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Stimulating the private funding in Romanian education
Dugulean?, C.,Dugulean?, L.
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Series V : Economic Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: After 1990, education has been one of the areas of activity that has not been adequately funded. Even though the laws governing the activity in this area have established a percentage of 6% of GDP on education, this has not happened. Given the underfunding of the Romanian education by means of public sources, it is important to search for ways of funding, to contribute to the smooth functioning of the educational process and to increase its performance. The paper analyzes the possibility of stimulating private contributions for the benefit of schools, and for those who benefit of its services.
Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria
M. Gruber
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.
A new face for private providers in developing countries: what implications for public health?
Palmer,Natasha; Mills,Anne; Wadee,Haroon; Gilson,Lucy; Schneider,Helen;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000400011
Abstract: the use of private health care providers in low- and middle-income countries (lmics) is widespread and is the subject of considerable debate. we review here a new model of private primary care provision emerging in south africa, in which commercial companies provide standardized primary care services at relatively low cost. the structure and operation of one such company is described, and features of service delivery are compared with the most probable alternatives: a private general practitioner or a public sector clinic. in a case study of cost and quality of services, the clinics were popular with service users and run at a cost per visit comparable to public sector primary care clinics. however, their current role in tackling important public health problems was limited. the implications for public health policy of the emergence of this new model of private provider are discussed. it is argued that encouraging the use of such clinics by those who can afford to pay for them might not help to improve care available for the poorest population groups, which are an important priority for the government. encouraging such providers to compete for government funding could, however, be desirable if the range of services presently offered, and those able to access them, could be broadened. however, the constraints to implementing such a system successfully are notable, and these are acknowledged. even without such contractual arrangements, these companies provide an important lesson to the public sector that acceptability of services to users and low-cost service delivery are not incompatible objectives.
A new face for private providers in developing countries: what implications for public health?  [cached]
Palmer Natasha,Mills Anne,Wadee Haroon,Gilson Lucy
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract: The use of private health care providers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is widespread and is the subject of considerable debate. We review here a new model of private primary care provision emerging in South Africa, in which commercial companies provide standardized primary care services at relatively low cost. The structure and operation of one such company is described, and features of service delivery are compared with the most probable alternatives: a private general practitioner or a public sector clinic. In a case study of cost and quality of services, the clinics were popular with service users and run at a cost per visit comparable to public sector primary care clinics. However, their current role in tackling important public health problems was limited. The implications for public health policy of the emergence of this new model of private provider are discussed. It is argued that encouraging the use of such clinics by those who can afford to pay for them might not help to improve care available for the poorest population groups, which are an important priority for the government. Encouraging such providers to compete for government funding could, however, be desirable if the range of services presently offered, and those able to access them, could be broadened. However, the constraints to implementing such a system successfully are notable, and these are acknowledged. Even without such contractual arrangements, these companies provide an important lesson to the public sector that acceptability of services to users and low-cost service delivery are not incompatible objectives.
Individual Counseling To Private Physicians Concerning Their Prescription Habits. A German Experience  [PDF]
Seidel J
Revue Médicale de l'Assurance Maladie , 2002,
Abstract: In order counteract ever-increasing prescription costs over the last few years combined with the precarious financial state of the health insurance fund of the German Land , Mecklembourg-Pomerany, the minister of social affairs, the health insurance fund and the Union of physicians contracting with the Land came to an agreement. The aim was to contain costs while guaranteeing that prescriptions remained of the highest quality. In order to accomplish this goal, the concerned players developed a common program of counseling and information directed at improving the prescription habits of private physicians. Beforehand, a pharmacy data bank (PLATO) had to be developed, permitting an analysis of the many aspects of the pharmacy prescriptions reimbursed by the health insurance fund. The article presents the preliminary results of this counseling and information-sharing initiative.
