Abstract:
In order to find an approximate solution to the Vlasov-Maxwell equation system describing the lower hybrid wave propagation in magnetic confined plasmas, the use of the WKB method leads to the ray tracing equations. The Hamiltonian character of the ray tracing equations is investigated analytically and numerically in order to deduce the physical properties of the wave propagating without absorption in the confined plasma. The consequences of the Hamiltonian character of the equations on the travelling wave, in particular, on the evolution of the parallel wavenumber along the propagation path have been accounted and the chaotic diffusion of the timeaveraged parallel wave-number towards higher values has been evaluated. Numerical analysis by means of a Runge-Kutta based algorithm implemented in a ray tracing code supplies the analytical considerations. A numerical tool based on the symplectic integration of the ray trajectories has been developed.

Abstract:
This paper deals with the new spectral and microturbulence experimental data and their analysis, which show, that the radial electric field Er generated at the LH heating (LHH) in the FT-2 is high enough to form the transport barriers. The ETB is formed when LHH is switched off. The radial fluctuation-induced E？B drift flux densities near LCFS in SOL are measured at two different poloidal angles. For this purpose two Langmuir probes located at low and high field sides of the torus are used. Registration of the poloidal and radial components of the electric field and density fluctuations at the same time during one discharge permits to measure the poloidal asymmetry of the transport reduction mechanism of the radial and poloidal particle fluxes in the SOL. The absolute E(~)？ fluctuation levels show dependence on the sign of Er shear. The modification of the microscale turbulence by the poloidal Er x B rotation shear ？E？B at the L - H transition near LCFS is also studied by X-mode fluctuation Reflectometry. The new data were obtained by spatial spectroscopic technique.

Abstract:
Although lower hybrid waves have been shown to be effective in driving plasma current in present-day tokamaks, they are predicted to strongly interact with the energetic alpha particles born from fusion reactions in eventual tokamak reactors. However, in the presence of the expected steep alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can produce wave amplification rather than wave damping. Here, we identify the flexibilities and constraints in achieving this amplification effect through a consideration of symmetries in the channeling interaction, in the wave propagation, and in the tokamak field configuration. Interestingly, for standard LH current drive that supports the poloidal magnetic field, we find that wave amplification through alpha channeling is fundamentally coupled to the poorly understood parallel wavenumber upshift. In so doing, we show that wave launch from the tokamak high-field side is favorable both for alpha-channeling and for achieving the parallel wavenumber upshift.

Abstract:
Observations of enhanced Doppler frequency shift effect of the highly localized microwave backscattering in the upper hybrid resonance are reported. The experiment is performed at FT-2 tokamak, where a steerable focusing antenna set, allowing off equatorial plane plasma extraordinary wave probing from high magnetic field side, was installed. A separate line less than 1.5 MHz wide and shifted by up to 2 MHz is routinely observed in the backscattering spectrum under condition of accessible upper hybrid resonance. The enhanced frequency shift is explained by the growth of poloidal wave number of the probing wave in the resonance. The new scheme for local diagnostics of fluctuations poloidal rotation based on this effect is proposed.

Abstract:
Chorus emissions are often observed by the STAFF spectrum analyser on board the 4 satellites of CLUSTER. This instrument provides the cross spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric field components. Dedicated software processes this spectral matrix in order to determine the propagation characteristic of these chorus waves. Measurements of the parallel component of the Poynting vector around the magnetic equator indicate that the chorus waves propagate away from this region which is considered as the source area of these emissions. This is valid for the most intense waves observed on the magnetic and electric power spectrograms. But it has also been observed that lower intensity waves propagate toward the equator at the same frequency. Using the wave normal directions of these waves, a ray tracing study has shown that the waves have suffered a Lower Hybrid Resonance (LHR) reflection at low altitudes and now return to the equator at a different location with a lower intensity. The paper presents other similar events when WBD data are simultaneously recorded. The WBD experiment provides a much better time resolution and allows one to check the structure of the returning waves. It is observed that these waves have still a high degree of polarization, even if they started to lose the coherent structure of the chorus elements. They reach the equator with a small wave normal angle which is more efficient for a further amplification. It is explained that these emissions could be a source of hiss.

Abstract:
We reveal the existence of a new type of surface electromagnetic waves supported by hyperbolic metasurfaces, described by a conductivity tensor with an indefinite signature. We demonstrate that the spectrum of the hyperbolic metasurface waves consists of two branches corresponding to hybrid TE-TM waves with the polarization that varies from linear to elliptic or circular depending on the wave frequency and propagation direction. We analyze the effect of losses of the surface waves and derive the corresponding analytical asymptotic expressions.

