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Study of Plant Regeneration from Immature Embryo Culture in Durum Wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) Cultivars  [cached]
Sayed Shahram Mirodjagh,Ahmad Arzani
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 1998,
Abstract: Immature embryo culture response of 28 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) cultivars was studied using MS medium in Tissue Culture Laboratory of College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Donor plants were grown in a recirculating hydroponic system and pots in a greenhouse. Regenerated immature embryos were recorded at 2, 4, 8 and 16 days after inoculation. Assessment of durum wheat cultivars for immature embryo culture was conducted by percentage and rate of regenerated embryo, using a split plot design arranged in completely randomized design with 5 replications. The analysis of variances showed that there were highly significant differences among cultivars for plant regeneration capacity. The highest potential and rate of embryo regeneration (two days after inoculation) were observed in “Shahivandi” which is a native cultivar of west Iran. “Awl1/Sbl4” with a mean of 48.5%, “Hagla” and “Ofen/Kil” with a mean of 80% have the poorest and the best mean of regeneration during the recording period, respectively. The high regeneration potential is important in view of reducing the time constrain and somaclonal variation in a breeding program.
Male sterility induced by the chemical hybridizing agent clofencet on wheat, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum var. durum
Parodi,Patricio C; Gaju,María de los Angeles;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202009000200011
Abstract: the objective of this experiment was to evalúate the male sterilizing activity induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (cha) clofencet, on four wheat varieties: two triticum aestivum cultivars, 'pia' and 'claudia', and two triticum turgidum var. durum cultivars, 'capri' and ambra'. the cha was sprayed at two stages of the feekes scale, 7.5 and 8.5, using four rates of active ingredients (0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 kg-ha4) in a split block design with five replicates. the efficiency of the treatments was determined by measuring developed seeds and calculating male sterility (ms). results showed that ms increased with increasing dosage and was more pronounced at the latest stage of development. the ms average for the highest dosage was 47.3% in the first stage of application and reached 84% at the second stage of application. cultivars responded differently to the cha, but no differences clearly attributable to species could be detected. t. aestivum cultivar 'pia' reached 96% ms, a value that justifies the use of clofencet as a cha for hybrid wheat production. the insufficient levels of ms detected in the other cultivars were due to causes not determined in this study.
Sensitivity of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) to various postemergence herbicides  [PDF]
Nader Soltani, Christy Shropshire, Peter H. Sikkema
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.24058
Abstract: There are a limited number of herbicide options available for durum wheat production in Ontario, Canada. Four field studies were conducted in Ontario, Canada over a three year period (2008, 2009 and 2010) to evaluate the sensitivity of spring planted durum wheat to post-emergence (POST) applications of dichlorprop/2,4-D, dicamba/ MCPA/mecoprop, clopyralid, bromoxynil/MCPA, pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA amine, fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, tralkoxydim and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl/safener at the manufacturers’ recommended dose and twice that dose. Visible injury in durum wheat were 0 to 2.4% with dichlorprop/2,4-D, 0 to 6% with dicamba/MCPA/mecoprop, 0 to 0.4% injury with clopyralid, 0 to 1.4% injury with bromoxynil/MCPA, 0 to 3.5% with pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil, 0 to 5% with thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA amine, 0 to 2.6% with fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, 0 to 5% with tralkoxydim and 0.4% to 8% with fenoxaprop-pethyl/safener at various evaluation dates (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after treatment). Durum wheat height was decreased as much as 5% with dicamba/ MCPA/mecoprop, 4% with pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil and 6% with fenoxaprop-pethyl/safener but was not affected with other herbicides evaluated. There was no decrease in durum wheat yield with the herbicides evaluated.
