analysis of an inversion that we show being specific for the northern white-cheeked gibbon and can be used as one of the criteria to distinguish this subspecies from other gibbon taxa. The availability of the sequence spanning for one of the breakpoints of the inversion allows detecting it by a simple PCR test also on low quality DNA. Our results demonstrate the important role of genomics in providing tools for conservation efforts.
Population density and distribution of Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) in Central Java, Indonesia
ARIF SETIAWAN,TEJO SURYO NUGROHO,YOHANNES WIBISONO,VERA IKAWATI
Biodiversitas , 2012,
Abstract: Setiawan A, Nugroho TS, Wibisono Y, Ikawati V, Sugardjito J. 2012. Population density and distribution of Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) in Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 13: 23-27. A survey of Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) was conducted from July 2009 to November 2010 in the Dieng mountains and Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia. The purpose of the survey was to assess current population status and its distribution, including factors threatening the species. Line transect method was used to estimate gibbon densities. We detected a total of 144 individuals in 56 groups on a 212.7 km length trail. Average group size was calculated as 2.57 (ranging between 2 and 7) individuals. We compared the population density between Mount Slamet and Dieng mountains. It was found that the density in Mount Slamet was lower than in the Dieng montans with 1.7 ind./km2 compare to 2.5-7.57 ind/km2 respectively. In total, there were about 1,034 individuals of gibbon in Central Java which was divided in two sub populations. The one in Mount Slamet was about 175 individuals whereas in the range of Dieng mountains was 881 individuals. Establishing a protected area and enhancing conservation awareness were critically important for survival of this endangered ape. Conservation awareness should consider human needs of local people surrounding the forest habitat.
A High-Resolution Map of Synteny Disruptions in Gibbon and Human Genomes  [PDF]
Lucia Carbone equal contributor ,Gery M Vessere equal contributor,Boudewijn F.H. ten Hallers,Baoli Zhu,Kazutoyo Osoegawa,Alan Mootnick,Andrea Kofler,Johannes Wienberg,Jane Rogers,Sean Humphray,Carol Scott,R. Alan Harris,Aleksandar Milosavljevic,Pieter J de Jong
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020223
Abstract: Gibbons are part of the same superfamily (Hominoidea) as humans and great apes, but their karyotype has diverged faster from the common hominoid ancestor. At least 24 major chromosome rearrangements are required to convert the presumed ancestral karyotype of gibbons into that of the hominoid ancestor. Up to 28 additional rearrangements distinguish the various living species from the common gibbon ancestor. Using the northern white-cheeked gibbon (2n = 52) (Nomascus leucogenys leucogenys) as a model, we created a high-resolution map of the homologous regions between the gibbon and human. The positions of 100 synteny breakpoints relative to the assembled human genome were determined at a resolution of about 200 kb. Interestingly, 46% of the gibbon–human synteny breakpoints occur in regions that correspond to segmental duplications in the human lineage, indicating a common source of plasticity leading to a different outcome in the two species. Additionally, the full sequences of 11 gibbon BACs spanning evolutionary breakpoints reveal either segmental duplications or interspersed repeats at the exact breakpoint locations. No specific sequence element appears to be common among independent rearrangements. We speculate that the extraordinarily high level of rearrangements seen in gibbons may be due to factors that increase the incidence of chromosome breakage or fixation of the derivative chromosomes in a homozygous state.
Evolutionary Breakpoints in the Gibbon Suggest Association between Cytosine Methylation and Karyotype Evolution  [PDF]
Lucia Carbone ,R. Alan Harris,Gery M. Vessere,Alan R. Mootnick,Sean Humphray,Jane Rogers,Sung K. Kim,Jeffrey D. Wall,David Martin,Jerzy Jurka,Aleksandar Milosavljevic,Pieter J. de Jong
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000538
Abstract: Gibbon species have accumulated an unusually high number of chromosomal changes since diverging from the common hominoid ancestor 15–18 million years ago. The cause of this increased rate of chromosomal rearrangements is not known, nor is it known if genome architecture has a role. To address this question, we analyzed sequences spanning 57 breaks of synteny between northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus l. leucogenys) and humans. We find that the breakpoint regions are enriched in segmental duplications and repeats, with Alu elements being the most abundant. Alus located near the gibbon breakpoints (<150 bp) have a higher CpG content than other Alus. Bisulphite allelic sequencing reveals that these gibbon Alus have a lower average density of methylated cytosine that their human orthologues. The finding of higher CpG content and lower average CpG methylation suggests that the gibbon Alu elements are epigenetically distinct from their human orthologues. The association between undermethylation and chromosomal rearrangement in gibbons suggests a correlation between epigenetic state and structural genome variation in evolution.
