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Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: achievements and challenges to current knowledge
Murray,Megan; Nardell,Edward;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000600013
Abstract: over the past 10 years, molecular methods have become available with which to strain-type mycobacterium tuberculosis. they have allowed researchers to study certain important but previously unresolved issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (tb). for example, some unsuspected microepidemics have been revealed and it has been shown that the relative contribution of recently acquired disease to the tb burden in many settings is far greater than had been thought. these findings have led to the strengthening of tb control. other research has demonstrated the existence and described the frequency of exogenous reinfection in areas of high incidence. much recent work has focused on the phenotypic variation among strains and has evaluated the relative transmissibility, virulence, and immunogenicity of different lineages of the organism. we summarize the recent achievements in tb epidemiology associated with the introduction of dna fingerprinting techniques, and consider the implications of this technology for the design and analysis of epidemiological studies.
Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: achievements and challenges to current knowledge  [cached]
Murray Megan,Nardell Edward
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: Over the past 10 years, molecular methods have become available with which to strain-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They have allowed researchers to study certain important but previously unresolved issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). For example, some unsuspected microepidemics have been revealed and it has been shown that the relative contribution of recently acquired disease to the TB burden in many settings is far greater than had been thought. These findings have led to the strengthening of TB control. Other research has demonstrated the existence and described the frequency of exogenous reinfection in areas of high incidence. Much recent work has focused on the phenotypic variation among strains and has evaluated the relative transmissibility, virulence, and immunogenicity of different lineages of the organism. We summarize the recent achievements in TB epidemiology associated with the introduction of DNA fingerprinting techniques, and consider the implications of this technology for the design and analysis of epidemiological studies.
Database Research: Achievements and Challenges
Shan Wang,Xiao-Yong Du,Xiao-Feng Meng,Hong Chen,
Shan Wang
,Xiao-Yong Du,Xiao-Feng Meng,and Hong Chen

计算机科学技术学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Database system is the infrastructure of the modern information system. The R&D in the database system and its technologies is one of the important research topics in the field. The database R&D in China took off later but it moves along by giant steps. This report presents the achievements Renmin University of China (RUC) has made in the past 25 years and at the same time addresses some of the research projects we, RUC, are currently working on. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supports and initiates most of our research projects and these successfully conducted projects have produced fruitful results.
The Achievements and Challenges of Silicon Photonics  [PDF]
Richard Soref
Advances in Optical Technologies , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/472305
Abstract: A brief overview of silicon photonics is given here in order to provide a context for invited and contributed papers in this special issue. Recent progress on silicon-based photonic components, photonic integrated circuits, and optoelectronic integrated circuits is surveyed. Present and potential applications are identified along with the scientific and engineering challenges that must be met in order to actualize applications. Some on-going government-sponsored projects in silicon optoelectronics are also described.
Quantum Gravity phenomenology: achievements and challenges  [PDF]
Stefano Liberati,Luca Maccione
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/314/1/012007
Abstract: Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by $O(E^{2}/\Mpl^{2})$ and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks.
Communicable Diseases: Achievements and Challenges for Public Health  [cached]
Schlipk?ter Ursula,Flahault Antoine
Public Health Reviews , 2010,
Abstract: The past two centuries have seen enormous achievements in control of infectious diseases, previously the leading cause of death, in large measure due to sanitation and food safety, vaccines, antibiotics and improved nutrition. This has led people to put their faith in the notion that medical science would succeed in overcoming the remaining obstacles. Vaccination has eradicated smallpox, nearly eradicated poliomyelitis and greatly reduced many other highly dangerous infections such as diphtheria, tetanus and measles. New diseases such as HIV and new forms of influenza have taken both professional and popular opinion by surprise and have renewed the challenges before the world public health community. Emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of common organisms due to overuse of antibiotics and lack of vaccines for many dangerous microorganisms poses problems to humanity. This stresses the need for new vaccines, effective antibiotics and strengthened environmental control measures. New knowledge of the microbiological origins of cancers such as that of the cervix, stomach and liver have strengthened primary prevention and brought hope that new cures will be found for other chronic diseases of infectious origin. Tragically long delays in adopting “new” and cost effective vaccines cause hundreds of thousands of preventable deaths each year in developing and mid-level developed countries. Gains are being made in control of many tropical diseases, but malaria, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases remain enormous global problems. Research and acquisition of new knowledge, risk communication, application of currently available means and fair distribution will be great challenges to public health in the coming decades.
Malawi's contribution to "3 by 5": achievements and challenges
Libamba,Edwin; Makombe,Simon D; Harries,Anthony D; Schouten,Erik J; Yu,Joseph Kwong-Leung; Pasulani,Olesi; Mhango,Eustice; Aberle-Grasse,John; Hochgesang,Mindy; Limbambala,Eddie; Lungu,Douglas;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862007000200015
Abstract: problem: many resource-poor countries have started scaling up antiretroviral therapy (art). while reports from individual clinics point to successful implementation, there is limited information about progress in government institutions at a national level. approach: malawi started national art scale-up in 2004 using a structured approach. there is a focus on one generic, fixed-dose combination treatment with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. treatment is delivered free of charge to eligible patients with hiv and there is a standardized system for recruiting patients, monthly follow-up, registration, monitoring and reporting of cases and outcomes. all treatment sites receive quarterly supervision and evaluation. local setting: in january 2004, there were nine public sector facilities delivering art to an estimated 4 000 patients. by december 2005, there were 60 public sector facilities providing free art to 37 840 patients using national standardized systems. analysis of quarterly cohort treatment outcomes at 12 months showed 80% of patients were alive, 10% dead, 9% lost to follow-up and 1% had stopped treatment. lessons learned: achievements were the result of clear national art guidelines, implementing partners working together, an intensive training schedule focused on clinical officers and nurses, a structured system of accrediting facilities for art delivery, quarterly supervision and monitoring, and no stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs. the main challenges are to increase the numbers of children, pregnant women and patients with tuberculosis being started on art, and to avert high early mortality and losses to follow-up. the capacity of the health sector to cope with escalating case loads and to scale up prevention alongside treatment will determine the future success of art delivery in malawi.
Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges
Riccardo Dalle Grave, Simona Calugi, Elena Centis, et al
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S13860
Abstract: tyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges Review (5121) Total Article Views Authors: Riccardo Dalle Grave, Simona Calugi, Elena Centis, et al Published Date November 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 373 - 385 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S13860 Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini2 1Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR), Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges
Machens, Andreas;Dralle, Henning;
Clinics , 2012, DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2012(Sup01)19
Abstract: incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. this principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. this review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and dna-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i) ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated dna-based/biochemical concept; (ii) our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. with familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. this is when dna-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. however, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. in this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.
Achievements, challenges and perspectives of financial decentralization in Bulgaria
Desislava Stoilova
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2010,
Abstract: The process of gradual administrative and political decentralization in Bulgaria started in 1991, but the real financial decentralization process started in the beginning of 2003 with the adoption of a comparatively clear expenditure assignment and introduction of a transparent and predictable intergovernmental transfer system. Step by step, local governments have been given full control over some of the own-source revenues (local fees, service prices and revenues from municipal asset management) and limited control over the local tax levy. This study is intended to examine and critically analyze the financial decentralization reform in Bulgaria, outlining the key achievements and basic weaknesses of expenditure assignment, local taxation and intergovernmental fiscal relations. The results indicate that local governments gradually became powerful component of the public sector. Although reducing financial resources of the public sector, worldwide economic and financial crisis can turn into an opportunity for some of the local governments in the country to gain financial independence and concentrate the efforts on strengthening local tax capacity.
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