Behaviour of Tunisian Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) Varieties under Saline Stress  [PDF]
Ramzi Chaabane,Houcine Bchini,Houda Ouji,Hammadi Ben Salah
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: An experimental study was carried out under semi controlled conditions at National Agronomic Research Institute of Tunisia in Ariana experimental station. Eight main Tunisian Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) varieties were grown under salinity conditions. The objectives of this research were to compare the behaviour of the varieties under salt stress. Many agronomic and physiological traits were evaluated under both saline (10 g NaCl/l) and non saline conditions (control). Results showed that salinity negatively affected all of the studied parameters. The tiller number, chlorophyll contents, height growth rate, shoot dry weight, spikes per plant, 1000-grain weight and total grain yield were significantly affected by salinity. However the plant height, spikelets per spike and grains per spike were much less affected by salinity. Correlation studies showed significant positive and negative correlations between salt tolerance indexes of different evaluated parameters. These results strongly suggest that the number of fertile tillers and shoot dry weight might be useful for salinity tolerance improvement programs of the analyzed genotypes.
The Effect of Drought Stress on Grain Yield, Yield Components and Some Quality Traits of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Cultivars  [cached]
Hasan KILI?,Tacettin YA?BASANLAR
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2010,
Abstract: Drought, one of environmental stresses, is the most significant factor restricting plant production in majority of agricultural fields of the world. Wheat is generally grown on arid–agricultural fields. Drought often causes serious problems in wheat production areas. A field study was conducted on clay-silt soil, in the Research Field, Southeastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute, in Diyarbak r during 1999-2000 growing season in order to evaluate genotypes for yield, yield components and some quality traits. Fourteen wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cultivars were grown under well watered and naturally drought conditions. Morphological traits were measured at anthesis and yield, yield components and quality traits were evaluated at ripening time. The flowering period was negatively associated with grain yield, while grain filling period, chlorophyll content, number of grains per spike and spikelets per spike were positively associated with grain yield under drought conditions. Moreover, the number of days to maturity was negatively associated with Drought Susceptibility Index (DSI), while Spike length was positively associated to DSI in drought conditions. DSI and relative yield (RY) values for grain yield were used to describe yield stability and yield potential. There were high variations in DSI and RY values within genotypes. DSI values for grain yield ranged from 0.82 to 1.07 and the mean RY values were 0.82 for well-watered plots and 0.87 for water stressed plots. The varieties ‘Gidara-II’, ‘Sar anak-98’, ‘Balcal -2000’, ‘Alt ntoprak-98’, ‘Ayd n-93’ and ‘Harran-95’ showed high yield potential and stability (DSI<1 and RY>mean RY).
Genetic diversity analysis of the durum wheat Graziella Ra, Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn. (Poales, Poaceae)  [PDF]
M. Stella Colomba,Armando Gregorini
Biodiversity Journal , 2011,
Abstract: For the first time, the durum wheat Graziella Ra was compared to four Italian durum wheat varieties (Cappelli,Grazia, Flaminio and Svevo) and to Kamut in order to preliminary characterize its genome and to investigategenetic diversity among and within the accessions by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs),Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and α-gliadin gene sequence analysis. The main aim of the study was anattempt to determine the relationship between the historic accession Graziella Ra and Kamut which isconsidered an ancient relative of the durum subspecies. In addition, nutritional factors of Graziella Ra werereported. Obtained results showed that (i) both AFLP and SSR molecular markers detected highly congruentpatterns of genetic diversity among the accessions showing nearly similar efficiency; (ii) for AFLPs,percentage of polymorphic loci within accession ranged from 6.57% to 19.71% (mean 12.77%) and, for SSRs,from 0% to 57.14% (mean 28.57%); (iii) principal component analysis (PCA) of genetic distance amongaccessions showed the first two axes accounting for 58.03% (for AFLPs) and 61.60% (for SSRs) of the totalvariability; (iv) for AFLPs, molecular variance was partitioned into 80% (variance among accessions) and 20%(within accession) and, for SSRs, into 73% (variance among accessions) and 27% (within accession); (v)cluster analysis of AFLP and SSR datasets displayed Graziella Ra and Kamut into the same cluster; and (vi)molecular comparison of α-gliadin gene sequences showed Graziella Ra and Kamut in separate clusters. Allthese findings indicate that Graziella Ra, although being very similar to Kamut, at least in the little part of thegenome herein investigated by molecular markers, may be considered a distinct accession showing appreciablelevels of genetic diversity and medium-high nutritional qualities.
