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Information and Meaning  [PDF]
Christophe Menant
Entropy , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/e5020193
Abstract: We propose here to clarify some of the relations existing between information and meaning by showing how meaningful information can be generated by a system submitted to a constraint. We build up definitions and properties for meaningful information, a meaning generator system and the domain of efficiency of a meaning (to cover cases of meaningful information transmission). Basic notions of information processing are used.
Eco-Label Conveys Reliable Information on Fish Stock Health to Seafood Consumers  [PDF]
Nicolás L. Gutiérrez, Sarah R. Valencia, Trevor A. Branch, David J. Agnew, Julia K. Baum, Patricia L. Bianchi, Jorge Cornejo-Donoso, Christopher Costello, Omar Defeo, Timothy E. Essington, Ray Hilborn, Daniel D. Hoggarth, Ashley E. Larsen, Chris Ninnes, Keith Sainsbury, Rebecca L. Selden, Seeta Sistla, Anthony D. M. Smith, Amanda Stern-Pirlot, Sarah J. Teck, James T. Thorson, Nicholas E. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043765
Abstract: Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer’s point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3–5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers.
An Algorithmic Approach to Information and Meaning  [PDF]
Hector Zenil
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: I will survey some matters of relevance to a philosophical discussion of information, taking into account developments in algorithmic information theory (AIT). I will propose that meaning is deep in the sense of Bennett's logical depth, and that algorithmic probability may provide the stability needed for a robust algorithmic definition of meaning, one that takes into consideration the interpretation and the recipient's own knowledge encoded in the story attached to a message.
Beyond information: A bit of meaning  [PDF]
Olaf Dreyer
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Is our world just information? We argue that our current notion of information has one serious shortcoming: It is quite literally meaningless. We suggest a meaningful extension of the notion of information that is dynamic, internal, approximate, contains an element of randomness, and is layered. This new notion of information derives from the interactions of material objects. Our answer to the essay question then is Bit from It or, more appropriately, Bit++ from It. We discuss how our new notion of information sheds light on the measurement problem in quantum mechanics and how it can be applied in philosophy and computer science.
The operational meaning of quantum conditional information  [PDF]
Igor Devetak,Jon Yard
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230501
Abstract: With a statistical view towards information and noise, information theory derives ultimate limitations on information processing tasks. These limits are generally expressed in terms of entropic measures of information and correlations. Here we answer the quantum information-theoretic question: ``How correlated are two quantum systems from the perspective of a third?" by solving the following `quantum state redistribution' problem. Given an arbitrary quantum state of three systems, where Alice holds two and Bob holds one, what is the cost, in terms of quantum communication and entanglement, for Alice to give one of her parts to Bob? The communication cost gives the first operational interpretation to quantum conditional mutual information. The optimal procedure is self-dual under time reversal and is perfectly composable. This generalizes known protocols such as the state merging and fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocols, from which almost every known protocol in quantum Shannon theory can be derived.
i=0 (Information has no intrinsic meaning)
F.J. Miller
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2002,
Abstract: This paper was written mainly to help identify some contradictions that can be found in the notion of knowledge management though its application is wider-ranging. The author suggests that knowledge - that is to say 'what we know' - can scarcely be understood and managed even by ourselves, much less by means of sophisticated information and communications (ie groupware and shareware) technologies. We have progressed from the industrial age through the information age into what is being promoted as the 'golden age' of knowledge and, in the process, we've been led to believe that information contains meaning - rather than just standing for, provoking or evoking meaning in others. The paper argues that unless we take the trouble to face and understand the significance and implications of i=0 (ie that information has no intrinsic meaning) and that knowledge is the uniquely human capability of making meaning from information - ideally in face-to-face relationships with other human beings - we may never emerge into any 'golden' age at all! The consequences of i=0 for communications, learning, safety, quality, management (itself), and winning work are also discussed.
The Self-Organization of Meaning and the Reflexive Communication of Information  [PDF]
Loet Leydesdorff,Alexander Petersen,Inga Ivanova
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Following a suggestion of Warren Weaver, we extend the Shannon model of communication piecemeal into a complex systems model in which communication is differentiated both vertically and horizontally. This model enables us to bridge the divide between Niklas Luhmann's theory of the self-organization of meaning in communications and empirical research using information theory. First, we distinguish between communication relations and correlations between patterns of relations. The correlations span a vector space in which relations are positioned and thus provided with meaning. Second, positions provide reflexive perspectives. Whereas the different meanings are integrated locally, each instantiation opens horizons of meaning that can be codified along eigenvectors of the communication matrix. The next-order specification of codified meaning can generate redundancies (as feedback on the forward arrow of entropy production). The horizontal differentiation among the codes of communication enables us to quantify the creation of new options as mutual redundancy. Increases in redundancy can then be measured as local reduction of prevailing uncertainty (in bits). The generation of options can also be considered as a hallmark of the knowledge-based economy: new knowledge provides new options. Both the communication-theoretical and the operational (information-theoretical) perspectives can thus be further developed.
The Main Difficulties When Studying Russian Verbs of Motion in a Figurative Meaning  [PDF]
Irina Skripnikova
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.24019
Abstract: Russian language acquisition requires deep and intensive studying of the concept of verbs of motion. There is a strong opinion that verbs of motion are one of the hardest concepts in the Russian language. However, it is an important issue, as motion verbs are among the most used in any language and nowadays there are hundreds of expressions with these verbs which can be heard quite frequently in the Russian language. Needless to say that mastering these verbs is even harder when they have figurative meaning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of studying the figurative meanings of Russian verbs of motion and to prove that the process of teaching students these verbs is more efficient when they are compared with their English equivalents.
Информация, значение и смысл в языковых процессах сознания [Information, meaning and sense in the linguistic process of consciousness]
Pavel Barishnikov
Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio , 2012,
Abstract: In this article the linguistic processes of consciousness are discussed at the informational and semantic levels. The key question is devoted to the distinction between the information, meaning and sense in the physical, logico-semantic and historic levels of brain and consciousness. The principal point runs that the human linguistic process of sense producing takes the variety and indistinctness in the cultural presupposition. The modern theories of philosophy of mind relying on the theories of Soviet psychological school propose some new solutions in the pragmatic questions of the semantic noncomputability. In this review we will try to justify the dualistic correlation between the cultural base and the communicative semantic process
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE OF EVERYDAY LIFE: meaning and information in journalism  [cached]
Atílio Avancini
Brazilian Journalism Research , 2011,
Abstract: The theoretical foundations of this article are the conceptual principlesof the French intellectuals Philippe Dubois (based on the book Photographic Act), Roland Barthes (book: Camera Lucida) and Henri Cartier-Bresson (text: The Decisive Moment). Their texts are references for the purpose of providing a comprehension of the meanings ofphotographs in journalistic narratives. It is a critical debate aboutthe presence of the photographic image in journalism, reorganizing knowledge faced with its conceptual fragility, which gives digital photography an important role as document and information. Oneof the ideas to be considered rests on the assumption that today, inthe reconfiguration of the photographic studies of urban everyday life (identity crisis caused by digital technology), the meaning becomes more important than the image as an image.
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