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Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region
C. Potter, S. Klooster,V. Genovese
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2009,
Abstract: A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m 2) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amaz nia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr 1 (1 Pg=1015 g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr 1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr 1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from year to year during the period 2000–2002. This is the first study to use MODIS data to model all carbon pools (wood, leaf, root) dynamically in simulations of Amazon forest deforestation from clearing and burning of all kinds.
Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon  [cached]
Adalberto Veríssimo,Mark A. Cochrane,Carlos Souza Jr.,Rodney Salom?o
Ecology and Society , 2002,
Abstract: Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas) to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2). If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon) could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.
Two new Morganella species from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest  [PDF]
Alfredo DS,Leite AG,Braga-Neto R,Baseia IG
Mycosphere , 2012,
Abstract: Two new Morganella species, M. albostipitata and M. rimosa were found during studies of gasteroid fungi in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new taxa are described, and illustrated with photographs and line drawings, and taxonomical comments are made.
Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon  [cached]
Claudia Azevedo-Ramos,Benedito Domingues. do Amaral,Daniel C. Nepstad,Britaldo Soares Filho
Ecology and Society , 2006,
Abstract: The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs) would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399), including threatened species (N = 51). Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%). These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.
Influence of Deforestation, Logging, and Fire on Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon  [PDF]
Micah B. Hahn, Ronald E. Gangnon, Christovam Barcellos, Gregory P. Asner, Jonathan A. Patz
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085725
Abstract: Malaria is a significant public health threat in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous research has shown that deforestation creates breeding sites for the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, but the influence of selective logging, forest fires, and road construction on malaria risk has not been assessed. To understand these impacts, we constructed a negative binomial model of malaria counts at the municipality level controlling for human population and social and environmental risk factors. Both paved and unpaved roadways and fire zones in a municipality increased malaria risk. Within the timber production states where 90% of deforestation has occurred, compared with areas without selective logging, municipalities where 0–7% of the remaining forests were selectively logged had the highest malaria risk (1.72, 95% CI 1.18–2.51), and areas with higher rates of selective logging had the lowest risk (0.39, 95% CI 0.23–0.67). We show that roads, forest fires, and selective logging are previously unrecognized risk factors for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon and highlight the need for regulation and monitoring of sub-canopy forest disturbance.
On the certification of forest concession: non-governmental organizations, enterprises, and the construction of a new institutional frame for the development of the lumber industry in the Brazilian Amazon  [cached]
Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas , 2011,
Abstract: The article discusses the construction process of forest certification in the Brazilian Amazon, emphasizing its importance for the new frame of lumber industry on that region. We sustain that one of the main results of the promotion of forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) in Amazon was the constitution of an alliance between the environmentalist Non-Governmental Organizations, representative segments of forest business and members of the state bureaucracy for the promotion of lumber exploration based on forest management. In this perspective, the results produced by certification must be understood as part of a process of promotion of forest resources access policies, such as the approval of the Public Forests Management Law, and the creation of state entities destined to the promotion of lumber extraction on Amazon.
Malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon: Anopheles of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus
TADEI, Wanderli Pedro;DUTARY THATCHER, Bedsy;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652000000200005
Abstract: various species of anopheles (nyssorhynchus) were studied in the amazon with the objective of determining their importance as malaria vectors. of the 33 known anopheles species occurring in the amazon, only 9 were found to be infected with plasmodium. the different species of this subgenus varied both in diversity and density in the collection areas. the populations showed a tendency towards lower density and diversity in virgin forest than in areas modified by human intervention. the principal vector, an. darlingi, is anthropophilic with a continuous activity cycle lasting the entire night but peaking at sunset and sunrise. these species (nyssorhynchus) are peridomiciliary, entering houses to feed on blood and immediately leaving to settle on nearby vegetation. anopheles nuneztovari proved to be zoophilic, crepuscular and peridomiciliary. these habits may change depending on a series of external factors, especially those related to human activity. there is a possibility that sibling species exist in the study area and they are being studied with reference to an. darlingi, an. albitarsis and an. nuneztovari. the present results do not suggest the existence of subpopulations of an. darlingi in the brazilian amazon.
Malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon: Anopheles of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus  [cached]
TADEI Wanderli Pedro,DUTARY THATCHER Bedsy
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2000,
Abstract: Various species of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) were studied in the Amazon with the objective of determining their importance as malaria vectors. Of the 33 known Anopheles species occurring in the Amazon, only 9 were found to be infected with Plasmodium. The different species of this subgenus varied both in diversity and density in the collection areas. The populations showed a tendency towards lower density and diversity in virgin forest than in areas modified by human intervention. The principal vector, An. darlingi, is anthropophilic with a continuous activity cycle lasting the entire night but peaking at sunset and sunrise. These species (Nyssorhynchus) are peridomiciliary, entering houses to feed on blood and immediately leaving to settle on nearby vegetation. Anopheles nuneztovari proved to be zoophilic, crepuscular and peridomiciliary. These habits may change depending on a series of external factors, especially those related to human activity. There is a possibility that sibling species exist in the study area and they are being studied with reference to An. darlingi, An. albitarsis and An. nuneztovari. The present results do not suggest the existence of subpopulations of An. darlingi in the Brazilian Amazon.
Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon - II: Vertical distribution and frequency of anopheline species inside and outside the forest
Louren?o-de-Oliveira, Ricardo;Luz, Sergio LB;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761996000600005
Abstract: an anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the brazilian amazon, balbina and samuel, to determine the potential vectors of plasmodium brasilianum. the most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were anopheles mediopunctatus, an. nuneztovari, an. oswaldoi, an. triannulatus and an. shannoni. an. darlingi and an. marajoara were captured essentially in anthropic habitats outside the forest and are unlikely to be involved in the transmission of p. brasilianum among monkeys within the forests and from monkeys to man in their surroundings in the amazon.
Research and Patent of Phytotherapeutic and Phytocosmetic Products in the Brazilian Amazon
Frickmann,Fabiana dos Santos e Souza; Guimar?es Vasconcellos,Alexandre;
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27242011000400011
Abstract: the aim of this study is to analyze the research and the patent of phytotherapeutic and phytocosmetic products in the brazilian amazonia, in order to identify the current landscape of these markets and propose actions to leverage the development of these industrial sectors. the data analyzed proceed from research groups of the national council of scientific and technological development (cnpq) and patents applications from the national institute of industrial pro- perty (inpi). our results showed the existence of 86 regional research groups and 35 patent applications and none can be related to amazonian companies. legal impediments of the provisional measure 2.186-16/2001, in relation to applica- tions for inventions by individuals, may result in refusal of the patent, representing a significant loss of amazon innovative effort and reduction in the development of these sectors in the brazilian amazonia.
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