Heritability and genetic gain of some morphophysiological variables of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum)
D Kahrizi, K Cheghamirza, M Kakaei, R Mohammadi, A Ebadi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to estimate genetic variability parameters and relationship among 11 agrophysiological traits studied on 18 experimental durum wheat and two checks under rainfed condition. The studied traits included the grain yield (YLD), plant height (PH), number of tiller per plant (NT), peduncle length (PL), flag length (FL), leaf dry weight (LDW), stem dry weight (STW), spike dry weight (SPW), spike height (SH), leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and net assimilation rate (NAR). Analysis of variance showed a significantly variation among genotypes for the characters PH, NT, PL, FL, LDW, STW, SPW, SH, LAR and NAR. High correlations were found among the PL, LDW, STW, SPW, LAR and NAR. Heritability estimates were high for PH, PL, LDW, STW and NAR. High genetic gains were observed for YLD, NT, PL, LDW, STW, SPW, LAR and NAR.
Genetic Variability of Some Morpho-Physiological Traits in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum var. Durum)
M. Maniee,D. Kahrizi,R. Mohammadi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to (i) study some agro-physiologic traits and (ii) to estimate genetic variability parameters for the studied traits in 12 advanced durum wheat genotypes along with the two local checks (Zardak and Sardari). Statistical analysis showed significantly differences among the genotypes based on the studied traits. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations were high for number of tiller (NT), leaf dry weight (LDW), stem dry weight (STW), spike length (SL) and leaf area duration (LAD). Heritability estimates were high for plant height (PH), LDW and SL. High genetic gain was observed for grain yield, NT, peduncle length (PL), LDW, STW, spike dry weight (SPW), SL and LAD. Correlation analysis showed the grain yield was significantly correlated with traits LP, SPW, SL and relative growth rate (RGR). High heritability estimates associated with high genetic advance as percent mean (GG) were obtained in characters i.e., LDW, PH, SL and LAD, whereas low heritability and high genetic advance was observed for the grain yield.
Assessment of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) Cultivars for in vitro Salt Tolerance  [cached]
Sayed Shahram Mirodjagh,Ahmad Arzani
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 1999,
Abstract: In vitro salt tolerance of 28 cultivars of durum wheat with native and exotic origins was investigated, using MS medium containing sodium chloride. The resulting calli were subjected to 8 salinity levels including 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 percent NaCl (w/v). Donor plants of explant (immature embryo) were grown in a recirculating hydroponics and pots in a greenhouse as well as in the field. Assessment of calli was conducted after 0, 8 and 16 days after subculture of calli into the NaCl-contained medium. Callus growth rate, relative callus growth rate and percentages of callus necrosis were measured, using a 8 × 28 factorial experiment layout in a completely randomized design with 3 observations per treatment and 3 replications. Results of analysis of variances showed that among the criteria, relative growth rate of callus was the most reliable, while callus growth rate as not being quantitatively measured, was less devoted. Results of this study revealed that 'PI 40100' and 'Dipper-6' were superior genotypes for in vitro salt tolerance. The high relative callus growth rate and less callus necrosis of these cvs. may indicate their superior genetic potential for in vitro salinity tolerance.
Response of Different Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum Var. Durum) Varieties to Added Nitrogen Fertilizer
Miesho Belay
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100873
Abstract: Twelve durum wheat genotypes were evaluated for their grain yield and related traits using two rates of nitrogen fertilizer application (69 kg N ha1 and 115 kg N ha1) in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment was done on Vertisol at Adet Agricultural Research Center in the main cropping season 2009. All agronomic traits respond positively to applied nitrogen rates. The highest grain yield (33.8 Qt·ha1) was reported from Asassa variety. Grain yield increased by 8.8 Qt·ha1 with the increase of nitrogen rates by 46 kg N ha1. Studied traits, except days to heading, grain filling period and biomass production efficiency, others did not respond to the genotype by nitrogen interaction effect. Grain yield was positively correlated with plant height (r = 0.53), total plant biomass (r = 0.81).
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