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New Properties of Drosophila scs and scs’ Insulators  [PDF]
Olga Kyrchanova, Dmitry Leman, Alexander Parshikov, Anna Fedotova, Vasily Studitsky, Oksana Maksimenko, Pavel Georgiev
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062690
Abstract: Insulators are defined as a class of regulatory elements that delimit independent transcriptional domains within eukaryotic genomes. The first insulators to be identified were scs and scs', which flank the domain including two heat shock 70 genes. Zw5 and BEAF bind to scs and scs', respectively, and are responsible for the interaction between these insulators. Using the regulatory regions of yellow and white reporter genes, we have found that the interaction between scs and scs' improves the enhancer-blocking activity of the weak scs' insulator. The sequences of scs and scs' insulators include the promoters of genes that are strongly active in S2 cells but not in the eyes, in which the enhancer-blocking activity of these insulators has been extensively examined. Only the promoter of the Cad87A gene located at the end of the scs insulator drives white expression in the eyes, and the white enhancer can slightly stimulate this promoter. The scs insulator contains polyadenylation signals that may be important for preventing transcription through the insulator. As shown previously, scs and scs' can insulate transcription of the white transgene from the enhancing effects of the surrounding genome, a phenomenon known as the chromosomal position effect (CPE). After analyzing many independent transgenic lines, we have concluded that transgenes carrying the scs insulator are rarely inserted into genomic regions that stimulate the white reporter expression in the eyes.
Spatial variation of soil physical properties in adjacent alluvial and colluvial soils under Ustic moisture regime
M. Sa?lam,H. S. ?ztürk,S. Er?ahin,A. ?. ?zkan
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-8-4261-2011
Abstract: Soils vary spatially due to differences in soil management and soil formation factors. The soil spatial variability is an important determinant of efficiency of farm inputs and yield. This study was carried out to identify and compare spatial variation of some soil physical properties by geostatistics in alluvial and adjacent colluvial soils formed under ustic moisture regime at G kh yük State Farm (1750 ha), Amasya, Turkey. Seventy four soil samples were collected on a regular grid (500 × 500-m) and additional 224 samples were collected on 28 500-m fine-transects, randomly superimposed between the nodes of grids. Semivariograms and corresponding kriging maps for soil texture, soil organic matter (SOM), bulk density (BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and available water content (AWC) were prepared. Statistical analyses were conducted separately for colluvial and alluvial sites as well as whole area. The soils in alluvial site is rich in clay with high BD and SOM, and low in Ks and AWC; and the soils in colluvial site was designated as low in Ks, SOM, and AWC and high in BD. All variables, except SOM, showed a strong spatial dependency. In general, nugget, sill and range values of most of the studied soil variables decreased from alluvial site to colluvial site. When local (alluvial and colluvial sites separately) and global (alluvial + colluvial) kriged maps for BD, AWC, and soil textural separates, use of global semivariograms (one semivariogram for entire study area) resulted in lost of some details in colluvial sites, suggesting that local semivariograms for alluvial and colluvial soils should be used in kriging predictions at the farm. The results had significant implications for water management as AWC was spatially associated to clay content in alluvial site and to clay and sand contents in colluvial site.
Application of apparent density inversion method in the East China Sea and its adjacent area

YANG Jin-Yu,XU Shi-Zhe,YU Hai-Long,LI Hai-Xia,

地球物理学报 , 2008,
Abstract: The principal of apparent density inversion method based on potential field separation is introduced.This apparent density inversion method is applied to process the gravity anomaly data in the East China Sea and its adjacent area,and the density anomaly results are presented.The interpretation shows that the apparent density inversion method has a good ability in distinguishing the regional faults in the research area such as Tanlu Fault,Jiangshao Fault and the concealed Dongyin-Haijiao Fault.The apparent density slice maps in different depths help us to understand the dimension and developing depth of these faults.In the Trench-Arc-Bain area where the topography and tectonics are very complicated,the apparent density inversion method can be used to do deep geological structure study.It can indicate the distribution of compensative mass and the undulation of Moho discontinuity.
Climatological Characteristics of the Moisture Budget and Their Anomalies over the Joining Area of Asia and the Indian-Pacific Ocean

