Abstract:
A model in which two weakly coupled systems maintain opposite running thermodynamic arrows of time is exhibited. Each experiences its own retarded electromagnetic interaction and can be seen by the other. The possibility of opposite-arrow systems at stellar distances is explored and a relation to dark matter suggested.

Abstract:
We present a quantum model for the motion of N point particles, implying nonlocal (i.e., superluminal) influences of external fields on the trajectories, that is nonetheless fully relativistic. In contrast to other models that have been proposed, this one involves no additional space-time structure as would be provided by a (possibly dynamical) foliation of space-time. This is achieved through the interplay of opposite microcausal and macrocausal (i.e., thermodynamic) arrows of time.

Abstract:
Antiparticles may be interpreted as ordinary particles travelling backwards in time and the two descriptions are considered equivalent, at least in special relativity and relativistic quantum mechanics. It is suggested that, vice versa, the discovery of antimatter should be the confirmation that our world is "endowed" with two opposite time-arrows and such a description could be more useful and convenient from the point of view of the understanding of the world itself, at least for a simple reason: whenever phenomena are observed from a "reference frame" from which the world appears more symmetric, it is easier to understand the physical laws which regulate it. If, in the future, it is possible to discover how a macroscopic system of antimatter behaves, it will be also possible to confirm (or not) the "reality" of the two arrows of time.

Abstract:
The familiar textbook quantum mechanics of laboratory measurements incorporates a quantum mechanical arrow of time --- the direction in time in which state vector reduction operates. This arrow is usually assumed to coincide with the direction of the thermodynamic arrow of the quasiclassical realm of everyday experience. But in the more general context of cosmology we seek an explanation of all observed arrows, and the relations between them, in terms of the conditions that specify our particular universe. This paper investigates quantum mechanical and thermodynamic arrows in a time-neutral formulation of quantum mechanics for a number of model cosmologies in fixed background spacetimes. We find that a general universe may not have well defined arrows of either kind. When arrows are emergent they need not point in the same direction over the whole of spacetime. Rather they may be local, pointing in different directions in different spacetime regions. Local arrows can therefore be consistent with global time symmetry.

Abstract:
The only widely accepted explanation for the various arrows of time that everywhere and at all epochs point in the same direction is the `past hypothesis': the Universe had a very special low-entropy initial state. We present the first evidence for an alternative conjecture: the arrows exist in all solutions of the gravitational law that governs the Universe and arise because the space of its true degrees of freedom (shape space) is asymmetric. We prove our conjecture for arrows of complexity and information in the Newtonian N-body problem. Except for a set of measure zero, all of its solutions for non-negative energy divide at a uniquely defined point into two halves. In each a well-defined measure of complexity fluctuates but grows irreversibly between rising bounds from that point. Structures that store dynamical information are created as the complexity grows. Recognition of the division is a key novelty of our approach. Each solution can be viewed as having a single past and two distinct futures emerging from it. Any internal observer must be in one half of the solution and will only be aware of one past and one future. The `paradox' of a time-symmetric law that leads to observationally irreversible behaviour is fully resolved. General Relativity shares enough architectonic structure with the N-body problem for us to prove the existence of analogous complexity arrows in the vacuum Bianchi IX model. In the absence of non-trivial solutions with matter we cannot prove that arrows of dynamical information will arise in GR, though they have in our Universe. Finally, we indicate how the other arrows of time could arise.

Abstract:
I examine two cosmological scenarios in which the thermodynamic arrow of time points in opposite directions in the asymptotic past and future. The first scenario, suggested by Aguirre and Gratton, assumes that the two asymptotic regions are separated by a de Sitter-like bounce, with low-entropy boundary conditions imposed at the bounce. Such boundary conditions naturally arise from quantum cosmology with Hartle-Hawking wave function of the universe. The bounce hypersurface breaks de Sitter invariance and represents the beginning of the universe in this model. The second scenario, proposed by Carroll and Chen, assumes some generic initial conditions on an infinite spacelike Cauchy surface. They argue that the resulting spacetime will be non-singular, apart from black holes that could be formed as the initial data is evolved, and will exhibit eternal inflation in both time directions. Here I show, assuming the null convergence condition, that the Cauchy surface in a non-singular (apart from black holes) universe with two asymptotically inflating regions must necessarily be compact. I also argue that the size of the universe at the bounce between the two asymptotic regions cannot much exceed the de Sitter horizon. The spacetime structure is then very similar to that in the Aguirre-Gratton scenario and does require special boundary conditions at the bounce. If cosmological singularities are allowed, then an infinite Cauchy surface with `random' initial data will generally produce inflating regions in both time directions. These regions, however, will be surrounded by singularities and will have singularities in their past or future.

Abstract:
Two approaches toward the arrow of time for scattering processes have been proposed in rigged Hilbert space quantum mechanics. One, due to Arno Bohm, involves preparations and registrations in laboratory operations and results in two semigroups oriented in the forward direction of time. The other, employed by the Brussels-Austin group, is more general, involving excitations and de-excitations of systems, and apparently results in two semigroups oriented in opposite directions of time. It turns out that these two time arrows can be related to each other via Wigner's extensions of the spacetime symmetry group. Furthermore, their are subtle differences in causality as well as the possibilities for the existence and creation of time-reversed states depending on which time arrow is chosen.

Abstract:
The relation between the thermodynamical and cosmological arrows of time is usually viewed in the context of the initial conditions of the Universe. It is a necessary but not sufficient condition for ensuring the thermodynamical arrow. We point out that in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe with negative curvature, k=-1, there is the second necessary ingredient. It is based on the geodesic mixing - the dynamical instability of motion along null geodesics in hyperbolic space. Kolmogorov (algorithmic) complexity as a universal and experimentally measurable concept can be very useful in description of this chaotic behavior using the data on Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. The formulated {\it curvature anthropic principle} states the negative curvature as a necessary condition for the time asymmetric Universe with an observer.

Abstract:
Arrows of time - thermodynamical, cosmological, electromagnetic, quantum mechanical, psychological - are basic properties of Nature. For a quantum system-bath closed system the de-correlated initial conditions and no-memory (Markovian) dynamics are outlined as necessary conditions for the appearance of the thermodynamical arrow. The emergence of the arrow for the system evolving according to non-unitary dynamics due to the presence of the bath, then, is a result of limited observability, and we conjecture the arrow in the observable Universe as determined by the dark sector acting as a bath. The voids in the large scale matter distribution induce hyperbolicity of the null geodesics, with possible observational consequences.