Reading Habits of the Students with Bengali Medium Background at the English Medium Private Universities in Bangladesh
Khaled Mahmud,Md. Golam Hoshain Mirza
Higher Education Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/hes.v2n2p100
Abstract: This paper investigates into the reading habits of the English medium private university students with Bengali medium background. It analyses the realities in the context, which are both nurturing the old and shaping new reading habits of the students. The data gathered by means of interview schedule have been analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The data shows that our students’ reading habits - avoiding text books, memorizing readymade things for exam purposes, very little reading in not only English but Bengali as well - do not change remarkably during their tertiary level of study at the private universities. Rather they are further solidified and nurtured by the teachers’ supply of lecture notes, an acute lack of motivation for reading the study materials in English, and the negative backwash of the exam system. These causes of the undesirable reading habits can be removed only if all the teachers dealing with the students come forward and work together with the English teachers for a long period of time to achieve the aims.
Life Habits and Personal Behaviour of Physicians Working in Government Service and Private Practice in Croatia- a Pilot Study
Public Health Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20120204.03
Abstract: The goal of this research was to compare the life habits and personal health behaviour of 182 physicians in government services and in private services and to gain better insight in life habits and personal health behaviour of physicians in general. Methods: Using the 20 statements regarding life habits and personal health behaviour. Results: There are no differences between life habits of physicians regarding the type of service they work except that almost all physicians working in government services stated that they had at least a one close confidential friend while only 2/3 of physicians practice in private services did so. Although 2/3 of doctors from both groups consider themselves “in good health”, more than half of them stated that they were an inappropriate weight for their height and most of them did not exercise regularly. More than 1/3 always drinks more than five alcoholic drinks a week and 1/3 always smoke more than half a pack of cigarettes a day. Conclusion: The type of service that physicians work in makes no difference on their life habits and personal behaviour except that physicians in private services have significantly less confidential friends. The better insight in life habits and personal behaviour of Croatian physicians was gained from the study and “target” spots for interventions are found: attitudes and behaviour considering unhealthy nutritional regimen, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and lack of physical activity. The benefit of this study is that it emphasizes the need for further research on the subject, since there is a need for improvement of physician’s attitudes, life habits and behaviour. Changing attitudes towards unhealthy nutritional regimen, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and lack of physical activity could also be, for physicians, a beneficent way to improve the health of their patients serving as a “good model”.
Correlations between Changes in Study Habits and Academic Results in Junior High School Students—A Longitudinal Survey at a Private Junior High School  [PDF]
Kohei Okado, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Noriyuki Kida
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.813133
Abstract: Correlations between changes in study habits and academic results in Japanese junior high school students were investigated through a longitudinal survey. Participants were students enrolled in a private junior high school (N = 170). A questionnaire was conducted twice a year for three years. Moreover, results of regular exams and mock exams were collected. The results indicated a high correlation between scores of subject study habits and academic results. Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis indicated that patterns of changes in learning motivation were classified into four types, and academic records were low in the declining type and considerably declining type. Based on the results above, it is considered effective to detect changes in study habits of each student in early stages through regularly evaluating study habits quantitatively, for improving students’ academic skills.
Trends in Private Equity and Venture Capital Investments with Special Focus on the Booming India Growth Story  [cached]
Ritankar Sahu,Ananya Nath,Priyadarshi Banerjee
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Private Equity investments have restructured the trend of acquisitions and aided in value creation as against strategic buyers. Private equity’s growing involvement in many sectors is even more striking. The nature of investments of private equity firms and funds, the strategies employed, value creating practices, profitable exits are significantly different from that of other strategic and corporate buyers. The paper deals with the above aspects. The paper is divided into two parts. Part I deals with the basics of private equity investment structures and exits. Part II of the paper deals with the private equity growth story in India. Private equity investments, proposed changes to regulations, sectoral growth, venture capital regulations as well as impact of the latest Union budget and the credit crunch have been dealt with.
Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, David Waltner-Toews, Spencer J Henson, Eric Mathews
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-129
Abstract: In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age.Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed.While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in the concerns expressed by users of different water systems and age groups may suggest the need for targeted public education strategies. These focus groups provided significant insight into the public perception of private water supplies and the need for public health outreach activities; however, to obtain a more representative understanding of the perceptions in this population, it is important that a larger scale investigation be performed.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. Numerous studies report that Canadian private water supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for microbial and chemical contamination [1-5], and it is estimated that 45 percent of all waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems, largely in rural or
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