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Validation of Walk Score? for Estimating Neighborhood Walkability: An Analysis of Four US Metropolitan Areas  [PDF]
Dustin T. Duncan,Jared Aldstadt,John Whalen,Steven J. Melly,Steven L. Gortmaker
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8114160
Abstract: Neighborhood walkability can influence physical activity. We evaluated the validity of Walk Score ? for assessing neighborhood walkability based on GIS (objective) indicators of neighborhood walkability with addresses from four US metropolitan areas with several street network buffer distances ( i.e., 400-, 800-, and 1,600-meters). Address data come from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5–11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programs located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the US (n = 733). GIS data were used to measure multiple objective indicators of neighborhood walkability. Walk Scores were also obtained for the participant’s residential addresses. Spearman correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. There were many significant moderate correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators such as density of retail destinations and intersection density (p < 0.05). The magnitude varied by the GIS indicator of neighborhood walkability. Correlations generally became stronger with a larger spatial scale, and there were some geographic differences. Walk Score ? is free and publicly available for public health researchers and practitioners. Results from our study suggest that Walk Score ? is a valid measure of estimating certain aspects of neighborhood walkability, particularly at the 1600-meter buffer. As such, our study confirms and extends the generalizability of previous findings demonstrating that Walk Score is a valid measure of estimating neighborhood walkability in multiple geographic locations and at multiple spatial scales.
Urban Land Grabbing Mayhem in Douala Metropolitan Local Council Areas, Cameroon  [PDF]
Tichafogwe Tende Renz
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.62014
Anarchical land conquest in developing world cities is virally infecting Cameroonian cities epitome by its largest metropolis. This is what this paper sought to portray of the successive augmentation of the Douala V Local Council urban space distinct by a weird anarchy-driven population growth. It posits that it is not just available unoccupied space but institutional indolence has of recent hemmed in urban infrastructural disorder that has led slums grow beyond bounds. Multi-temporal Landsat images for 1975 and 2015 and a Spot image of 1995 were used to determine the spatial colonization and expansion land use/land cover analyses. Results were corroborated with field information through field surveys using structured questionnaires. Findings permitted us note that space colonisation in Douala V experienced a 60.18% upward trend of built-up areas just in four decades (1975-2015), with a 1.5% annual population growth rate. Implications on the urbanscape have been an accelerated and severely degraded forest and natural vegetation form the 1403% growth urban human surge in 42 years (from 57,000 1975 to 800,000 inhabitants in 2017). Douala V thus emerged as an “try and see” land colonisation territory where new arrival of inhabitants inadvertently sowed structural anarchy valued at 51% permanent and 49% temporary structures. Noting that such disorder emanates from top-down urban governance and management this study recommends that urban planning legislation concerning must be inclusive of grass roots to guarantee involment as a canon of sustainable development in modern and post-modern times.
GIS-Based Urbanization Prediction Model Considering Neighborhood Relationship of the Unit of the “Block” in the Outskirts of Metropolitan Area  [PDF]
Kayoko Yamamoto
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2014.64030

On the outskirts of the metropolitan areas in Japan, the rapid development of urban areas and the improvement in transportation networks have brought various land use problems in their wake, including urban diffusion and the phenomenon of urban sprawl. There is a strong need for accurate predictions of land-use change and future urbanization, as well as investigation of the appropriateness of present land use controls and the land use controls that will be required in the future. This study took as its object the outskirts of the Keihanshin (Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe) Metropolitan Area, the second largest conurbation in Japan after the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, and used the digital maps and spatial analysis offered by GIS. It aimed to: 1) describe the characteristics of land use controls, land use and urbanization; 2) develop an urbanization prediction model that considers the neighboring relationship of neighboring areas on a 100 m mesh unit; 3) apply this model to the study area and verify its validity regarding the conditions of present land use; 4) compare urbanization prediction results by this model with the present land use controls; and 5) make predictions for future urbanization and propose remedial measures for future land use controls.

Comparative Study on Moderate Scale Management of Agricultural Land in China and Japan
Studies in Sociology of Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sss.1923018420120302.1600
Abstract: : The safety of Chinese agricultural land resources has already influenced the whole world’s food security. “Food Security” has become a vital issue affecting social stability. However, the current condition of Chinese agricultural land is not good. Therefore, agricultural land revolution, moderate scale management of agricultural land, and improvement of land utilization efficiency is urgently needed in China to protect the basic life line of human beings. There are lots of common places as well as unique features between Japan after World War II and China after the reform and open policy in rural land management. By analyzing these familiarities and differences, focusing on the process of Japan's revolution, and learning from Japan's successful experience in agricultural land moderate scale management, this paper wishes to be of some help in improving Chinese agricultural land moderate scale management. Key words: Agricultural land in China and Japan; Moderate Scale; Circulation; Management; Comparative study
Quantitative measure of the cultivated land change rationality in Metropolitan Mountainous Areas: A case study in Mentougou District

