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Neoclassical Pitch-Angle Scattering of Runaway Electrons  [PDF]
Jian Liu,Yulei Wang,Hong Qin
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: It is discovered that the tokamak field geometry generates a pitch-angle scattering effect for runaway electrons. This neoclassical pitch-angle scattering is much stronger than the collisional scattering and invalidates the gyro-center model for runaway electrons. As a result, the energy limit of runaway electrons is found to be larger than the prediction of the gyro-center model and to depend heavily on the background magnetic field.
Quasi-linear analysis of the extraordinary electron wave destabilized by runaway electrons  [PDF]
G. I. Pokol,A. Kómár,A. Budai,A. Stahl,T. Fül?p
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4895513
Abstract: Runaway electrons with strongly anisotropic distributions present in post-disruption tokamak plasmas can destabilize the extraordinary electron (EXEL) wave. The present work investigates the dynamics of the quasi-linear evolution of the EXEL instability for a range of different plasma parameters using a model runaway distribution function valid for highly relativistic runaway electron beams produced primarily by the avalanche process. Simulations show a rapid pitch-angle scattering of the runaway electrons in the high energy tail on the $100-1000\;\rm \mu s$ time scale. Due to the wave-particle interaction, a modification to the synchrotron radiation spectrum emitted by the runaway electron population is foreseen, exposing a possible experimental detection method for such an interaction.
Computer Simulation of Runaway Electrons in the Iran Tokamak 1 (IR-T1)  [PDF]
A. Hojabri,F. Hajakbari,R. Ezzati,M. Goranneviss
Mathematical Sciences Quarterly Journal , 2010,
Abstract: In the present work we study the dynamics of runaway electrons circulating in ohmic plasma of the Iran - Tokamak 1 (IR-T1). In this study, test electron in momentum space including the acceleration in the toroidal electric field, collisions with the plasma particle and deceleration due to synchrotron radiation losses is done. We calculate critical normalized momentum by normalized electric field in ohmic plasma discharge in IR-T1 and the critical energy for the runaway electrons describing the two contributions to the radiation losses coming from the guiding center motion and the electron gyro-motion.
Runaway electrons behaviors during ion cycolotron range of frequency and lower hybrid wave plasmas in the HT-7 Tokamak
HT-7 Tokamak离子回旋波和低杂波等离子体逃逸电子行为研究

Lu Hong-Wei,Hu Li-Qun,Zhou Rui-Jie,Xu Ping,Zhong Guo-Qiang,Lin Shi-Yao,Wang Shao-Feng,
卢洪伟
,胡立群,周瑞杰,许平,钟国强,林士耀,王少锋

物理学报 , 2010,
Abstract: HT-7 Tokamak is equipped with a lower hybrid wave (LHW) system and an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) system. ICRF can accelerate ions effectively, while LHW can accelerate electrons effectively. The generation of runaway electrons during the LHW and ICRF plasmas, as well as the time evolution of electron temperature during the ICRF and LHW plasmas was investigated in this paper. The runaway critical energy for runaway electrons was also calculated according to the experimental data. It was observed that the combination of ICRF and LHW can produce a higher heating efficiency and a better coupling between ICRF and plasmas if the power of LHW exceeds a critical value. Therefore, the generation of runaway electrons and fusion neutrons are affected by ICRF.
Post-Disruptive Runaway Electron Beam in COMPASS Tokamak  [PDF]
Milos Vlainic,Jan Mlynar,Jordan Cavalier,Vladimir Weinzettl,Richard Paprok,Martin Imrisek,Ondrej Ficker,Jean-Marie Noterdaeme,the COMPASS Team
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: For ITER-relevant runaway electron studies, such as suppression, mitigation, termination and/or control of runaway beam, obtaining the runaway electrons after the disruption is important. In this paper we report on the first achieved discharges with post-disruptive runaway electron beam, entitled "runaway plateau", in the COMPASS tokamak. The runaway plateau is produced by massive gas injection of argon. Almost all of the disruptions with runaway electron plateaus occurred during the plasma current ramp-up phase. Comparison between the Ar injection discharges with and without plateau has been done for various parameters. Parametrisation of the discharges shows that COMPASS disruptions fulfill the range of parameters important for the runaway plateau occurrence. These parameters include electron density, electric field, disruption speed, effective safety factor, maximum current quench electric field. In addition to these typical parameters, the plasma current value just before the massive gas injection surprisingly proved to be important.
Pitch Angle Distribution Evolution of Energetic Electrons by Whistler-Mode Chorus

ZHENG Hui-Nan,SU Zhen-Peng,XIONG Ming,

中国物理快报 , 2008,
Abstract: We develop a two-dimensional momentum and pitch angle code to solve the typical Fokker--Planck equation which governs wave--particle interaction in space plasmas. We carry out detailed calculations of momentum and pitch angle diffusion coefficients, and temporal evolution of pitch angle distribution for a band of chorus frequency distributed over a standard Gaussian spectrum particularly in the heart of the Earth's radiation belt L=4.5, where peaks of the electron phase space density are observed. We find that the Whistler-mode chorus can produce significant acceleration of electrons at large pitch angles, and can enhance the phase space density for energies of 0.5~1MeV by a factor of 10 or above after about 24h. This result can account for observation of significant enhancement in flux of energetic electrons during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm.
AC operation and runaway electron behaviour in HT-7 tokamak

