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Linking Trait Differences to Community Dynamics: Evidence from Eupatorium adenophorum and Co-Occurring Native Species during a Three-Year Succession  [PDF]
Xianming Gao, Yujie Zhao, Xuejun Yang, Shucun Sun
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050247
Abstract: Trait differences between invasive and native species are believed to be closely related to whether the former are successful. However, few studies have measured trait differences between invasive and native species directly under field conditions or during long term experiments. We examined the phenological pattern, plant height and biomass accumulation and allocation of Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.) and co-occurring native species in a community during a three-year succession. The phenological pattern of Crofton weed differed from that of co-occurring native species. Crofton weed had longer vegetative stage (when resources were more available), a higher biomass accumulation and a higher above/below-ground ratio compared to native species. Crofton weed was shorter than grasses and two forbs (Artemisia tangutica and Cynoglossum amabile) during its first year of growth, but was significantly taller than all other species during subsequent years. The dominance (calculated as the importance value) of Crofton weed was the highest among all other species and continually increased over time while the dominance of co-occurring native species decreased. This study provides direct field evidence that trait differences are important to plant invasion.
Impacts on seed germination features of Eupatorium adenophorum from variable light stimulation and traditional dormancy-broken methods

JIANG Yong,LI Yanhong,WANG Wenjie,BAO Songlian,ZU Yuangang,WANG Huimei,

生态学报 , 2013,
Abstract: Eupatorium adenophorum (Crofton weed) is a notorious invasive species worldwide, as the first step colonizing in a new habitat, seed germination and growth of seedlings should be related to its strong invasiveness. Combining experiments on different light intensity and different traditional dormancy-breaking treatments were carried out in this paper. We are aiming to answer two questions, i.e., whether or not germination of the weed is light-required, and how traditional dormancy-breaking methods and light intensity interactively affect germination and seedling growth. Crofton weed had the feature of photoblastic seed germination. Germination under different treatments was higher than 63% under full light, and higher 60% under aluminum foil-covered treatments (0.23% light transmittance), while germination was lower than 30% under dark treatments. Different from previous reports on other species, the low temperature, SA, PEG and KNO3 treatments cannot take the place of light in breaking seed germination, indicating that Crofton weed was in the form of forced dormancy (seed quiescence). Light with SA and PEG treatments had interactions on seedling growth: SA treatments were linearly related with seedling biomass at dark (P<0.05), while no correlations were found under full light and aluminum foil treatments (P>0.05). Similarly, significantly linear correlation between PEG concentration and root length under full-light treatments was found (P<0.05), but no correlations were found in the aluminum foil treatments and dark treatments (P>0.05). This photoblastic seed germination and seedling growth characteristics play a key role in forming soil seed bank, and also the basis of fast-invasion of this species in disturbed soil, where seeds in deep soil come to surface after disturbance. Our finding also supports the ecological control of this invasive species by introducing suitable trees to influence light environment around Crofton weed.
Growth trends of Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) seedlings in different habitats

Aifang Li,Xianming Gao,Weiguang Dang,Jinfang Wang,

生物多样性 , 2007,
Abstract: 紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adenophorum)种子属投机式萌发,一年内只要有适合的温湿条件都可以萌发。种子萌发的高峰期主要集中在雨季,而干旱的冬、春季节萌发率很低。未开花结实的紫茎泽兰个体可终年持续生长,生长速率受光照、湿度和温度影响显著。秋季萌发的紫茎泽兰幼苗在冬季及干旱季节中,各项生长指标(包括主茎长度、总叶面积、基径等)增长缓慢。在不同生境中,紫茎泽兰平均月增长量由高到低依次为:偏阳生境>全荫湿润生境>灌丛遮荫生境,生长旺季为6–10月份的雨季。实生苗越年后通常在第一个旱季即可开花结实;但萌发较晚以及生长发育不良的个体一般并不开花而是保持营养生长。未开花结实的越年生实生苗的生长节律与当年生实生苗相似,但需要再经过一个生长季节甚至更长的生长发育期才能进行开花结实,完成其生活史周期。本研究结果进一步揭示了紫茎泽兰是通过有性生殖与无性生殖相互补充的繁殖策略进行种群更新与种群扩张的。
Composition of phenolic allelochemicals in Eupatorium adenophorum root zone soils and its effects on soil-borne pathogens