LIU Yanju,DING Yihui,SONG Yafang,ZHANG Jin,

大气科学进展 , 2009,
Abstract: The climatological characteristics of the moisture budget over the joining area of Asia and the Indian-Pacific Ocean (AIPO) and its adjacent regions as well as their anomalies have been estimated in this study. The main results are as follows. In the winter, the northeasterly moisture transport covers the extensive areas at the lower latitudes of the AIPO. The westerly and northerly moisture transport is the major source and the South Indian Ocean (SIO) is the moisture sink. In the summer, influenced by the southwesterly monsoonal wind, the cross-equatorial southwesterly moisture transport across Somali originating from the SIO is transported through the Arabian Sea (AS), the Bay of Bengal (BOB), and the South China Sea (SCS) to eastern China. The AIPO is controlled by the southwesterly moisture transport. The net moisture influx over the AIPO has obvious interannual and interdecadal variations. From the mid- or late 1970s, the influxes over the SIO, the AS, the northern part of the western North Pacific (NWNP), and North China (NC) as well as South China (SC) begin to decrease abruptly, while those over Northeast China (NEC) and the Yangtze River-Huaihe River basins (YHRB) have increased remarkably. As a whole, the net moisture influxes over the BOB and the southern part of the western North Pacific (SWNP) in the recent 50 years take on a linear increasing trend. However, the transition timing for these two regions is different with the former being at the mid- or late 1980s and the latter occurring earlier, approximately at the early stage of the 1970s. The anomalous moisture source associated with the precipitation anomalies is different from the normal conditions of the summer precipitation. For the drought or flood years or the years of El Ni\~no and its following years, the anomalous moisture transport originating from the western North Pacific (WNP) is the vital source of the anomalous precipitation over eastern China, which is greatly related with the variation of the subtropical Pacific high.
Use of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn on intake, apparent digestibility, production and composition of milk of dairy goats
Canizares, G.l.L.;Gon?alves, H.C.;Costa, C.;Rodrigues, L.;Menezes, J.J.L.;Gomes, H.F.B.;Marques, R.O.;Branco, R.H.;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000400021
Abstract: twenty primiparous and multiparous alpine breed goats at approximately 80 days of lactation were used in this experiment. the animals were housed individually in metal cages and distributed according to milk production in five 4 × 4 latin squares. the experimental diets used in the experiment presented concentrate:forage ratio of 65:35. the treatments were characterized by increasing levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% of high moisture corn silage (hmcs) replacing corn dry grain (cdg). average intake of dm (1.62 kg/day, 3.90 % bw), cp (0.22 kg/day), nfc (0.76 kg/day) and tdn (1.29 kg/day) were not influenced by levels of hmcs. however, intake of ndf (0.53 kg/day) was significant for the different level of hmcs. daily milk production and production of milk correct at 3.5% of fat, feed efficiency (mp/dmi), fat percentage, protein, lactose, total solids and milk urea nitrogen, with means of 1.86; 1.69; 1.11; 2.96; 2.85; 4.36; 10.96 and 17.1, respectively, were not influenced by the levels of hmcs. percentage of non fat solids (8.00%) was affected by replacing levels of hmcs. the use of high moisture corn silage in the diet does not change milk production and it can be applied in total or partial substitution to dry corn grain in the feeding of milk goats.

Wei Wenqiu Xie Shuqin,

遥感学报 , 1992,
Abstract: SCS model is a small basin design flood model proposed by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of USDA. At rainfall-runoff relationship, SCS model gives consideration to land used, soil type and antecedent soil moisture. Because the model tallies with the actual situation at rainfall runoff computation and is simple in structure, this model finds wide application. But soil classification and Runoff Curve Number (CN) in the model are restricted by region, it isn't suited to China. In this paper, we propose the formula to calculate the initial abstraction (Ia) and potential maximum retention (S), as well as the soil type classified by soil texture and application of remotely sensed data. The rationality of improved SCS model is proved by rainfall-runoff calculation in Chuzhou exprimental basin, Anhui province.
The Characteristics of Temporal and Spatial Variations of Heat Sources,Moisture Sinks over the Changjiang-Huaihe Valley in Summer 1999

