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Agricultural Labor Demand in Chile: A Cointegration Approach
Saens N,Rodrigo; Lobos A,Germán; Rivera A,Edinson;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392008000400009
Abstract: international evidence shows that the positive relationship between product and agricultural labor has weakened during the last 30 years, especially in emergent economies. chilean agriculture has not been left out of this phenomenon the main purpose of this reseach was to estimate the causality relationships that govern the product, employment and salaries in the chilean silviculture-agricultural-livestock sector, using a cointegration approach. quarterly data from the 1996-2005 period were employed to estimate agricultural labor demand. a cobb-douglas agricultural production function was employed and from it were derived the minimum cost function and the labor demand as bases of this study; the latter was approximated log-linearly to find different measures of elasticity. the main results shows that the estimated demand for agricultural labor has long-run employment-product and employment-salary elasticities of 0.38 and -0.88, respectively. an important conclusion suggests that, compared with the employment-product and employment-salary elasticities of labor demand on the aggregated level, agricultural employment in the long run results less sensitive to changes in the product, but more sensitive to changes in salaries.
Change of Trade Mode and Decrease of Labor Share : Empirical Evidences from China''s Industrial Sector
贸易模式转变与劳动收入份额下降————基于中国工业分行业的实证研究

Xiao Wen,Zhou Minghai,
肖文
,周明海

浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版) , 2010,
Abstract: Since 1978 , labor income share in China has declined rapidly with drastic economic growth rate . This paper decomposes the labor income sharein theindustrial sector and finds that the movement of the industrial structure is part of the reason for the declining labor income share .We alsoanalyze theeffects of trade ,technology progress and state-owned monopolypower by using the production cost model . It indicates that technology upgrading and decrease of monopoly power will impose a decrease on labor income share .Ceteris paribus ,the coefficient of import penetration rate in the trade variables is positive and significant . Regression in different stages shows that the change of trade mode is the main reason for the declining labor income share .In the time of import-export related processing trade in the Pearl River Delta , import penetration rates promote labor demand and thus raise the labor income share .While in the time of import-oriented processing trade in the Yangtze River Delta , the simultaneous decline of 5 import penetration rate and labor income share is the result of lowering raw material and labor cost from profit maximizing enterprises . Therefore ,import penetration has different mechanisms on labor income share in different stages .
Trade Liberalization and Disaggregated Import Demand in Uganda  [PDF]
Gaalya Micah Samuel
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.63030
Abstract: Studies investigating determinants of import demand for Uganda present aggregate findings yet there is a need to disaggregate the findings for specific sectors. This creates a research gap on disaggregated findings of import demand. This research attempts to fill this research gap by establishing determinants of import demand using disaggregated sector level data for consumer, intermediate and capital goods. The study estimates the long-run and short-run import demand elasticities for consumer, intermediate and capital goods over the period (1994 to 2012). The results show that there exists a cointegrating relationship between the disaggregated import demand and the following set of variables; relative import price, GDP per capita, real effective exchange rate, foreign exchange rate reserves and trade openness. The long run elasticity appears more responsive to import demand compared to the short-run elasticity. Importantly the effect of a change in trade openness on the volume of imports is positive, suggesting trade liberalization increases import demand.
Analysis of Consumption and Demand Elasticities for Food Products in Balochistan
Samina Khalil,Hazrat Yousaf
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: This study analyzes the households’ consumption patterns and demand elasticities of Balochistan in both the urban and rural areas. We make use of the Household Integrated Expenditure Survey (HIES) of Pakistan for the year 2005-6. The linear-log models are applied for the analysis of households’ consumption patterns. The LA/AIDS model is used in order to estimate the demand elasticities. The study shows that the households’ expenditure on food items is increasing at decreasing rate. All the food items are considered as necessity except in the case of vegetable ghee for urban and rural Balochistan. The high expenditure elasticities of several food items e.g. wheat, milk, beef and vegetable ghee call for food support programs, different agriculture policies like subsidies on electricity for water irrigation, pesticides, etc. The major share of total expenditure is devoted to wheat consumption than other food items.
