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Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency  [PDF]
A. K. Mohapatra,T. R. Jackson,C. S. Adams
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.113003
Abstract: We observe electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on the 5s to 5p transition in a room temperature rubidium vapour cell by coupling the 5p state to a Rydberg state (ns or nd with n=26 to 124). We demonstrate that the narrow line-width of the EIT resonance (2 MHz) allows precise measurement of the d state fine structure splitting, and together with the sensitivity of the Rydberg state to electric fields, we are able to detect transient electric fields produced by the dynamics of charges within the cell. Coherent coupling of Rydberg states via EIT could also be used for cross-phase modulation and photon entanglement.
Laser pulse design for coherent control of Rydberg lithium atoms

Zhang Xian-Zhou,Wu Su-Ling,Jiang Li-Juan,Ma Huan-Qiang,Jia Guang-Rui,

中国物理 B , 2010,
Abstract: Using the time-dependent multilevel approach (TDML), this paper studies the dynamics of coherent control of Rydberg lithium atoms and demonstrates that Rydberg lithium atoms can be transferred to states of higher principal quantum number by exposing them to specially designed frequency-chirped laser pulses. The population transfer from n=70 to n=75 states of lithium atoms with efficiency of more than 90% is achieved by means of the sequential adiabatic rapid passages. The results agree well with the experimental ones and show that the coherent control of the population transfer from the lower n to the higher n states can be accomplished by the optimization of the chirping parameters and the intensity of laser field.
Van der Waals Interactions among Alkali Rydberg Atoms with Excitonic States  [PDF]
Hashem Zoubi
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/48/18/185002
Abstract: We investigate the influence of the appearance of excitonic states on van der Waals interactions among two Rydberg atoms. The atoms are assumed to be in different Rydberg states, e.g., in the $|ns\rangle$ and $|np\rangle$ states. The resonant dipole-dipole interactions yield symmetric and antisymmetric excitons, with energy splitting that give rise to new resonances as the atoms approach each other. Only far from these resonances the van der Waals coefficients, $C_6^{sp}$, can be defined. We calculate the $C_6$ coefficients for alkali atoms and present the results for lithium by applying perturbation theory. At short interatomic distances of several $\mu m$, we show that the widely used simple model of two-level systems for excitons in Rydberg atoms breaks down, and the correct representation implies multi-level atoms. Even though, at larger distances one can keep the two-level systems but in including van der Waals interactions among the atoms.
A laser system for the excitation of rubidium Rydberg states using second harmonic generation in a PPLN waveguide crystal  [PDF]
Andreas Koglbauer,Peter Würtz,Tatjana Gericke,Herwig Ott
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s00340-011-4530-3
Abstract: We report on a laser system at a wavelength of 495 nm which is suitable for the excitations of low lying Rydberg states of rubidium atoms. The system is based on frequency doubling of a seeded diode laser in a periodically poled waveguide crystal. We achieve an output power of up to 35 mW and prove the single frequency performance by direct two photon laser spectroscopy of the rubidium 14D_5/2 and 14D_3/2 states. The measured fine structure splitting is consistent with quantum defect theory calculations.
High-Precision Measurement of Rydberg State Hyperfine Splitting in a Room-Temperature Vapour Cell  [PDF]
Atreju Tauschinsky,Richard Newell,H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell,R. J. C. Spreeuw
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.042522
Abstract: We present direct measurements of the hyperfine splitting of Rydberg states in rubidium 87 using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) spectroscopy in a room-temperature vapour cell. With this method, and in spite of Doppler-broadening, line-widths of 3.7 MHz FWHM, i.e. significantly below the intermediate state natural linewidth are reached. This allows resolving hyperfine splittings for Rydberg s-states with n=20...24. With this method we are able to determine Rydberg state hyperfine splittings with an accuracy of approximately 100 kHz. Ultimately our method allows accuracies of order 5 kHz to be reached. Furthermore we present a direct measurement of hyperfine-resolved Rydberg state Stark-shifts. These results will be of great value for future experiments relying on excellent knowledge of Rydberg-state energies and
Self-Energy Correction to the Hyperfine Splitting for Excited States  [PDF]
B. J. Wundt,U. D. Jentschura
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.052501
Abstract: The self-energy corrections to the hyperfine splitting is evaluated for higher excited states in hydrogenlike ions, using an expansion in the binding parameter Zalpha, where Z is the nuclear charge number, and alpha is the fine-structure constant. We present analytic results for D, F and G states, and for a number of highly excited Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers in the range 13 <= n <= 16, and orbital angular momenta l = n-2 and l = n-1. A closed-form, analytic expression is derived for the contribution of high-energy photons, valid for any state with l <= 2$ and arbitrary n, l and total angular momentum j. The low-energy contributions are written in the form of generalized Bethe logarithms and evaluated for selected states.
Stark effect in the nonuniform field and its influence on the fine structure of Rydberg blockade  [PDF]
Yurii V. Dumin
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/48/13/135002
Abstract: Splitting the energy levels of a hydrogen-like atom by the electric field nonuniform at the atomic scale is studied. This situation is important for the multi-level treatment of the phenomenon of Rydberg blockade [Yu.V. Dumin, J. Phys. B, v.47, p.175502 (2014)]. An explicit formula for the energy levels is derived. A typical value of the energy shift by the electric field gradient turns out to be proportional to the 4th power of the principal quantum number (i.e., the square of atomic size), as would be expected from a qualitative consideration. Finally, the fine spatial structure of the Rydberg blockade is analyzed when the electric-field-gradient term plays the dominant role, and the results are confronted with the experimental data.
Driven Rydberg atoms reveal quartic level repulsion  [PDF]
Krzysztof Sacha,Jakub Zakrzewski
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2269
Abstract: The dynamics of Rydberg states of a hydrogen atom subject simultaneously to uniform static electric field and two microwave fields with commensurate frequencies is considered in the range of small fields amplitudes. In the certain range of the parameters of the system the classical secular motion of the electronic ellipse reveals chaotic behavior. Quantum mechanically, when the fine structure of the atom is taken into account, the energy level statistics obey predictions appropriate for the symplectic Gaussian random matrix ensemble.
Excitation of high orbital angular momentum Rydberg states with Laguerre-Gauss beams  [PDF]
J. D. Rodrigues,L. G. Marcassa,J. T. Mendon?a
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider the excitation of Rydberg states through photons carrying an intrinsic orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Laguerre-Gauss modes, with a helical wave-front structure, correspond to such a set of laser beams, which carry some units of orbital angular momentum in their propagation direction. We demonstrate that, in a proper geometrical setting, this orbital angular momentum can be transferred to the internal degrees of freedom of the atoms, thus violating the standard dipolar selection rules. Higher orbital angular momentum states become accessible through a single photon excitation process. We investigate how the spacial structure of the Laguerre-Gauss beam affects the radial coupling strength, assuming the simplest case of hydrogen-like wavefunctions. Finally we discuss a generalization of the angular momentum coupling, in order to include the effects of the fine and hyperfine splitting, in the context of the Wigner-Eckart theorem.
Fine Structure of the Rydberg Blockade Zone  [PDF]
Yurii V. Dumin
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/47/17/175502
Abstract: A spatial structure of the zone blocked by the dipolar electric field of a Rydberg atom is calculated taking into account a possibility of excitation to the states with neighboring values of the principal quantum number. As a result, it was found that the blocked zone represents a number of co-centric spherical shells rather than a solid ball, and the respective pair correlation function should have additional maxima at small interparticle distances.
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