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Cowdung and Poultry Litter as Soil Amendments and Extracts of Garlic and Pepper as Insecticides on Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Production in the Nigerian Savanna  [PDF]
J.O. Ogunwole,J.O. Atabo,D.T. Yaro,A.B. Lawal
Journal of Agronomy , 2005,
Abstract: The long-term sustainability of cotton-based systems is at risk in the Nigerian savanna because of its environmental effects. Presently, policies aimed at addressing the problems of soil fertility decline and insecticide contamination are being advanced. The effects of two organic materials (i.e. cowdung and poultry litter) as soil amendments and, two others (extracts of garlic and west African black pepper) as insecticidal materials on soil physical properties and upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) productivity were compared with the conventional method (mineral fertiliser and synthetic insecticide) in a 2 year field trial on a savanna Alfisols. Seed cotton yield under mineral fertiliser amendment was about 30% higher than were yields from the two organic amendments. However, the cotton lint yield from the three amendments were similar. Seed cotton, cotton seed and lint yields were similar for cotton that received garlic extract and karate (synthetic insecticide). Cotton sprayed with extract of west African black pepper produced significantly higher seed cotton and cotton lint yield than the synthetic insecticide. The treatments had no significant effect on soil physical properties. This result further confirms the usefulness of organic cotton cultivation, a viable alternative to the conventional method of cotton production in the savanna.
Haematological and Biochemical Indices of Growing Lambs Fed Fore-Stomach Digesta and Poultry Litter Waste
A Aruwayo, SA Maigandi, BS Malami, AI Daneji
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Haematological values and blood urea nitrogen levels of growing Uda lambs fed forestomach digesta (FSD) and poultry litter waste (PLW) were studied. The experimental animals were randomly allotted (n=4/treatments) to diets A (20% FSD), B (20% PLW), C (10% each of FSD and PLW), D (6.67% FSD and 13.33% PLW) and E (13.33% FSD and 6.67% PLW). The experiment lasted for 84 days. Blood samples were collected prior to and after the feeding trial for haematological and blood urea nitrogen determination. Initial packed cell volume and final red blood cell counts were not significantly different between treatments (P>0.05). Initial haemoglobin concentration (HB) was similar (P>0.05) to those on treatments A, C, D, and E while final HB concentration was similar (P>0.05) for those on treatments B, C, and E. Initial and final values of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were not significantly different (P>0.05) for all treatments. There were no traces of eosinophils at the end of the feeding trial while monocyte counts were not significantly different (P>0.05) at the beginning and end of the feeding trial. Total protein showed no significant difference in all the treatments at initial and final collections of blood. Similar results were observed for albumin and globulin concentrations. Haematological values and blood urea nitrogen were within normal values; indicating that there was no toxicity associated with the feeding of FSD and PLW alone or in mixtures to growing lambs. It was concluded that the test diets were not toxic to animals based on the haematological indices and blood biochemical parameters which were within recommended values. Key Words: Lambs, Fore-Stomach Digesta, Poultry Litter Waste
Study on the Use of Dried Poultry Litter in the Camel's Ration  [PDF]
Abdel-Baset Nasr Sayed,Abbas Seif Fathy
Veterinary Research Forum , 2010,
Abstract: A feeding trial of 120 days duration was conducted to study the effect of replacing 20 and 25 % of camel ration by poultry litter (PL) on the performance and some blood biochemical parameters. Fifteen healthy one–humped camels were allotted into three groups (5 animals / group). The first group was fed a basal ration and considered as control, while the second and third groups were fed rations in which poultry litter replaced 20 and 25 % of the basal ration. There was no significant differences in the dry matter intake and digestion coefficients of dry matter and ether extract between the different groups and camels fed on ration containing poultry litter had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased daily gain and feed conversion compared to the control. The apparent digestibility of crude protein by camels increased with 20 % poultry litter in the ration compared with other treatments. Digestibility of crude fibre was higher in rations containing poultry litter compared to control one. No significant differences were observed in blood biochemical parameters except urea and uric acid concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the serum of animals fed on poultry litter.In general, it could be concluded that, dried poultry litter can be utilized efficiently and safely in rations of camels up to a level of 25 % without adversely effect on performance.
Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter
C.C. Mitchell,H.A. Torbert,T.S. Kornecki,T.W. Tyson
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012,
Abstract: Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage are needed to encourage more use of poultry litter on cropland, but these methods must be environmentally sound. Two separate studies were initiated to examine alternative methods of litter storage. Treatments included: No litter, litter covered with 6-mil polyethylene plastic, litter covered with commercially available HayGard fabric, an uncovered pile, an uncovered, cone-shaped pile and an uncovered pile treated with a Polyacrylamide (PAM) to prevent water infiltration. Factors studied included litter quality and nutrient runoff. In both studies, the uncovered piles absorbed rainfall but also dried out on the surface rather rapidly in the spring. They also resulted in much higher runoff of ammonium-N, both total and soluble P and all other measured runoff parameters. Covered litter was wet on the surface from condensation under the cover, but generally resulted in less runoff of nutrients and maintained its fertilizer nutrient concentration. Exposed litter rapidly decomposed due to the wetting and drying effect. All litter apparently lost some mass although this was observed and not measured. Results indicate that dry broiler litter must be covered in order to protect litter quality and to prevent extensive nutrient runoff.