GUAN Xiaoke,WANG Xiuli,ZHANG Fengrong,LI Le,ZHU Taifeng,LIU Shuangliang,

资源科学 , 2012,
Abstract: Beijing is facing many land use problems brought by fast economic growth, especially in the mountainous areas. Many researchers have attached great importance to the studies of cultivated land change. Taking Mentougou District (a typical mountainous area in Beijing) as a case, based on the detailed data of land use status quo (2001, 2008) and the conversion matrix of cultivated land data among other land use types from 2001 to 2008, we selected several geography factors such as slope related to the change and distances away from rural settlements and traffic lines to analyze the evolution trends of cultivated land in this District with the support of GIS technology. Theoretically, coupling relationship between income of rural residents and cultivated land conversion may affect the sustainability of agricultural production and rural development. Coupled with the relationship between average income of rural residents and cultivated land conversion matrix, rationality of cultivated land changes were quantitatively measured based on village-level statistical data. The results indicate that areas with slopes between 0~2° are mostly bothered by cultivated land loss, which decreased continuously with the increase of distances away from rural settlements. Conversions of cultivated land also show close relationship with the distribution of traffic roads. Newly added cultivated lands tend to expand around rural settlements and traffic lines, but they are of high probability for being abandoned due to enlarged farming radius and low quality. After coupling the cultivated land conversion matrix and income of rural residents, the rationality of cultivated land change was divided into four types, namely irrational increase, irrational decrease, rational increase and rational decrease. The increasing rate of rural residents'income in 87 villages exceeds corresponding decreasing rate of cultivated land and they belong to rational decrease type. 36 villages fall into the type of irrational decrease for the increasing rate of rural residents'income is lower than corresponding decreasing rate of cultivated land. Because of the marginality of newly added cultivated land, 14 villages are classified as irrational increase type for the increasing rate of cultivated land is higher than that of rural residents 'income. Conversely, 27 villages are of rational increase type. At the end of this paper, strategies about how to use system to protect cultivated land, how to innovate the protection concept and how to consolidate the land were put forward to prompt the sustainable utilization of cultivated land resource in metropolitan mountainous areas.
Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania  [PDF]
Romanian Review of Regional Studies , 2012,
Abstract: The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities) also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Ia i, Oradea, Bra ov, Constan a, Bac u, Cluj-Napoca, Targu Mure and Craiova. Bucharest, Timi oara, Ploie ti and Gala i-Br ila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.
The dynamics of the population flows in metropolitan areas
LogForum , 2011,
Abstract: The article presents an analysis of the dynamics of population flows in the corridors of the metropolitan area, based on the example of Poznan. The aim of these studies was to determine the mobile preferences of the population as well as the possibilities for improving the efficiency of the city transport, mainly in aspects related to the road congestion and its reducing by the better use of the existing railway infrastructure as well as other instruments of the transport policy. The results obtained in multi-methods analysis showed, that such solution is likely to be a successful one as an alternative to the road transport and different strategies and solutions, designed in accordance with articulated preferences of the population, may be more effective than large-scale initiatives issued by a superior. The "difficult" heritage of the poorly used or unused railway infrastructure, occurring in many urban areas, can be often successfully adapted to be a solution for the transportation needs of the inhabitants.
José Augusto Lollo,Sérgio Antonio R?hm
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: The proposal and implementation of parceling real estate into smaller lots in Brazil is done according to legal and technical formalities. However, these instruments have proved inefficient in reducing the resulting environmental impacts. The ambiguities of the federal, state and municipal laws and regulations have limited the effectiveness of the actions of urban administrators. Law 10257/2001 emerged as an alternative to overcome these difficulties, proposing the adoption of neighborhood impact studies as an instrument to evaluate new proposals of urban occupation for purposes of environmental licensing. Thus, the purpose of this law is to provide the foundations for municipal public authorities to establish criteria for the assessment, mitigation and compensation of impacts resulting from new occupations. However, the very vagueness of the generic nature of this federal law and its incorrect application in the municipal sphere has posed the greatest obstacles to the good use of this instrument of urban environmental management. These deficiencies are classified herein in the categories of philosophical, technical and operational problems. The problems of a philosophical nature lead to technical difficulties, which in turn trigger operational deficiencies. This article discusses these deficiencies and points out ways to reduce them.
Revue Roumaine de Géographie , 2012,
Abstract: In Romania nearly 7,500,000 (34%) inhabitants are living in metropolitan areas. The socio-economic and political changes brought about by the post-communist period have reshaped the metropolitan landscape together with its functional and socio-spatial pattern triggering a wide range of transformations mainly related to urbansprawl process (suburbanization). As one of its major consequences, residential development had caused the deconcentration and the spatial redistribution of the population within metropolitan areas. The paper attempts to analyse the main suburbanization-related residential patterns in connection with their key driving forces(socio-political, demographic, economic, housing) and the associated environmental consequences in the Romanian metropolitan areas in terms of: urban (residential) sprawl, real-estate market dynamics, changes in spatial pattern of population, living floor dynamics, etc., with a special focus on the most significant metropolitan systems: Bucharest, Oradea, Ia i and Constan a. The present study will combine GIS computer mapping techniques with housing and demographic data and field surveys to identify the main urban-sprawl-related current residential patterns in the Romanian metropolitan areas and understand causes of change in order to predict how alternative policies will influence future spatial development.
An Analytical Study of Laws and Policies Influencing the Use of Land in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria
I. Olugbenga,Akinmoladun,Leke Oduwaye
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: This study investigates laws and policies influencing land use in metropolitan Lagos. Analysis of these laws and policies were presented based on the responses on 755 questionnaires administered on residents in 43 zones into which metropolitan Lagos was divided. The division was based on peculiarities of the land use structure of the city. Among government policies and laws influencing land use in the study area are land acquisition policy, master plan and zoning, rent laws, sources of land ownership, building approval procedure, property and land use charge laws. The application of the principal component technique for the analysis shows that joining properties and sources of ownership are the two most prominent factors influencing land use in metropolitan Lagos. The study suggests that to achieve sustainable land use in metropolitan Lagos, there is need to re-appraise the position of land acquisition policy in the study area with a view to making proposals which will open up the acquired lands for rational uses by the public and the government. It is also recommended that all levels of government should embark on appropriate planning scheme as they are empowered to do by the Lagos State Urban and Regional Planning Law, of 1998. Such schemes should give strong consideration to rezoning. The city s building regulations and land tenure should be re-examined and reviewed with a view to making them more responsive to current and future needs of the city as most of the planning regulations are no more appropriate to cope with the emerging realities of the city land use planning.
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