Abstract:
We describe an explicit connection between solutions to equations $Df=0$ (the Generalized Cauchy-Riemann equation) and $(D+M)f=0$, where operators $D$ and $M$ commute. The described connection allows to construct a ``function theory'' (the Cauchy theorem, the Cauchy integral, the Taylor and Laurent series etc.) for solutions of the second equation from the known function theory for solution of the first (generalized Cauchy-Riemann) equation. As well known, many physical equations related to the orthogonal group of rotations or the Lorentz group (the Dirac equation, the Maxwell equation etc.) can be naturally formulated in terms of the Clifford algebra. For them our approach gives an explicit connection between solutions with zero and non-zero mass (or external fields) and provides with a family of formulas for calculations. \keywords{Dirac equation with mass, Clifford analysis.} \AMSMSC{30G35}{34L40, 81Q05}

Abstract:
As part of a research intending to develop steel-concrete hybrid girder using ultra high performance concrete with compressive strength of 80 MPa, this study conducts loading test on this girder to investigate the methods for its composition with a slab using 30 MPa-concrete and the corresponding interfacial behavior. Prior to the loading test, the design formula of the Eurocode for the shear resistance developed in concrete-to-concrete interface is examined for the interface between concrete layers of different strengths. The effect of the surface roughness on the shear resistance is examined using this formula and finite element analysis to verify the applicability of the formula. Based upon the results, loading test is conducted on girder specimens to evaluate the actual behavior with respect to the interfacial surface condition. The test results reveal that the specimen with rough interface could not develop perfectly composite behavior and experienced adhesive failure. In case of simultaneous action of flexure and shear, it appears that conservative design should be applied without consideration of the interfacial condition when determining the arrangement of shear reinforcement.

Abstract:
We propose an ion trap configuration such that individual traps can be stacked together in a three dimensional simple cubic arrangement. The isolated trap as well as the extended array of ion traps are characterized for different locations in the lattice, illustrating the robustness of the lattice of traps concept. Ease in the addressing of ions at each lattice site, individually or simultaneously, makes this system naturally suitable for a number of experiments. Application of this trap to precision spectroscopy, quantum information processing and the study of few particle interacting system are discussed.

Abstract:
We present designs for multipole ion traps based on a set of planar, annular, concentric electrodes which require only rf potentials to confine ions. We illustrate the desirable properties of the traps by considering a few simple cases of confined ions. We predict that mm-scale surface traps may have trap depths as high as tens of electron volts, or micromotion amplitudes in a 2-D ion crystal as low as tens of nanometers, when parameters of a magnitude common in the field are chosen. Several example traps are studied, and the scaling of those properties with voltage, frequency, and trap scale, for small numbers of ions, is derived. In addition, ions with very high charge-to-mass ratios may be confined in the trap, and species of very different charge-to-mass ratios may be simultaneously confined. Applications of these traps include quantum information science, frequency metrology, and cold ion-atom collisions.

Abstract:
This submission is an introduction to microfabricated ion traps. We cover the basics of Paul traps, various geometries for realizing the traps, a number of design considerations, and, finally, a review of existing microfabricated traps.

Abstract:
Internal states of different ions in an electrodynamic trap are coupled when a static magnetic field is applied -- analogous to spin-spin coupling in molecules used for NMR. This spin-spin interaction can be used, for example, to implement quantum logic operations in ion traps using NMR methods. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as a $N$-qubit molecule with adjustable coupling constants.

Abstract:
In this paper we generalize a strategy recently proposed by the author concerning intertwining operators. In particular we discuss the possibility of extending our previous results in such a way to construct (almost) isospectral self-adjoint operators living in different Hilbert spaces. Many examples are discussed in details. Many of them arise from the theory of frames in Hilbert spaces, others from the so-called g-frames.

Abstract:
We report on ground state laser cooling of single 111Cd+ ions confined in radio-frequency (Paul) traps. Heating rates of trapped ion motion are measured for two different trapping geometries and electrode materials, where no effort was made to shield the electrodes from the atomic Cd source. The low measured heating rates suggest that trapped 111Cd+ ions may be well-suited for experiments involving quantum control of atomic motion, including applications in quantum information science.

Abstract:
We consider two different kinds of fluctuations in an ion trap potential: external fluctuating electrical fields, which cause statistical movement (``wobbling'') of the ion relative to the center of the trap, and fluctuations of the spring constant, which are due to fluctuations of the ac-component of the potential applied in the Paul trap for ions. We write down master equations for both cases and, averaging out the noise, obtain expressions for the heating of the ion. We compare our results to previous results for far-off resonance optical traps and heating in ion traps. The effect of fluctuating external electrical fields for a quantum gate operation (controlled-NOT) is determined and the fidelity for that operation derived.

Abstract:
We present a number of alternative designs for Penning ion traps suitable for quantum information processing (QIP) applications with atomic ions. The first trap design is a simple array of long straight wires which allows easy optical access. A prototype of this trap has been built to trap Ca+ and a simple electronic detection scheme has been employed to demonstrate the operation of the trap. Another trap design consists of a conducting plate with a hole in it situated above a continuous conducting plane. The final trap design is based on an array of pad electrodes. Although this trap design lacks the open geometry of the traps described above, the pad design may prove useful in a hybrid scheme in which information processing and qubit storage take place in different types of trap. The behaviour of the pad traps is simulated numerically and techniques for moving ions rapidly between traps are discussed. Future experiments with these various designs are discussed. All of the designs lend themselves to the construction of multiple trap arrays, as required for scalable ion trap QIP.