Lu Hong-Wei,Hu Li-Qun,Zhou Rui-Jie,Lin Shi-Yao,Zhong Guo-Qiang,Wang Shao-Feng,Chen Kai-Yun,Xu Ping,ZhangJi-Zong,Ling Bi-Li,Mao Song-Tao,DuanYan-Min,

中国物理 B , 2010,
Abstract: Operation of HT-7 tokamak in a multicycle alternating square wave plasma current regime is reported. A set of AC operation experiments, including LHW heating to enhance plasma ionization during the current transition and current sustainment, is described. The behaviour of runaway electrons is analysed by four HXR detectors tangentially viewing the plasma in the equatorial plane, within energy ranges 0.3--1.2~MeV and 0.3--7~MeV, separately. High energy runaway electrons ($\sim $MeV) are found to circulate predominantly in the opposite direction to the plasma current, while the number of low energy runaway electrons ($\sim $tens to hundreds of keV) circulating along the plasma current is comparable to that in the direction opposite to the plasma current. AC operation with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is observed to have an additional benefit of suppressing the runaway electrons if the drop of the loop voltage is large enough.
Plasma recombination in runaway discharges in tokamak TCABR
Soboleva, T.K.;Galv?o, R.M.O.;Krasheninnikov, S.I.;Kuznetsov, Yu.K.;Nascimento, I.C.;
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-97332002000100015
Abstract: a new regime of runaway discharges has been observed in the tcabr tokamak. one of the most distinctive features of this regime is the effect of plasma detachment from the limiter. this experimental fact can only be explained by the volume recombination, which requires a low-temperature plasma. the analysis of the energy and particle balance in the system plasma-relativistic runaway beam in tcabr, which takes into account only the collisional mechanism of the heat transfer from runaways to thermal electrons, predicts electron temperatures te = 0.1 - 2 ev; the temperature decreases with the neutral density increase. the recombination process with the rate constant around 10-16 m3/s is required for the explanation of plasma density behavior in the experiment. at present, it is difficult to conclude about the mechanism of recombination. more reliable and detailed experimental data, mainly about the plasma temperature, are necessary.
Plasma recombination in runaway discharges in tokamak TCABR  [cached]
Soboleva T.K.,Galv?o R.M.O.,Krasheninnikov S.I.,Kuznetsov Yu.K.
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2002,
Abstract: A new regime of runaway discharges has been observed in the TCABR tokamak. One of the most distinctive features of this regime is the effect of plasma detachment from the limiter. This experimental fact can only be explained by the volume recombination, which requires a low-temperature plasma. The analysis of the energy and particle balance in the system plasma-relativistic runaway beam in TCABR, which takes into account only the collisional mechanism of the heat transfer from runaways to thermal electrons, predicts electron temperatures Te = 0.1 - 2 eV; the temperature decreases with the neutral density increase. The recombination process with the rate constant around 10-16 m3/s is required for the explanation of plasma density behavior in the experiment. At present, it is difficult to conclude about the mechanism of recombination. More reliable and detailed experimental data, mainly about the plasma temperature, are necessary.
Anisotropic pitch angle distribution of ~100 keV microburst electrons in the loss cone: measurements from STSAT-1
J. J. Lee, G. K. Parks, E. Lee, B. T. Tsurutani, J. Hwang, K. S. Cho, K.-H. Kim, Y. D. Park, K. W. Min,M. P. McCarthy
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2012,
Abstract: Electron microburst energy spectra in the range of 170 keV to 360 keV have been measured using two solid-state detectors onboard the low-altitude (680 km), polar-orbiting Korean STSAT-1 (Science and Technology SATellite-1). Applying a unique capability of the spacecraft attitude control system, microburst energy spectra have been accurately resolved into two components: perpendicular to and parallel to the geomagnetic field direction. The former measures trapped electrons and the latter those electrons with pitch angles in the loss cone and precipitating into atmosphere. It is found that the perpendicular component energy spectra are harder than the parallel component and the loss cone is not completely filled by the electrons in the energy range of 170 keV to 360 keV. These results have been modeled assuming a wave-particle cyclotron resonance mechanism, where higher energy electrons travelling within a magnetic flux tube interact with whistler mode waves at higher latitudes (lower altitudes). Our results suggest that because higher energy (relativistic) microbursts do not fill the loss cone completely, only a small portion of electrons is able to reach low altitude (~100 km) atmosphere. Thus assuming that low energy microbursts and relativistic microbursts are created by cyclotron resonance with chorus elements (but at different locations), the low energy portion of the microburst spectrum will dominate at low altitudes. This explains why relativistic microbursts have not been observed by balloon experiments, which typically float at altitudes of ~30 km and measure only X-ray flux produced by collisions between neutral atmospheric particles and precipitating electrons.
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