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Growth and convergence/divergence in productivity under balance-of-payments constraint
Pérez Caldentey, Esteban;Ali, Anesa;
Investigación económica , 2011,
Abstract: this paper presents a model of convergence/divergence in productivity for two economies of different size and development building on kaldor's cumulative causation and the technological gap approaches to growth. both operate within the logic provided by a balance-of-payments constraint framework. the more developed and larger economy, the leader, is technologically more advanced with higher levels of productivity and issues the international reserve currency. the developing economy, the follower, is closely linked to the leader economy and is balance-of-payments-constrained (bpc). the paper argues that the growth of the leader has at the same time divergent and convergent effects on the productivity gap between both economies. the divergent effect (the kaldor effect) works through a process of induced productivity and cumulative causation. the convergent effect (thirlwall's law) works through the bpc constraint. the model states that growth with convergence in productivity requires that the ratio of export to import income elasticities of the follower economy exceeds the ratio of the induced productivity of the leader economy to that of the follower economy. the paper then highlights the difficulty of achieving convergence under a bpc constraint and provides policy implications.
Growth and convergence/divergence in productivity under balance-of-payments constraint  [cached]
Esteban Pérez Caldentey,Anesa Ali
Investigación económica , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents a model of convergence/divergence in productivity for two economies of different size and development. More precisely the model postulates the existence of leader and follower economies. The leader has higher levels of productivity and is technologically more advanced. The follower economy is closely linked to the leader economy. Finally, the leader economy issues the international reserve currency.
Productivity growth and technological progress in the Brazilian agricultural sector
Pereira, Marcelo Farid;Silveira, Jo?o Serafim Tusi da;Lanzer, Edgar Augusto;Samohyl, Robert Wayne;
Pesquisa Operacional , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-74382002000200003
Abstract: starting in the 1970's, the brazilian agricultural sector has experienced an important process of modernization, whose principal effects include advances in technological progress and gains in productivity. the primary objective of this paper is to analyze technological progress and total productivity growth in the brazilian agricultural sector during the period from 1970 to 1996. the methodology used here is based on the malmquist productivity index and techniques in mathematical programming called data envelopment analysis. the results show that significant progress was made in this sector of the economy but concentrated in only some regions of the country.
Productivity growth and technological progress in the Brazilian agricultural sector  [cached]
Pereira Marcelo Farid,Silveira Jo?o Serafim Tusi da,Lanzer Edgar Augusto,Samohyl Robert Wayne
Pesquisa Operacional , 2002,
Abstract: Starting in the 1970's, the Brazilian agricultural sector has experienced an important process of modernization, whose principal effects include advances in technological progress and gains in productivity. The primary objective of this paper is to analyze technological progress and total productivity growth in the Brazilian agricultural sector during the period from 1970 to 1996. The methodology used here is based on the Malmquist productivity index and techniques in mathematical programming called Data Envelopment Analysis. The results show that significant progress was made in this sector of the economy but concentrated in only some regions of the country.
Processes of convergence/divergence of labour productivity in agriculture of the European Union – regional analysis
Agnieszka Baer-Nawrocka,Natalia Markiewicz
Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development , 2012,
Abstract: The main aim of the article is to evaluate whether the process of convergence of labour productivity in the EU regions can be observed. The analysis concerned 212 EU regions at NUTS 2 level. The σ convergence coefficient has been calculated, in order to assess the labour productivity differentiation among EU regions. The analysis proved that the processes of convergence of labour productivity (measured by gross value added per one employed) in EU regions may be observed in years 2000-2008. Despite positive changes, the differences between EU-12 and EU-15 regions are still significant. The results demonstrate the need for further changes in agricultural and production structures. This is particularly important in terms of the competitiveness of the agriculture of these countries in the international market.