A study on karyotype of the pileated gibbon, Hylobates pileatus (Primates, Hylobatidae), by conventional staining
Alongkoad Tanomtong,Praween Supanuam,Sumpars Khunsook
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: Cytogenetics of the pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) at Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo, Thailand, was studied. Bloodsamples were taken from two female and two male gibbons. After lymphocyte culture, the mitotic chromosome preparationwas done by hypotonic-fixation-air-drying method and conventional Giemsa s staining. The results show that diploid chromosomenumber was 44 (2n=2x=44), and the fundamental number (NF) were 88 chromosomes in both female and male.The autosomes consist of 12 large metacentric, 6 medium metacentric, 2 medium submetacentric, 2 medium acrocentric, 12small metacentric and 8 small submetacentric chromosomes. In addition, the chromosome 15 showed clearly observablesatellite chromosomes. The X chromosome was a medium submetacentric chromosome and the Y chromosome was a tinyacrocentric chromosome. The karyotype formula for the pileated gibbon is as follows:2n (44) = Lm12+Mm6+Msm2+Ma2+Sm12+Ssm8+sex-chromosomes
TIMING OF HOOLOCK GIBBON (Hylobates hoolock) SONGS IN WEST YUNNAN
白眉长臂猿鸣叫的时间特征

LAN Dao-ying,MA Shi-lai,LI Shou-chang,GUO Guang,
蓝道英
,马世来,李寿昌,郭光

动物学研究 , 1999,
Abstract: Vocalization is lesser apes'very prominent behavior,which is important when applied in the survey and conservation monitoring.Based on a field work in West Yunnan,this paper presents the timing characteristics of hoolock gibbon ( Hylobates hoolock ) songs and its comparison with other populations studied and with other species,especially black gibbons.The hoolock songs occurred mostly before 12:00 in the morning,but some in the afternoon.Most songs occurred around the time of 09:05 ( SD =109 5, n =68,range 07:12-16:30).The average duration of the songs was 19 7 min ( SD =9 34, n =55,range 4-50).The gibbons started to call at different times in different seasons,possibly correlated with the dawn time.Among different sites,the starting time was of no clear difference.Usually gibbons called late when it was rainy,especially in wet season.The song starting time showed significant difference between wet season and dry season.The song duration showed significant difference between different sites at the same season.The timing of hoolock gibbons showed time (season) specific characteristics,which might correlate with the dawning time or more exactly with the light tense.The habitat quality,group density and human disturbance wowld influence the singing frequency of days and times but with no determined relationships.The comparison between hoolock and black gibbons showed that hoolock song had a longer duration and a wider range of the time distribution,with significant difference.