Abstract:
The injection of lower hybrid waves for current drive into a tokamak affects the profile of intrinsic rotation. In this article, the momentum deposition by the lower hybrid wave on the electrons is studied. Due to the increase in the poloidal momentum of the wave as it propagates into the tokamak, the parallel momentum of the wave increases considerably. The change of the perpendicular momentum of the wave is such that the toroidal angular momentum of the wave is conserved. If the perpendicular momentum transfer via electron Landau damping is ignored, the transfer of the toroidal angular momentum to the plasma will be larger than the injected toroidal angular momentum. A proper quasilinear treatment proves that both perpendicular and parallel momentum are transferred to the electrons. The toroidal angular momentum of the electrons is then transferred to the ions via different mechanisms for the parallel and perpendicular momentum. The perpendicular momentum is transferred to ions through an outward radial electron pinch, while the parallel momentum is transferred through collisions.

Abstract:
Global particle simulations of the lower hybrid waves have been carried out using fully kinetic ions and drift kinetic electrons with a realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio. The lower hybrid wave frequency, mode structure, and electron Landau damping from the electrostatic simulations agree very well with the analytic theory. Linear simulation of the propagation of a lower hybrid wave-packet in the toroidal geometry shows that the wave propagates faster in the high field side than the low field side, in agreement with a ray tracing calculation. Electromagnetic benchmarks of lower hybrid wave dispersion relation are also carried out. Electromagnetic mode conversion are observed in toroidal geometry, slow waves are launched at the plasma boundary and converts to fast waves at the mode conversion layer, which is consistent with linear theory.

Abstract:
The spectrum and spectral function of the mesoscale wave are studied by using nonstatic quasi-two-dimensional Boussinesq equations.It is supposed that basic flow is only the function of z.The equations are linearized with definite condition,and then the initial value and boundary value problems are changed into the eigenvalue problem of generalized matrix after assuming normal mode solution.The spectrum and spectral function of transversal disturbance in atmosphere are studied by using the numerical method when the vertical linear shear of basic flow exists and the stratification parameter is constant.The results of numerical calculation and theoretical analysis are discussed and compared.When the continuous spectrum areas of three waves do not overlap,the numerical solution is consistent with the analytic solution.But when continuous spectrum areas overlap each other,the structure of the continuous spectrum would be gotten by using the method of recombining spectral function.The basic principle of recombining is that,in the continuous spectrum overlapping area the spectral function of numerical solution is preprocessed,and then the running mean is calculated for the frequency consecutive spectrum and spectral function,and the running mean results are regarded as spectrum and spectral function after recombination.From the results of the spectrum and spectral function after recombination it can be seen that the structure of the disturbance is a hybrid wave of vortex wave and inertia-gravitational wave,that is,new wave mode appears.In the overlapping area of three waves of the continuous spectrum,the spectral function of the hybrid wave has the critical layer of vortex wave in the middle troposphere,which shows the character of vortex wave,and have the critical layers of inertia-gravitational waves along and against the basic flow propagation in the upper troposphere and the lower troposphere,respectively,which shows the character of inertia-gravitational wave.

Abstract:
In this paper, we address a problem of managing tagged images with hybrid summarization. We formulate this problem as finding a few image exemplars to represent the image set semantically and visually, and solve it in a hybrid way by exploiting both visual and textual information associated with images. We propose a novel approach, called homogeneous and heterogeneous message propagation ($\text{H}^\text{2}\text{MP}$). Similar to the affinity propagation (AP) approach, $\text{H}^\text{2}\text{MP}$ reduce the conventional \emph{vector} message propagation to \emph{scalar} message propagation to make the algorithm more efficient. Beyond AP that can only handle homogeneous data, $\text{H}^\text{2}\text{MP}$ generalizes it to exploit extra heterogeneous relations and the generalization is non-trivial as the reduction to scalar messages from vector messages is more challenging. The main advantages of our approach lie in 1) that $\text{H}^\text{2}\text{MP}$ exploits visual similarity and in addition the useful information from the associated tags, including the associations relation between images and tags and the relations within tags, and 2) that the summary is both visually and semantically satisfactory. In addition, our approach can also present a textual summary to a tagged image collection, which can be used to automatically generate a textual description. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the roposed approach.