Agricultural Labor Demand in Chile: A Cointegration Approach Demanda por Trabajo Agrícola en Chile: Un Enfoque de Cointegración  [cached]
Rodrigo Saens N,Germán Lobos A,Edinson Rivera A
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2008,
Abstract: International evidence shows that the positive relationship between product and agricultural labor has weakened during the last 30 years, especially in emergent economies. Chilean agriculture has not been left out of this phenomenon The main purpose of this reseach was to estimate the causality relationships that govern the product, employment and salaries in the Chilean silviculture-agricultural-livestock sector, using a cointegration approach. Quarterly data from the 1996-2005 period were employed to estimate agricultural labor demand. A Cobb-Douglas agricultural production function was employed and from it were derived the minimum cost function and the labor demand as bases of this study; the latter was approximated log-linearly to find different measures of elasticity. The main results shows that the estimated demand for agricultural labor has long-run employment-product and employment-salary elasticities of 0.38 and -0.88, respectively. An important conclusion suggests that, compared with the employment-product and employment-salary elasticities of labor demand on the aggregated level, agricultural employment in the long run results less sensitive to changes in the product, but more sensitive to changes in salaries. La evidencia internacional muestra que la relación positiva entre producto y empleo agrícola se ha debilitado en los últimos 30 a os, especialmente en economías emergentes. La agricultura en Chile no ha estado al margen de este fenómeno. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue estimar las relaciones de causalidad que rigen al producto, el empleo y los salarios en el sector silvoagropecuario chileno, utilizando un enfoque de cointegración. Para la estimación de la demanda por trabajo agrícola se utilizaron datos trimestrales del período 1996 a 2005. Se utilizó una función de producción agrícola tipo Cobb-Douglas, a partir de la cual se derivó la función de costo mínimo y la demanda por trabajo base de este estudio; esta última se aproximó log-linealmente para encontrar distintas medidas de elasticidades. Los principales resultados muestran que la demanda por trabajo agrícola estimada presenta elasticidades empleo-producto y empleo-salario de largo plazo de 0,38 y -0,88, respectivamente. Una importante conclusión sugiere que, comparado con las elasticidades empleo-producto y empleo-salario de la demanda por trabajo a nivel agregado, el empleo agrícola en el largo plazo resulta ser menos sensible a cambios en el producto, pero más sensible a cambios en salarios.
Demand Elasticities for Different Food Items in Bangladesh  [PDF]
A.S.M. Anwarul Huq,F.M. Arshad
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: To identify the magnitude of food demand which would be helpful for demand projection and to assist government planning authority and researcher present study was under taken. The study estimated demand elasticities for different food items in the context of Bangladesh by using Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model with corrected Stone Price Index. The income elasticity of demand for cereal, pulse, edible oil, vegetable, fish, meat, fruit, milk and spices were 0.51, 0.72, 1.77, 0.50, 1.30, 2.46, 1.96, 1.86 and 1.60, respectively. The compensated and uncompensated own price elasticity indicated that all food items (except edible oil and spices) were price inelastic. The estimated uncompensated own-price elasticity of demand for cereal, pulse, edible oil, vegetable, fish, meat, fruit, milk and spices indicated that if the price fell by 10% then the demand for cereal, pulse, edible oil, vegetable, fish, meat, fruit, milk and spices would increase by 2.73, 7.25, 13.92, 3.14, 4.32, 6.70, 6.11, 3.45 and 14.47%, respectively. The estimates of cross price elasticity indicate that substitution effects of price change were not quite strong. Consequently government price interventions may not lead to considerable price repercussions in the economy. Simultaneously no systematic differences in the absolute magnitudes of the expenditure elasticity and own price elasticity were found. This implies that a combination of income and price policies may be more effective in influencing consumption pattern than those based solely on an individuality basis without taking into consideration the other factor.
Short-Run and Long-Run Elasticities of Diesel Demand in Korea  [PDF]
Kyoung-Min Lim,Myunghwan Kim,Chang Seob Kim,Seung-Hoon Yoo
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5125055
Abstract: This paper investigates the demand function for diesel in Korea covering the period 1986–2011. The short-run and long-run elasticities of diesel demand with respect to price and income are empirically examined using a co-integration and error-correction model. The short-run and long-run price elasticities are estimated to be ?0.357 and ?0.547, respectively. The short-run and long-run income elasticities are computed to be 1.589 and 1.478, respectively. Thus, diesel demand is relatively inelastic to price change and elastic to income change in both the short-run and long-run. Therefore, a demand-side management through raising the price of diesel will be ineffective and tightening the regulation of using diesel more efficiently appears to be more effective in Korea. The demand for diesel is expected to continuously increase as the economy grows.