XIE Ming-hui,REN Qin,ZHANG Qing-wen,LIU Xiao-xia,

应用生态学报 , 2010,
Abstract: The allelochemicals released by Eupatorium adenophorum roots is an important factor inducing the changes of the weed soil environment,which provides favorable conditions for the successful invasion of the weed.By using GC/MS technique,the components and their relative contents of phenolic allelochemicals in aphid-infested and non-infested E.adenophorum root zone soils were analyzed,with unplanted soil as the control.Less difference was observed in the components of phenolic allelochemicals among the test so...
Noxious invasive Eupatorium adenophorum may be a moving target: Implications of the finding of a native natural enemy, Dorylus orientalis
YanFen Niu,YuLong Feng,JianLei Xie,FuCheng Luo
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-010-4117-0
Abstract: Eupatorium adenophorum is a noxious invasive weed that is distributed throughout subtropical areas worldwide. Enemy release may be at least one of the reasons underlying its success as an invader. In this study, we observed damage to the epidermis, cortex, phloem, cambium, and xylem tissues of roots and stems around the root collar of E. adenophorum growing in an experimental field in Yunnan Province, southwest China. The damage was caused by Dorylus orientalis, a polyphagous ant feeding on the weed and resulted in the death of the plants by interrupting nutrient exchange between shoots and roots. This ant showed selectivity for the invader to some extent. The finding of D. orientalis and other native enemies indicate that E. adenophorum may gradually naturalize in introduced landscapes. In addition, this ant may have potential for use as a biocontrol agent against the invader.
Predicting the Potential Invasive Distribution for Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. in China
紫茎泽兰Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.在中国入侵分布预测

Monica Papes,A Townsend Peterson,
Monica Papes
,A.Townsend Peterson

植物科学学报 , 2003,
Abstract: Originating in Mexico, Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., is a noxious weed long present as a non native species in India, New Zealand, and Australia. In China, it is spreading rapidly, particularly in the southern and southwestern parts of the country, with serious economic and social consequences. A new method, ecological niche modeling, was applied for predicting its potential geographic range of invasion. Predicted potential distributional areas included the Chinese provinces where the plant is known to occur, as well as additional areas in central and eastern China that appear susceptible to further spread of this species.
Genetic diversity of Eupatorium adenophorum determined by AFLP marker


