Abstract:
Two-photon absorption is theoretically analyzed within the semiclassical formalism of radiation-matter interaction. We consider an ensemble of inhomogeneously broadened three-level atoms subjected to the action of two counterpropagating fields of the same frequency. By concentrating in the limit of large detuning in one-photon transitions, we solve perturbatively the Bloch equations in a non-usual way. In this way we derive an analytical expression for the width of the two-photon resonance that makes evident sub-Doppler two--photon spectroscopy. We also derive an analytical expression for the Stark shift of the two-photon resonance.

Abstract:
For dissipation-free photon-photon interaction at the single photon level, we analyze one-photon transition and two-photon transition induced by photon pairs in three-level atoms using two-photon wavefunctions. We show that the two-photon absorption can be substantially enhanced by adjusting the time correlation of photon pairs. We study two typical cases: Gaussian wavefunction and rectangular wavefunction. In the latter, we find that under special conditions one-photon transition is completely suppressed while the high probability of two-photon transition is maintained.

Abstract:
We report measurements of thermal self-locking of a Fabry-Perot cavity containing a potassium niobate (KNbO3) crystal. We develop a method to determine linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in intracavity crystals by detailed analysis of the transmission lineshapes. These lineshapes are typical of optical bistability in thermally loaded cavities. For our crystal, we determine the one-photon absorption coefficient at 846 nm to be (0.0034 \pm 0.0022) per m and the two-photon absorption coefficient at 846 nm to be (3.2 \pm 0.5) \times 10^{-11} m/W and the one-photon absorption coefficient at 423 nm to be (13 \pm 2) per m. We also address the issue of blue-light-induced-infrared-absorption (BLIIRA), and determine a coefficient for this excited state absorption process. Our method is particularly well suited to bulk absorption measurements where absorption is small compared to scattering. We also report new measurements of the temperature dependence of the index of refraction at 846 nm, and compare to values in the literature.

Abstract:
We have previously shown that two-photon absorption (TPA) and the quantum Zeno effect can be used to make deterministic quantum logic devices from an otherwise linear optical system. Here we show that this type of quantum Zeno gate can be used with additional two-photon absorbing media and weak laser pulses to make a heralded single photon source. A source of this kind is expected to have a number of practical advantages that make it well suited for large scale quantum information processing applications.

Abstract:
In this paper, we have systematically analyzed the degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon polarization ratios of various point groups. We present the maximum of symmetry assignments of two-photon transition with the combination of degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption. These results provide the theoretical basis for the experimental assignments.

Abstract:
We analyze the rate of two-photon absorption in tapered optical fibers with diameters less than the wavelength of the incident light. The rate of two-photon absorption is shown to be enhanced due to the small mode volume of the tapered fiber and the relatively large overlap of the evanescent field with an atomic vapor that surrounds the tapered region. The two-photon absorption rate is optimized as a function of the diameter of the tapered region.

Abstract:
the effects of the multiple-photon absorption on the ionization, mpi, and dissociation, mpd, of naphthalene were investigated. laser radiation of 266 nm at pulse widths of 4.5 ns and intensities of the order of 108-1010, and carrier gases, cgs, such as helium, neón, argon, krypton, and xenon were used. in order to identify the produced ions, the time of flight mass spectrometry technique, tof-ms, was employed. from the experimental data the number of photons absorbed was calculated, being two at low energies per pulse, less than 1.0 mj, where the parent ion, c10h8+, was detected, in agreement with the ionization energy of naphthalene, 8.14 ev. increasing the energy per pulse to more than 1.0 mj, new ions were observed, and three and four photons processes were identified. the effect of the cg was also investigated: the ion yields change as a function of energy per pulse and the cg. a sequence of pathways for photoionization and photodissociation was proposed taking into account the energy per pulse, number of absorbed photons and normalized ion yields.

Abstract:
We propose a new method for generating photon pairs from coherent light using polarization-dependent two-photon absorption. We study the photon statistics of two orthogonally polarized modes by solving a master equation, and show that when we prepare a coherent state in one polarization mode, photon pairs are created in the other mode. The photon pairs have the same frequency as that of the incident light.

Abstract:
Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is a standard technique in modern microscopy but still affected by photo-damage of the probe. It was proposed that TPEF can be enhanced by using entangled photons, but has proven to be challenging. Recently it was shown that some features of entangled photons can be mimicked with thermal light, which finds application in ghost imaging, sub-wavelength lithography and metrology. Here, we utilize true thermal light from a super-luminescence diode to demonstrate enhanced TPEF compared to coherent light using two common fluorophores and luminescent quantum dots. We find that the two-photon absorption rate is directly proportional to the measured degree of second-order coherence, as predicted by theory. Our results show that photon bunching can be exploited in two-photon microscopy with the photon statistic providing a new degree of freedom.

Abstract:
We propose an efficient linear-scaling time-dependent method for calculating nonlinear response function, and study the size effects in non-degenerate two photon absorption spectra of Si nanocrystallites by using semi-empirical pseudopotentials.