Industrialization of the Manufacturing Sector and Trade Opening in Cameroon  [cached]
Henri Ngoa Tabi,Henri Atangana Ondoa
Research in World Economy , 2011, DOI: 10.5430/rwe.v2n1p58
Abstract: In this paper, the authors investigate the effect of trade opening on the industrialization of the manufacturing sector in Cameroon using the error correction model. The study uses data from the World Bank in the period 1967-2007. Our findings show that the long-term relationship between trade opening and industrialization of the manufacturing sector is not stable and that trade opening negatively affects the manufacturing sector of Cameroon. This result is explained by the fact that importations of some food products and inputs cannot be reduced. Moreover, Cameroon manufacturing enterprises are apparently unable to satisfy domestic demand.
Türk Hizmetler Sekt ründe Heckscher-Ohlin Modelinin Testi = Testing the Heckscher-Ohlin Model in the Service Sector of Turkey  [cached]
Necla AYA?,Hasan VERG?L,Hamza ?E?TEPE
Dogus University Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Although the service sector has increasingly gained importance both in the world and in Turkey, there are few studies on factor contents of trade in service sectors. While the Heckscher-Ohlin model can strongly predict the pattern of trade across countries, its empirical testing has still be discussed by researches. This study investigates whether trade in the service sector of Turkey runs in the direction that the Heckscher-Ohlin theory predicts using 2002 input-output and import use tables of Turkey. The results using the net final demand approach and the complementary import approach reveal that the relationship between foreign trade and factor intensity is in accordance with the predictions of the theory that while Turkey’ exports include relatively labor intensive goods, its imports include relatively capital intensive goods.
Demand for Meat in the Rural and Urban Areas of Kenya: A Focus on the Indigenous Chicken  [PDF]
H. K. Bett,M. P. Musyoka,K. J. Peters,W. Bokelmann
Economics Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/401472
Abstract: This study intends to estimate the demand for indigenous chicken meat in Kenya, including other available meat products for comparison purposes. Data used was collected from six counties. A total 930 rural and urban households were sampled. Linear Approximated Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) model was used to obtain the demand elasticities and to examine the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the meat budget shares. The results ascertain that the socio-demographic factors such as household location, the proportion of household members and the family size are important factors in explaining perceived variations in the consumption of meat products. Indigenous chicken meat, beef and mutton, were identified as necessities. Indigenous chicken meat and beef were identified as substitutes while indigenous chicken, goat and exotic chicken meats were complements. In view of the high expenditure elasticities, therefore, considering a policy option that would enhance consumer income is desirable, since it will result in high consumption thereby providing more incentives for production of meat products. The information generated would be more beneficial to the interest groups in the livestock sector as a whole. This would be utilised in the formulation of effective policies in line with food security and poverty alleviation. 1. Introduction The importance of indigenous chicken (IC) in income generation, improving the nutritional status and food security in rural areas has been widely discussed in various studies in most developing countries [1, 2]. Unlike other livestock species, IC is widely distributed across most African countries [3, 4]. Their meat is also preferred by consumers in view of the perception that they are healthier and possess unique attributes such as distinct flavour, leanness, tenderness, and colour [5]. White meat, which includes poultry and pig meats accounts for about 19 percent of the meat, consumed in Kenya locally and for export [6]. The IC contributes 71 percent of the total egg and poultry meat produced and therefore, influencing significantly on the rural trade, welfare, and food security of the smallholder farmers [7]. Moreover, the demand for chicken meat in the urban areas has tremendously increased, consequently raising production of chicken in the rural, urban and periurban areas [6, 8]. The growth in consumption especially for chicken is to some extent, attributed to its perception as a healthy alternative to red meats besides the low retail prices and ease of preparation [9]. The overall growth in demand for
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