Superabsorbent Polymers as a Poultry Litter Amendment  [PDF]
Jennifer R. Timmons,Jeannine M. Harter-Dennis
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: Ammonia volatilization from poultry litter commonly causes a buildup of ammonia in the atmosphere of chicken houses that can have a negative impact on both farm workers and birds. The release of ammonia from poultry houses can also contribute to environmental problems such as atmospheric haze. The most widely accepted management strategy to control ammonia volatilization from poultry houses is the use of litter amendments that are added to the litter. The poultry industry routinely uses dry acids such as aluminum sulfate and sodium bisulfate to reduce ammonia emissions inside the poultry house. Although these products are very effective in controlling ammonia release in poultry houses, they typically only work for about the first three weeks of the grow-out period, after which time litter pH and ammonia levels will begin to rise. As a result, these litter amendments must be reapplied prior to the placement of new chicks in order for ammonia levels to continually remain low. Therefore this research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative product for long-term control of ammonia release in poultry houses. This research investigated the efficacy of a single application of superabsorbent polymers to poultry litter for long term in-house ammonia control which could reduce the negative impacts of ammonia on bird health and performance and potentially the environment.
Proximate Composition of Heat Treated Poultry Litter (Layers)  [PDF]
O.J. Owen,E.M. Ngodigha,A.O. Amakiri
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: Proximate composition was conducted to investigate the nutrient quality of heat treated poultry litter. The litter was subjected to heat treatment by deep stacking at temperature range of 40.10-55oC (104.20-31oF) for 21 days. This was done to ensure pathogenic microbial safety when used as animal feed supplement. Results obtained on the chemical composition showed that poultry litter (layers) contained 621.41 ME kcal/kg, 87% DM, 20% CP, 10.40% CF, 2.20 EE and 18.50% Ash. The results on mineral composition indicates that poultry litter has 4.5% Phosphorus (P), 2.00% Calcium (Ca), 0.10% Sodium (Na), 2.05% Potassium (K) and 0.48% Magnesium (Mg). This study on proximate composition of poultry litter shows that it could be incorporated into animal feeds.
Assessment of the Effects of Poultry Litter on Surface Runoff Water Quality from Agricultural Lands  [PDF]
Sudarshan K. Dutta, Shreeram P. Inamdar, J. Tom Sims, Alyssa Collins
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25048
Abstract: The use of pelletized poultry litter (PPL) as a substitute for inorganic fertilizers is increasingly being en-couraged in states like Delaware which have a considerable surplus of poultry litter. However, we know very little about the impacts of PPL on runoff water quality and whether it is an environmentally-sound and sus-tainable alternative to inorganic fertilizer. To address these questions we compared the exports of nutrients (NH4-N, NO3-N and PO4-P) and trace elements (As, Cu, and Zn) in surface runoff from agricultural plots receiving PPL, raw poultry litter (RPL), urea and no-fertilizer (control) treatments. The study was conducted on agricultural land located in Middletown, Delaware with corn as the cover crop. The experimental plots were 5 m wide and 12 m long with reduced tillage and no-tillage management practices. Sampling was con-ducted for six natural rainfall events from April through August 2008. Nutrient (NH4-N, NO3-N and PO4-P) exports from plots receiving PPL were less than those with urea or raw litter applications. While exports of trace elements from the PPL treatment exceeded those from urea, they were much lower than the corre-sponding exports from the RPL treatments. Mass exports of nutrients and trace elements were correlated with event size (rainfall amount) but were not correlated with timing of event (days since litter application). Results from this study suggest that the use of PPL in combination with no-tillage may provide an environ-mentally safe alternative to synthetic fertilizers.
Evaluation of poultry litter traditional composting process
Sanchuki, Carlos Eduardo;Soccol, Carlos Ricardo;Carvalho, Júlio Cesar de;Soccol, Vanete Thomaz;Nascimento, Camila do;Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132011000500024
Abstract: the objective of this work was to study the poultry litter composting and evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological transformations as a time-function. at the end of composting, an increase of humification matter, a decrease of microbial diversity and the elimination of pathogens were observed. results showed that poultry litter was liable of composting, without any nutritional complementation or inoculation and the process occurred similarly to other kind of organic residues.
Impacts of Poultry House Environment on Poultry Litter Bacterial Community Composition  [PDF]
Michael D. Dumas, Shawn W. Polson, Don Ritter, Jacques Ravel, Jack Gelb, Robin Morgan, K. Eric Wommack
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024785
Abstract: Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly Gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens.
The Effect of Different Tillage Systems on Cotton Pests and Predators in Cotton Fields  [PDF]
Ibrahim Gencsoylu,Ibrahim Yalcin
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The experiment was conducted in cotton fields at Adnan Menderes University, Research Center of Agricultural Faculty, located in Aydin, Province, Turkey in 2000 and 2001. The effect of four tillage systems, conventional, strip, precision and ridge tillage methods, were studied on cotton pests and their predators. Aphis gossypii Glov., Thrips tabaci Lind. and Frankliniella spp. were not affected from the tillage systems in either years. However, Bemisia tabaci Genn. populations in 2001 and Empoasca spp. in both 2000 and 2001 were affected and the two pests were not reached economic injury level. The highest amount of seasonal average means of B. tabaci was in the conventional and strip tillage than in precision and ridge tillage systems. The Empoasca spp. population was higher in conventional and precision than in ridge system. The predator populations were also not affected from the tillage systems. As a result, the important predators were Orius minutus (L.), Geocoris ater (F.), Cammpylomma diversicornis Rt. in Heteroptera Order, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. in Neuroptera and Adonia variegata (Goeze), Coccinella spetmepunctata L., Symnus spp. and Stetherus spp. in Coleoptera. Tillage systems have no adverse effect on the cotton pests and their predators. Thus, the lowest cost tillage system can be applied into the cotton fields to reduce the management cost in Turkey.
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