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The Immunohistochemical Profile of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD in the Liver Tissue of Hypercholesterolemic Rats  [PDF]
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2006,
Abstract: This study was conducted to observe intracellular antioxidant cooper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in liver tissue of rats under hypercholesterolemic condition by using immunohistochemical technique. A total of twenty male Wistar rats were used for this study. Those rats were divided into two groups; (i) control group and (ii) hypercholesterolemic group, which were fed died containing 1% cholesterol for eight weeks. Rat livers were taken at the end of treatment, and processed by using paraffin embedding standard method. The tissues were stained immunohistochemically to Cu,Zn-SOD. Observation of Cu,Zn-SOD content in the tissue was performed qualitatively in the cytoplasm and quantitatively in the nucleus of hepatocytes based on colour intensity of enzyme reaction product. The profile of antioxidant-Cu,Zn-SOD decreased (P < 0.05) in the hypercholesterolemic group compared to the control group.
Superoxide Dismutase: Therapeutic Targets in SOD Related Pathology  [PDF]
Filip Cristiana, Albu Elena, Zamosteanu Nina
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.610123
Abstract: There are growing evidences on the role of adaptive mechanisms of all cell types in pathological processes: atherosclerosis, ischemic attack, bacterial infections, etc. All kinds of these processes involve as main mechanism oxidative stress. Aerobic organisms use oxygen in processes that accidentally or deliberately generate aggressive species for the biologic components in the form of radicals. Radicals were looked initially as “harmful” molecules and this is true for large quantities but in small or even moderate amounts these molecules prove to have a physiological role. Reactive species are highly reactive and as a consequence are short living species. Their impact is supposed to be limited in the proximity area of their formation. Instead recent evidences indicate their implications in cellular signaling suggesting that individual chemical properties of reactive species make a difference in their biological role. This paper presents superoxide, nitric oxide and peroxide radical generation under cellular changing conditions, the adapting behavior of the enzymes that synthesize and remove them as well as some therapeutic target in superoxide related pathology.
GroESL protects superoxide dismutase (SOD)— Deficient cells against oxidative stress and is a chaperone for SOD  [PDF]
Gary J. Hunter, Thérèse Hunter
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510232

Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-deficient Escherichia coli OX326Acells are protected against chemically-induced oxidative stress by expression of the chaperonin GroESL. This protection is equivalent to expression of superoxide dismutase even though GroESL has no inherent SOD activity. Co-overexpression of GroESL and SOD in the same cells results in higher protein yields of SOD and greater metallation of SOD when compared with expression of SOD alone. Greater metallation results in the higher specific activity of SOD that is observed in heat shock, and is not due to increased synthesis of SOD mRNA or protein.

The Effect of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Liver of Hypercholesterolemic Rats  [PDF]
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2008,
Abstract: Intracellular antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reported decreased in the liver and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study was conducted to observe the effect of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii powder on the profile of blood cholesterol and the level of SOD in liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats by using immunohistochemical technique. Twenty male Wistar rats were used for this study. Those rats were divided into four groups; (i) negative control group (A), (ii) hypercholesterolemia group treated by 5% seaweed powder (B), (iii) hypercholesterolemia group treated by 10% seaweed powder (C), and (iv) Positive control group or hypercholesterolemia group (D). The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Hypercholesterolemia condition (> 130 mg/dl), except group A, was achieved by feeding the rats with commercial diet containing 1% cholesterol. Drinking water was given ad libitum for 40 days. The results showed that seaweed powder decreased the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, and increased the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and SOD status in the liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats. The treatment of 10% seaweed powder gave better results than that of 5%. These results suggested that dietary fiber such in the seaweed powder has antioxidant activity.