Climate changes and technological advances: impacts on sugarcane productivity in tropical southern Brazil
Gouvêa, Júlia Ribeiro Ferreira;Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar;Gazzola, Samuel Thomazella;Santos, Marcelo Cabral;
Scientia Agricola , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162009000500003
Abstract: the climatic projections for this century indicate the possibility of severe consequences for human beings, especially for agriculture where adverse effects to productivity of crops and to agribusiness as a whole may occur. an agrometeorological model was used to estimate sugarcane yield in tropical southern brazil, based on future a1b climatic scenarios presented in the fourth intergovernmental panel on climate change report, in 2007. sugarcane yield was evaluated for 2020, 2050, and 2080 considering the possible impacts caused by changes in temperature, precipitation, sunshine hours and co2 concentration in the atmosphere, as well as technological advances. increasingly higher temperatures will cause an increase of the potential productivity (pp), since this variable positively affects the efficiency of the photosynthetic processes of c4 plants. changes in solar radiation and rainfall, however, will have less impact. pp will increase by 15% in relation to the present condition in 2020, by 33% in 2050 and by 47% in 2080. regarding the actual productivities (ap), the increase observed in pp will compensate for the negative effect of the projected increase in water deficit. ap will increase by 12% in relation to the present condition in 2020, by 32% in 2050 and by 47% in 2080. the increase in sugarcane productivity resulting from the projected scenarios will have important impacts on the sugarcane sector.
Labour Productivity Growth and Convergence in the EU : The Role of Physical and Human Capital Accumulation
Ma Mar Salinas Jiménez,Ma Jesús Delgado-Rodríguez,Inmaculada álvarez Ayuso
Economic Analysis Working Papers , 2005,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyse labour productivity growth and convergence in the EU-15 countries between 1980 and 1997. Adopting a production frontier approach, labour productivity growth is broken down into components attributable to efficiency change, technological progress and capital accumulation. Furthermore, in the spirit of the Quah's approach, the dynamics of the distribution of labour productivity is also analysed. Our results show that physical and human capital accumulation appears to be the main force driving the labour productivity growth and convergence processes experienced by the European economies during these years. On the other hand, we observe that some problems appear in the EU-15 in terms of Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth.
Labor Productivity Growth, Education, Health and Technological Progress: A Cross-Country Analysis  [PDF]
Supachet Chansarn
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2010,
Abstract: This study aims to calculate the growth rates of labor productivity of 30 countries categorized into four groups, including G7 countries, western developed countries, eastern developed countries and eastern developing countries, during 1981 – 2005 and examine the influences of education, health and technological progress on the growth rate of labor productivity. The findings reveal that the growth rates of labor productivity of every country, except the Philippines, were greater than four percent per annum during 1981 – 2005. Eastern developed countries had the highest average annual growth rate of labor productivity, following by western developed countries, G7 countries and eastern developing countries. Additionally, only education and technological progress are the significant determinants of the growth rate of labor productivity.
ON THE DETERMINANTS OF CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE PROCESSES IN SPAIN  [cached]
Leone Leonida,Daniel Montolio
Investigaciones Económicas , 2004,
Abstract: This paper studies the dynamics of convergence and divergence in Spain over the period 1965-1995. We analyse the evolution of the per capita income distribution across Spanish provinces and estimate the e ects on this evolution of factors such as private, human and public capital, and an industrialisation index. We show that after a period of absolute convergence over the 1960s and early 1970s, the provinces polarised (club convergence) during the 1980s. This polarisation process preceded a period of divergence among clubs, which began to appear during the 1990s. By estimating counterfactual densities, we show that private capital accumulation and education at graduate level can account for a relevant fraction of the actual dispersion and polarisation of incomes. We also find that public capital has reduced inequalities, especially in recent years, through redistribution of incomes rather than by increasing productivity.
Attributes of standstill as indicator of productivity of cabotage in the portuary operation in Manaus [paper in Portuguese]  [cached]
José Teixeira de Araújo N. Santos,Poliana Cardoso,Márcia Helena Veleda Moita
Journal of Transport Literature , 2011,
Abstract: The Companies settled at PIM - Polo Industrial de Manaus demand from an efficient logistic system so that their products are competitive in the Global Market. The productivity of the logistic system of these companies is based on the ports that represent the main element of the supply chain. The port performance, either the TUP - Terminais de Uso Misto Privativo and the Public Port in Manaus, are as in the following, related to the national average. This article seeks to identify the main attributes of standstill and its influence over the productivity in the cabotage of portuary operation. The expression attribute of standstill refers to the motive in which the ship stopped its operation in the terminal, these standstills correspond to 46% of the raw time of operation. The result obtained, from the importance of the attribute, indicates that the shipowner (48%) is the responsible for the standstills in the operation and the line of regression shows that the index of the attribute changes linearly the behavior of the productivity in the operation.
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