Peng Jingbei,Song Zhengshan,

气候与环境研究 , 2001,
Abstract: The characteristics of temporal and spatial variation of heat source and moisture sink over the Changjiang-Huaihe valley in summer of 1999 are examined by using the NCEP / NCAR reanalysis data and rainfall record over 87 stations of China (including the observation during the IOP of HUBEX). The precipitation concentrated over the Changjiang valley was from June 22 to July 2 of 1999. During the Meiyu Period, the convective precipitation was dominant over the center of rainfall area, and the atmosphere was mainly heated by the release of condensation latent heat. The main area of Q1, Q2 with large positive value coincide with intensity upward motion and rainfall center. The fluctuation of vertical motion was in-phase with heat source and moisture sink. The mesoscale variations whose period is shorter than 3 days were obvious, but stratiform precipitation was dominant over the Huaihe valley where precipitation was small.
On the finiteness of uniform sinks  [PDF]
Dawei Yang,Yong Zhang
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We study the finiteness of uniform sinks for flow. Precisely, we prove that, for $\alpha>0$ $T>0$, if a vector field $X$ has only hyperbolic singularities or sectionally dissipative singularities, then $X$ can have only finitely many $(\alpha,T)$-uniform sinks. This is a generalized version of a theorem of Liao
Monitoring soil moisture by apparent thermal inertia method

YANG Shu-Cong,SHEN Yan-Jun,GUO Ying,KONDOH Akihiko,

中国生态农业学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Soil moisture is one of the most important indices for agricultural drought monitoring and water resources management. Remote sensing is a critical technology for monitoring spatial and temporal variations in soil water content. The thermal inertia method, which is a thermal infra red (IR) technology, has demonstrated advantages in monitoring soil water condition. Among the several models for computing soil thermal inertia by remote sensing, ascertaining the conditions for monitoring soil water content by thermal inertia remains a major obstacle. This paper proposed an improved model for calculating Apparent Thermal Inertia (ATI). In the first step, a new soil ATI model with improved algorithms for simulating net radiation was developed. Then a strict control ground experiment was conducted to test the proposed model. A total of 10 experimental plots with different vegetation covers and soil water contents were set up at the Luancheng Agro-Ecosystem Experimental Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The vegetation covers were fully representative by NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). The actual measured land surface temperature, NDVI, albedo, soil water content, solar radiation and long-wave atmospheric radiation were used to compute ATI under different land cover and soil water conditions. Then correlation and regression analyses were finally done to relate ATI and soil water content. The results indicated that the proposed thermal inertia model reliably monitored the soil water condition, especially in low vegetation cover areas. For low vegetation cover (NDVI < 0.35), the coefficient of determination between ATI and soil volumetric water content was > 0.7. The proposed thermal inertia method was invalid for NDVI > 0.35 and the corresponding coefficient of determination was < 0.2. NDVI that was the equivalent of 0.35 could be critical for determining the applicability of the proposed model in monitoring soil water conditions. This was because temperature dynamics (the most critical criteria for calculating ATI) for bare and vegetated lands were different. However, the proposed model was not only simple, but it carries distinct physical meaning and easy-to-use interfaces. The experiment suggested that the model was applicable in reliably monitoring soil water conditions.
Climatological Characteristics of Moisture Transport during Summer Monsoon over South China Sea

Xie An,Song Yanyun,Mao Jiangyu,Ye Qian,

气候与环境研究 , 2001,
Abstract: Climatological characteristics are investigated for moisture transport during summer mon-soon over the South China Sea (SCS) based on NCEP/ NCAR reanalysis data for the period of 1973~1998. It is found that the significant difference of moisture transport over East Asia exist between months due to evolutions of monsoon circulation. The moisture transports coming from the upstream of Indian Ocean play important roles in the SCS moisture budget, the SCS monsoon onset and the South China precipitation. Meridional transport is favorable to moisture convergence over South China between 200N and 300N. The SCS is a moisture sink area. Moisture transport channels in early onsetyears are significantly different from that in delayed onset years. For early onset years, the moisture passageway from the equatorial Indian Ocean to the SCS occurs earlier and maintains for a longer time, the SCS is liable to become moisture convergence region in the period of April~ May. For delayed years, the moisture over the SCS remains divergent in the end of Spring and the beginning of Summer, which is not favorable to the SCS monsoon.
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