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Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science  [PDF]
Satoshi Habuchi
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2014.00020
Abstract: Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various SR fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-)nanotechnology.
Stereology in Materials Science
LIU Guoquan,
刘国权

材料科学技术学报 , 1990,
Abstract: Quantitative analysis of populations having a geometric structure,which has developed into a special scientific subject called microstructology or stereology,is of great importance to the characterization and evaluation of microstructures and their evolution in various processes.This paper, besides a brief discussion on those topics such as the recent developments of computer assisted image analysis,mathematical morphology,and fractal analysis,will mainly focus on the scope,fundamen- tals,present status,and perspectives of classical stereology.Several case examples of its application to materials science will also be given.
Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter  [PDF]
Daniel Bonn,Jose Paredes,Morton M. Denn,Ludovic Berthier,Thibaut Divoux,Sébastien Manneville
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.
Graphene: from materials science to particle physics  [PDF]
Joaquín E. Drut,Timo A. L?hde,Eero T?l?
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Since its discovery in 2004, graphene, a two-dimensional hexagonal carbon allotrope, has generated great interest and spurred research activity from materials science to particle physics and vice versa. In particular, graphene has been found to exhibit outstanding electronic and mechanical properties, as well as an unusual low-energy spectrum of Dirac quasiparticles giving rise to a fractional quantum Hall effect when freely suspended and immersed in a magnetic field. One of the most intriguing puzzles of graphene involves the low-temperature conductivity at zero density, a central issue in the design of graphene-based nanoelectronic components. While suspended graphene experiments have shown a trend reminiscent of semiconductors, with rising resistivity at low temperatures, most theories predict a constant or even decreasing resistivity. However, lattice field theory calculations have revealed that suspended graphene is at or near the critical coupling for excitonic gap formation due to strong Coulomb interactions, which suggests a simple and straightforward explanation for the experimental data. In this contribution we review the current status of the field with emphasis on the issue of gap formation, and outline recent progress and future points of contact between condensed matter physics and Lattice QCD.
Materials Science in Ancient Rome  [PDF]
Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Two books, the "De Architectura" by Vitruvius and the "Naturalis Historia" by Pliny the Elder, give us a portrait of the Materials Science, that is, the knowledge of materials, in Rome at the beginning of the Empire. Here, I am reporting some very attractive contents that we can find in these books. The reader will see the discussion proposed in fours case studies: concretes, coatings, amorphous materials and colloidal crystals, to describe them in modern words.
The SKA and "High-Resolution" Science  [PDF]
A. P. Lobanov
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-22795-0_8
Abstract: "High-resolution", or "long-baseline", science with the SKA and its precursors covers a broad range of topics in astrophysics. In several research areas, the coupling between improved brightness sensitivity of the SKA and a sub-arcsecond resolution would uncover truly unique avenues and opportunities for studying extreme states of matter, vicinity of compact relativistic objects, and complex processes in astrophysical plasmas. At the same time, long baselines would secure excellent positional and astrometric measurements with the SKA and critically enhance SKA image fidelity at all scales. The latter aspect may also have a substantial impact on the survey speed of the SKA, thus affecting several key science projects of the instrument.
Contribution of Frenkel's theory to the development of materials science  [PDF]
Pavlovi? V.B.
Science of Sintering , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/sos0601003p
Abstract: The original and comprehensive research of Yakov Ilich Frenkel in physics and physical chemistry of condensed states, nuclear physics, electrodynamics, science of sintering has significantly contributed to the development of modern scientific knowledge and his scientific ideas are still an inspiration to many scientists. Having in mind the wealth of scientific ideas he had in the research of electroconductivity in metals, crystal structure imperfections and phase transitions and in founding the science of sintering, the contribution of individual theories of Frenkel of significance to materials science are presented in this paper.
Overview of HVEM Investigations in Materials Science  [cached]
Hirotaro Mori
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology , 2011,
Abstract: High-voltage electron microscopy possesses a number of advantages that cannot be afforded by conventional electron microscopy. Topics in recent investigations with HVEMs in materials science are reviewed.
Components of abstracts in materials science and technology  [PDF]
Nina Jamar,Alenka ?auperl
Knji?nica : Revija za Podro?je Bibliotekarstva in Informacijske Znanosti , 2009,
Abstract: We investigated the structure of abstracts in Slovenian and international journals in the field of materials and technology. The aim of the study was to analyze the adherence of the abstracts published in Materials and Technology (MIT) and Materials Science and Technology (MST) to two different instructions for the preparation of abstracts (scheme based on ISO 214:1976 and Spanring system). 25 abstracts from each journal were divided into sentences. We tried to place the sentences into one of the categories of the above mentioned schemes. The research was a part of the postgraduate study in the Department of Library and Information Science and Book Studies (Faculty of Arts, Ljubljana) in September and October 2008. There are no important differences between MIT and MST. Spanring system seems more appropriate for the field of materials and technology. The place and the time of the research should be added to abstracts and the Hu-bit category should be distributed into two parts: Hu-M (method) and Hu-R (results). The recommended Spanring system should be harmonized with authors, who publish in these serials and the effect of the instructions should be analyzed, too.
Grand challenges for Translational Materials Science  [PDF]
Oliver Hayden
Frontiers in Materials , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2014.00005
Abstract: Materials are undoubtedly the hidden champions of healthcare, biotechnology or energy innovations, nevertheless, novel materials are not automatically translated into products. The success of functional materials is not a matter of luck; it is the result of years of failure and the painstaking design of the fundamental translational steps from materials science to real-world prototypes. Connect scientists and engineers for materials innovation The need for a tight collaboration in the discovery-to-product translation process between scientists and engineers is often underestimated. The genius of these two communities is equally important; not only for the integration of novel materials into functional devices but also for the adaptation to the ever changing constraints of the market. Translational Materials Science reacts to the need of filling the communication gap among different players of the translation process and provides an optimal platform of sharing the information related to the efforts connecting basic science to product launch. Market needs and materials applications evolve in parallel and continuously affect each other, just as in the case of the crack-resistant glass for smart phones or the photoresist for lithography for true nanoscale CMOS field-effect transistors. Furthermore, materials innovation requires public-private partnership instead of the current practice of small teams and black box thinking due to the necessity for high and long-term investments. A beautiful example on how translation occurs is the hype on bottom-up synthesized semiconducting nanowires that triggers CMOS top-down nanowire engineering work to rescue Moore’s law with novel device architectures and hybrid semiconductors of group IV and III-V semiconductors for higher charge carrier mobilities. In the fields of biotechnology, in-vitro diagnostics and therapy the facile synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with biological coatings. This innovation changed fundamentally our understanding of how to benefit from magnetism to separate, enrich, and label biological specimen without the need for invasive or cumbersome methods. For instance today we can use magnetic nanoparticles to enrich specimen for in-vitro diagnostics without the need for centrifugation steps which enables highly-automated preanalytical workflows. The last example is related to efficient energy storage which is fundamental for our mobile world. Only the high energy storage capacity and the exquisite recharging properties of lithium-ion batteries enabled today′s mobile communication world which would
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