Tutik Wresdiyati1),Made Astawan2),Deddy Muchtadi2),Yana Nurdiana2)
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan , 2007,
Abstract: Stress condition has beeb reported to decrease intracellular antioxidant-superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the liver and kidney of rats. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activies of ginger oleoresin on the profile of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the kidney of rats under stress condition. The stress condition was achieved by five days of fasting together with swimming for 5 min/day. Ginger oleoresin was orally administrated in a dose of 60 mg/KgBW/day for seven days. Drinking water was provided ad libitum to all groups. The treatment of ginger oleoresin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD activity, as well as immunohistochemicall, increased the content of copper, zinc-SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) in the kidney tissues compared to that of untreated group. The antioxidant content in ginger oleoresin such as shogaol, zingeron, and gingerol, etc. were shownto have activities in the kidney tissues of rats under stress condition that is increasunf the profile of SOD. Ginger oleoresin treatment in combination both before and after stress gave the best result.
The subunit composition of human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) regulate enzymatic activity
Steen V Petersen, Zuzana Valnickova, Tim D Oury, James D Crapo, Niels Chr Nielsen, Jan J Enghild
BMC Biochemistry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2091-8-19
Abstract: The analyses of EC-SOD purified from human tissue show that all three dimer combinations exist including two homo-dimers (aa and ii) and a hetero-dimer (ai). Because EC-SOD is a tetramer the dimers may combine to generate 5 different mature EC-SOD molecules where the specific activity of each molecule is determined by the ratio of aEC-SOD and iEC-SOD subunits.This finding shows that the aEC-SOD and iEC-SOD subunits combine in all 3 possible ways supporting the presence of tetrameric enzymes with variable enzymatic activity. This variation in enzymatic potency may regulate the antioxidant level in the extracellular space and represent a novel way of modulating enzymatic activity.Superoxide dismutase enzymes (SOD; EC are a family of metalloenzymes that converts the superoxide radical to hydrogen peroxide and water. Two copper/zinc-containing isoforms of SOD exists in mammals including Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) located in intracellular compartments [1-3] and extracellular SOD (EC-SOD; SOD3) found predominantly in the extracellular matrix of tissues [4-7]. Cu/Zn-SOD is a 32 kDa homo-dimer [8,9], whereas EC-SOD is a 135 kDa tetrameric glycoprotein with regional amino acid sequence homology to Cu/Zn-SOD [10,11]. The N-terminal region of EC-SOD is involved in hydrophobic inter-subunit interactions stabilizing the EC-SOD tetramer [12,13]. The importance of these interactions has been emphasized by the finding that the dimeric rat EC-SOD [14], is converted to a tetramer by substituting a hydrophilic residue (Asp) within the N-terminal region for a hydrophobic one (Val) [15]. In addition, the reverse substitution converted tetrameric mouse EC-SOD into a dimer. The C-terminal region of EC-SOD contains a cluster of basic amino acid residues [11] with affinity for heparin/heparan sulfate [16,17] and type I collagen [18,19]. We have previously shown, that this region can be proteolytically removed before secretion in a two-step process involving both an endoproteinase and a carb
Effects of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (sod1) Genotype and Genetic Background on Growth, Reproduction and Defense in Biomphalaria glabrata  [PDF]
Kaitlin M. Bonner ,Christopher J. Bayne,Maureen K. Larson,Michael S. Blouin
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001701
Abstract: Resistance of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to the trematode Schistosoma mansoni is correlated with allelic variation at copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod1). We tested whether there is a fitness cost associated with carrying the most resistant allele in three outbred laboratory populations of snails. These three populations were derived from the same base population, but differed in average resistance. Under controlled laboratory conditions we found no cost of carrying the most resistant allele in terms of fecundity, and a possible advantage in terms of growth and mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to drive resistant alleles of sod1 into natural populations of the snail vector for the purpose of controlling transmission of S. mansoni. However, we did observe a strong effect of genetic background on the association between sod1 genotype and resistance. sod1 genotype explained substantial variance in resistance among individuals in the most resistant genetic background, but had little effect in the least resistant genetic background. Thus, epistatic interactions with other loci may be as important a consideration as costs of resistance in the use of sod1 for vector manipulation.
Ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in heterozygotes for Wilson disease: A case control study
Gudlaug Tórsdóttir, Grétar Gudmundsson, Jakob Kristinsson, Jón Snaedal, Torkell Jóhannesson
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S4360
Abstract: uloplasmin and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in heterozygotes for Wilson disease: A case control study Rapid Communication (2958) Total Article Views Authors: Gudlaug Tórsdóttir, Grétar Gudmundsson, Jakob Kristinsson, Jón Snaedal, Torkell Jóhannesson Published Date March 2009 Volume 2009:5 Pages 55 - 59 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S4360 Gudlaug Tórsdóttir1,2, Grétar Gudmundsson3, Jakob Kristinsson1, Jón Snaedal2, Torkell Jóhannesson1 1Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland; 2Department of Geriatrics; 3Department of Neurology, Landspítali – University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland Abstract: At the time of this study, there were five known patients with Wilson disease (WD) in Iceland. The mutation, a 7-bp deletion in exon 7 on chromosome 13 for WD, is only known in Iceland. In twenty healthy Icelandic heterozygotes for WD and their age- and gender-matched controls, copper concentration in plasma, ceruloplasmin (CP) concentration, CP oxidative activity and CP-specific oxidative activity in serum and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) activity in erythrocytes were determined. The same determinations were done on the five WD patients. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the heterozygotes and the controls, although an inclination toward lower CP determinations and higher SOD1 activity in the heterozygotes was noted. As expected the WD patients were low on the copper and CP parameters, but their SOD1 activity was within the upper normal range. In conclusion, the CP parameters and SOD1 activity are within the normal range in Icelandic heterozygotes for WD, although with a trend toward mild dyshomeostasis. This may indicate subclinical copper retention in the heterozygotes, but a bigger study group is needed to confirm this.
Cytosolic Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Is Critical for Tolerating the Oxidative Stress of Zinc Deficiency in Yeast  [PDF]
Chang-Yi Wu, Janet Steffen, David J. Eide
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007061
Abstract: Zinc deficiency causes oxidative stress in many organisms including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies of this yeast indicated that the Tsa1 peroxiredoxin is required for optimal growth in low zinc because of its role in degrading H2O2. In this report, we assessed the importance of other antioxidant genes to zinc-limited growth. Our results indicated that the cytosolic superoxide dismutase Sod1 is also critical for growth under zinc-limiting conditions. We also found that Ccs1, the copper-delivering chaperone required for Sod1 activity is essential for optimal zinc-limited growth. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the important roles these proteins play under this condition. It has been proposed previously that a loss of Sod1 activity due to inefficient metallation is one source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under zinc-limiting conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that both the level and activity of Sod1 is diminished in zinc-deficient cells. However, under conditions in which Sod1 was overexpressed in zinc-limited cells and activity was restored, we observed no decrease in ROS levels. Thus, these data indicate that while Sod1 activity is critical for low zinc growth, diminished Sod1 activity is not a major source of the elevated ROS observed under these conditions.
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) as a protective factor for risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
R. P. Bowler,J. Hokanson,M. Taylor,S. Levy
European Respiratory Review , 2006,
Abstract: Tobacco smoke contains a high concentration of oxidants and is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is the major antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space of the lung and is part of the lung defense against these oxidants. We hypothesized that EC-SOD is a risk factor for COPD. We found that EC-SOD plasma levels were significantly higher (p<0.001) in 337 patients with COPD (147±7 ng·ml–1) versus 343 controls (96±9 ng·ml–1) and that lower FEV1s were associated with lower EC-SOD levels. To identify whether the EC-SOD gene was associated with COPD, we resequenced a subset of 188 subjects and identified 33 novel SNPs. Two of these SNPs (rs8192287 and rs8192288) were associated with a reduced odds of having COPD (OR 0.05 and 0.34; P<0.05). Haplotype analysis using a total of 5 EC-SOD SNPs (Table 1) further identified a protective haplotype (TTCGC) that was found in 11.4% of controls, but only 2.1% of subjects with COPD (P<0.001). These data indicate that EC-SOD genotype may partially predict whether smokers are resistant to the effects smoking.
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