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Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Four Cities of Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Ali Awan,,Syed Hassan Ahmed,,Muhammad Rizwan Aslam,Ishtiaq Ahmed Qazi
Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) , 2011,
Abstract: Total suspended particulates (TSPs) in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan were collected using a high volume sampling technique for subsequent heavy metal analysis. The sampling was conducted for 24hours and the concentration of TSPs ranged 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 μg/m3 for Islamabad, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively. The level of TSP contamination was very high in ambient air of two big industrial cities, Gujranwala and Faisalabad. TSPs were also analyzed for Cd, Pb and Zn using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) following digestion using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Compared to other metals, concentration of Cd was slightly high (around 325 ng/m3) in the samples of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Overall, the order of metal concentrations were Cd > Pb > Zn.
Evaluation of Risk Factors of HCV infection in Lahore, (Pakistan)  [cached]
Rao Muhammad Ijaz,Ahmad Saeed Akhter
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v3i1.77
Abstract: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is rapidly growing disease in world in general and in Pakistan in particular. In Pakistan more than 10 million persons have HCV +ve signs. Risk factors for this fatal disease included main, historic and demographic factors. Some researchers segregated few independent factors but other, include them in the category of depends. We have collected the data for Lahore (Pakistan) and analyzed this data by considering the aforesaid factors. Some results of this research do not match with the existing theories. We recommended that interaction effects of associated factors should also be considered in evaluation.
Evidence and quantitation of aromatic organosulfates in ambient aerosols in Lahore, Pakistan  [PDF]
S. Kundu,T. A. Quraishi,G. Yu,C. Suarez
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-12-32795-2012
Abstract: Organosulfates are important components of atmospheric organic aerosols, yet their structures, abundances, sources and formation processes are not adequately understood. This study presents the identification and quantitation of benzyl sulfate in atmospheric aerosols, which is the first reported atmospheric organosulfate with aromatic carbon backbone. Benzyl sulfate was identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Lahore, Pakistan during 2007–2008. An authentic standard of benzyl sulfate was synthesized, standardized, and identified in atmospheric aerosols using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS). Benzyl sulfate was quantified in aerosol samples using UPLC coupled to negative electrospray ionization triple quadrupole (TQ) MS. The highest benzyl sulfate concentrations were recorded in November and January 2007 (0.50 ± 0.11 ng m 3) whereas the lowest concentration was observed in July (0.05 ± 0.02 ng m 3). To evaluate matrix effects, benzyl sulfate concentrations were determined using external calibration and the method of standard addition; comparable concentrations were detected by the two methods, which ruled out significant matrix effects in benzyl sulfate quantitation. Three additional organosulfates with m/z 187, 201 and 215 were qualitatively identified as aromatic organosulfates with additional methyl substituents by high-resolution mass measurements and tandem MS. The observed aromatic organosulfates form a homologous series analogous to toluene, xylene, and trimethylbenzene, which are abundant anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), suggesting that aromatic organosulfates may be formed by secondary reactions. Further studies are needed to elucidate the sources and formation pathways of aromatic organosulfates in the atmosphere.
Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan
Ahmad Malik, Shelby Yamamoto, Aurélia Souares, Zeeshan Malik, Rainer Sauerborn
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-201
Abstract: A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural.Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians.Motivational determinants differed across different levels of care, sectors and genders. Nonetheless, the important motivators across setups in this study were mostly intrinsic and socio-cultural, which are difficult to affect while the demotivators were largely organizational. Many can be addressed even at the facility level such as less personal safety and poor working conditions. Thus, in resource limited settings a good strategic starting point could be small scale changes that may markedly improve physicians' motivation and subsequently the quality of health care.The wor
Environmental Impacts of Quaid-e-Azam Industrial Estate on Neighboring Residential Area in Lahore, Pakistan  [PDF]
Saadia Hina, Maida Zahid, Iftikhar H. Baloch, Tariq Sultan Pasha
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.33023
Abstract: Industries have contributed for human development by improving human life styles, increasing human life expectancy rate, providing more and more jobs. Still industrialization has many negative impacts on the environment and especially on human health. This investigation was carried out to probe the impacts of Quaid-e-Azam Industrial Estate on Township area, Lahore. During this investigation wastewater monitoring and ambient air monitoring had been done. Samples from main industrial drain were collected for wastewater analysis and seventeen parameters including pH, temperature, color, odor, turbidity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chlorides, oil/grease, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3 - N2), iron, sulfate, nickel and chromium were investigated. Among them pH, total suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen were found exceeding the NEQS limits. The ambient air samples were also collected and five parameters of ambient air including particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and noise were monitored. Among them only particulate matter was exceeding the WHO guidelines. Although there were few parameters like pH, TSS, BOD, COD and NH3 - N2 of water and PM10 of air, which do not lie within the national environmental quality standards (NEQS) limits but proper monitoring is needed to be done so that parameters may not cross their permissible limits in future. This problem must be taken into consideration by both the management of Quaid-e-Azam Industrial Estate and Governmental agencies because it is the responsibility of state also to make the environment clean.
Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Lahore, Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Shahzad Shaukat, Rana Muhammad Suleman, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Salman Akbar Malik, Tahir Masood Ahmed, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Muhammad Naeem, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067998
Abstract: Pakistan harbors high disease burden of gastro-enteric infections with majority of these caused by rotavirus. Unfortunately, lack of proper surveillance programs and laboratory facilities have resulted in scarcity of available data on rotavirus associated disease burden and epidemiological information in the country. We investigated 1306 stool samples collected over two years (2008–2009) from hospitalized children under 5 years of age for the presence of rotavirus strains and its genotypic diversity in Lahore. The prevalence rate during 2008 and 2009 was found to be 34% (n = 447 out of 1306). No significant difference was found between different age groups positive for rotavirus (p>0.05). A subset of EIA positive samples was further screened for rotavirus RNA through RT-PCR and 44 (49.43%) samples, out of total 89 EIA positive samples, were found positive. G and P type prevalence was found as follows: G1P [4] = 3(6.81%); G1P [6] = 9(20.45%); G1P [8] = 1(2.27%); G2P [4] = 21(47.72%); G2P [8] = 1(2.27%); G9P [4] = 1(2.27%); G9P [6] = 1(2.27%) and G9P [8] = 7(15.90%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VP7 and VP4 sequences clustered closely with the previously detected strains in the country as well as Belgian rotaviruses. Antigenic characterization was performed by analyzing major epitopes in the immunodominant VP7 and VP4 gene segments. Although the neutralization conferring motifs were found variable between the Pakistani strains and the two recommended vaccines strains (Rotarix? and RotaTeq?), we validate the use of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan based on the proven and recognized vaccine efficacy across the globe. Our findings constitute the first report on rotavirus’ genotype diversity, their phylogenetic relatedness and epidemiology during the pre-vaccination era in Lahore, Pakistan and support the immediate introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the routine immunization program of the country.
Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Lahore Area, Punjab, Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Naeem,Khalida Khan,Salma Rehman,Javad Iqbal
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The ground water quality of Lahore (Pakistan) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for domestic applications. Sixty ground water samples form shallow and deep wells were collected each during pre and post-monsoon seasons in the month of May and November 2004, respectively. Various water quality constituents pH, conductance, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate and fluoride have been determined. The data was analyzed with reference to NEQS and WHO standards, ionic relationships were studied and hydro chemical facies were determined. Distribution of various constituents indicates that about 10-20% samples of the study area crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and fluoride while 20-30% samples crosses the limit for nitrate. The ground water of the study area has also been classified to study various hydro chemical processes.
Quantification of Phases in Lahore (Pakistan) Airborne Particulates by Matrix-Flushing Method  [PDF]
Naveed Ahmad, Khadim Hussain, Shahzad Naseem
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.14028
Abstract: The mass concentrations of eighteen airborne samples collected from Lahore (Pakistan) are found in the range from 595 to 3027μg/m3with average value of 1130 μg/m3. Most of these values are normal and as reported in the literature for other parts of the world. The major phases identified in the samples by the X-ray powder diffraction technique are Albite (Anorthite), Calcite, Clinochlore (Chlorite), Gypsum, Illite, Quartz and Talc which have also been reported by other researchers to be present in the airborne particulates of other world locations. The average weight percentages of the phases (minerals) in the samples are respectively 15.5, 10.6, 23.7, 2.4, 19.1, 20.2, and 8.5. Some of the elements (e.g., boron, cadmium, lithium, manganese, titanium, and zinc) quantified in two samples determined using a spark-source mass spectrometer appear also to derive their origin from man-made activities. However no compound synthesized in the atmosphere is detected by the X-ray diffraction method.
Microbiological Quality of Bottled Water Available in Lahore City  [cached]
Journal of Pakistan Medical Students , 2013,
Abstract: (CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan)(Original Article; p110-112)
Seroprevalence of Dengue IgG Antibodies among Healthy Adult Population in Lahore, Pakistan  [PDF]
Shahid Mahmood,Hiba Nabeel,Saadia Hafeez,Urooj Zahra,Hammad Nazeer
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/521396
Abstract: Background. Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of anti-dengue IgG antibodies in healthy adult population of Lahore and also describe risk factors in relation to dengue seropositivity. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 274 healthy adult individuals aged 15 years and above were randomly selected using multistage sampling technique. These individuals were interviewed between July–September 2012, using a semistructured questionnaire, followed by drawing 3?mL of their venous blood for dengue IgG test. Nova Tech ELISA kit with sensitivity and specificity of 96.5% and 97.5%, respectively, was used for serology. Results. Out of 274 participants, 184 (67.2%) were found to be positive for dengue IgG antibodies. Seroprevalence was higher among individuals with poor awareness about potential breeding sites for dengue mosquito (63.6%), followed by the subjects who had poor knowledge about dengue signs/symptoms and complications (52.2% and 68.5%, resp.). Conclusion. About two-third of healthy population of Lahore was also seropositive for anti-dengue IgG during July–September 2012, indicating a considerable burden of subclinical dengue infection in the city. Males were predominantly affected than the females. We found no statistical association between dengue IgG seropositivity and socioeconomic status, occupation, and knowledge about the disease. 1. Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and it has emerged as an important global public health challenge. In recent years, disease transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semiurban areas owing to economic reasons and migration. There are four distinct but closely related serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4) of the dengue virus known; however, DEN-2 infection is more prevalent in South Asian region including Pakistan [1, 2]. Recovery from one type of virus infection, though, provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype, but there is a strong evidence suggesting the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations of dengue fever in subsequent infection from other serotypes [3]. Infective female Aedes aegypti mosquito species is the primary vector for dengue which transmits the virus through biting humans. On the other hand, Aedes albopictus is responsible for maintaining the endemicity in the population [4]. Absence of an effective vaccine, vector control measures, and personal
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