玩具丰容对圈养白颊长臂猿行为的影响
Effects of Environmental Enrichment on the Behaviors of the Captive Nomascus leucogenys in Beijing Zoo
 [PDF]

LEE Kelai, 钟曼娜, 刘世歆, 张立
- , 2016,
Abstract: 中文摘要:为帮助改善动物园人工繁育的国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生动物——白颊长臂猿 Nomascus leucogenys的饲养环境,本实验尝试研究玩具丰容对其行为的影响。2014年7-8月,对北京动物园的1个白颊长臂猿种群(5只个体)中的2只进行玩具丰容,通过焦点取样法和瞬时记录法对白颊长臂猿的18种行为进行观察记录,并使用配对 t检验对丰容前期、丰容期各行为的持续时间进行比较。结果显示,丰容期白颊长臂猿的多项日常行为均有显著的提高或下降,其中受游客干扰行为显著下降而探求行为增加,但探求行为的增加持续时间不超过4 d。结果表明,玩具丰容能够影响白颊长臂猿的行为且丰容效果有个体差异。玩具丰容能够一定程度增加白颊长臂猿探求行为并减少其对游客的注意,但是效果会随时间减弱。
英文摘要:White-cheeked gibbon ( Nomascus leucogenys) is one of the national key protected wild animals in China. In order to improve the live environment of captive white-cheeked gibbons, we studied the effects of toys enrichment on the behaviors of two captive white-cheeked gibbons in Beijing Zoo during July and August 2014. Toys were added to the closure of white-cheeked gibbons and 18 behaviors were recorded by focus observation method and instantaneous sampling method. Data were processed using paired t test to compare the behavior duration between toy enrichment and none enrichment. The results showed that various behaviors significantly increased or decreased after toys enrichment. Exploring behavior increased in the first 4 days, whereas the tourist interference behavior decreased significantly. However, toys enrichment significantly influenced the behaviors of white-cheeked gibbons while individual differences existed. The effects of toys enrichment decreased as time went by. This study may help to reduce the attention of white-cheeked gibbons against tourists. 2016,35(6): 860-864 收稿日期:2016-05-05 DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160115 分类号:Q959.8;Q958.1 作者简介:LEE Kelai,女,本科生,研究方向:动物行为学,E-mail:leekelai@qq.com *通讯作者:张立,教授,E-mail:asterzhang@bnu.edu.cn 参考文献: 范朋飞. 2012. 中国长臂猿科动物分类和保护现状[J]. 兽类学报, 32(3):248-258. 黄志宏, 王兴金, 何梓铭, 等. 2007. 环境丰容对单独圈养黑猩猩行为影响的研究[J]. 野生动物, 28(6):19-22. 李梅荣, 窦海静. 2010. 环境丰容对纠正黑猩猩呕吐行为效果的研究[J]. 野生动物, 31(1):6-8. 施爱珠, 陈明华, 贺俊平, 等. 2013. 动物园环境丰容对恒河猴行为的影响[J]. 山西农业大学学报(自然科学版), 33(1):50-53. 王强, 李洪文, 石凌, 等. 2009. 环境丰容对圈养灰鹦鹉日常行为的影响[J]. 四川动物, 28(3):455-457. 王强, 吴孔菊, 莫凡, 等. 2008. 圈养大熊猫食物丰容对其行为影响的研究[J]. 四川动物, 27(4):516-519. 熊博, 蒋乐, 施雨洁, 等. 2012. 不同丰容方式对圈养成年山魈行为影响的试验[J]. 四川动物, 31(5):790-794. 张轶卓. 2014. 中国动物园环境丰容的科研现状和发展前景[J]. 现代农业科技, 42(22):243-246. Cheyne SM, Campbell CO, Payne KL. 2012. Proposed guidelines for in situ gibbon rescue, rehabilitation and reintroduction[J]. International Zoo Yearbook, 46:265-281. Clarke AS, Czekala NM, Lindburg DG. 1995. Behavioral and adrenocortical responses of male cynomolgus and lion-tailed macaques to social stimulation and group formation[J]. Primates, 36(1):41-56. Fan PF, Huo S. 2009. The conservation population of northern white-cheeked gibbons ( Nomascus Leucogenys) in
Mitochondrial Genome Sequences Effectively Reveal the Phylogeny of Hylobates Gibbons  [PDF]
Yi-Chiao Chan,Christian Roos,Miho Inoue-Murayama,Eiji Inoue,Chih-Chin Shih,Kurtis Jai-Chyi Pei,Linda Vigilant
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014419
Abstract: Uniquely among hominoids, gibbons exist as multiple geographically contiguous taxa exhibiting distinctive behavioral, morphological, and karyotypic characteristics. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the various gibbons, especially among Hylobates species, is still limited because previous studies used limited taxon sampling or short mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. Here we use mtDNA genome sequences to reconstruct gibbon phylogenetic relationships and reveal the pattern and timing of divergence events in gibbon evolutionary history.
Incomplete Lineage Sorting Is Common in Extant Gibbon Genera  [PDF]
Jeffrey D. Wall, Sung K. Kim, Francesca Luca, Lucia Carbone, Alan R. Mootnick, Pieter J. de Jong, Anna Di Rienzo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053682
Abstract: We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis.
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