生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Eupatorium adenophorum, a troublesome weed in the world, is one of the most important invasive organisms in China. Since it was first introduced to China in the 1940's, it has spread rapidly throughout southwestern China. Now it can be found in Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Provinces and in the Guangxi and Tibet Autonomous Region. Its invasion has caused seriously economic and ecological consequences for agriculture, forestry, and natural environments. The invasive characteristics of exotic organisms such as invasion pathway and dispersal are highly related to genetic diversity. A study on genetic diversity would be beneficial to predict the invasiveness and potential areas threatened by E. adenophorum, but little is known about the genetic diversity of this weed. AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Po1ymorphism) technique was used to analyze genetic diversity of 24 different populations of E. adenophorum collected from 23 locations in China and one location in Australia. Genomic DNA was digested with EcoRI and MseI enzymes and amplified with six E 3 and M 3 Primer combinations. AFLP analysis produced 509 scoreable bands, of which 392 (77.01%) were polymorphic. The effective number of alleles per locus (N_a) of the 24 populations was 1.50, and the mean Nei's gene diversity index (H) was 0.29, the Shannon's information index (I) was 0.42, indicating that genetic diversity of this weed is very rich. Cluster Analysis based on the UPGMA method indicated that E. adenophorum was first introduced in Yunnan Province. Populations in Yunnan provinces showed the greatest genetic variability as all populations sampled in this province could be classified into nine groups. This indicated that genome DNA of E. adenophorum diversified due to adaptation to diverse climates and environments in Yunnan Province. In other newly-invaded areas, genetic diversity of E. adenophorum populations was less, and distinctly related to the geographically nearby populations collected from the place of Yunnan. Seeds of E. adenophorum are spread by wind and water resulting in close biogeographic relationships among the populations occurring in neighboring regions. These results suggest that E. adenophorum invaded the southern part of Yunnan Province from Myanmar, Vietnam and Laos on multiple occasions, and then spread to the central and northern parts. The established populations of E. adenophorum in Yunnan have provide the seed source which has spread the infestation into Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Tibet and even Hubei Provinces.
Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of a Major Invasive Species, Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora)  [PDF]
Xiaojun Nie, Shuzuo Lv, Yingxin Zhang, Xianghong Du, Le Wang, Siddanagouda S. Biradar, Xiufang Tan, Fanghao Wan, Song Weining
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036869
Abstract: Background Crofton weed (Ageratina adenophora) is one of the most hazardous invasive plant species, which causes serious economic losses and environmental damages worldwide. However, the sequence resource and genome information of A. adenophora are rather limited, making phylogenetic identification and evolutionary studies very difficult. Here, we report the complete sequence of the A. adenophora chloroplast (cp) genome based on Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings The A. adenophora cp genome is 150, 689 bp in length including a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18, 358 bp and a large single-copy (LSC) region of 84, 815 bp separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 23, 755 bp. The genome contains 130 unique genes and 18 duplicated in the IR regions, with the gene content and organization similar to other Asteraceae cp genomes. Comparative analysis identified five DNA regions (ndhD-ccsA, psbI-trnS, ndhF-ycf1, ndhI-ndhG and atpA-trnR) containing parsimony-informative characters higher than 2%, which may be potential informative markers for barcoding and phylogenetic analysis. Repeat structure, codon usage and contraction of the IR were also investigated to reveal the pattern of evolution. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a sister relationship between A. adenophora and Guizotia abyssinica and supported a monophyly of the Asterales. Conclusion We have assembled and analyzed the chloroplast genome of A. adenophora in this study, which was the first sequenced plastome in the Eupatorieae tribe. The complete chloroplast genome information is useful for plant phylogenetic and evolutionary studies within this invasive species and also within the Asteraceae family.

SONG Qi Shi,FU Yun TANG Jian Wei FENG Zhi Li,YANG Chong Ren,

植物生态学报 , 2000,
Abstract: Eupatorium adenophorum, a weed with strong invasibility and exotic to the Lancang River watershed, has an allelopathic effect on other plants. Its petroleum, ethanol and water extracts showed inhibitory effects on the germination and seedling growth of the garden pea (Pisum sativum). At the relative concentration of 2%, the petroleum, ethanol and water extracts showed 100%, 40% and 50% inhibition on pea germination respectively. Its allelochemicals are mainly located in petroleum extract and the methanol eluent of the petroleum extract absorbed in activated charcoal. The major active fractions of the petroleum extract are FR2 (identified as 9 Oxo Ageraphorone), FR3 and FR4. At the relative concentration of 1%, the FR2, FR3 and FR4 showed 100%, 90% and 90% inhibition on the germination of pea respectively. Moreover, germinated peas treated with 1% FR3 and FR4 did not show any shoot and root growth. It is suggested that the allelopathic effect of this plant occurs through the release of volatile allelochemicals from aerial part tissues and the leaching of water soluble allelochemicals from both aerial tissues and litter.


生态学报 , 1983,
Abstract: The experiment was undertaken to evaluate the influences of environmental factors on the seed germination of Eupatorium adenophorum Spr. and especially on the germinating period. The results may be summarized as follows:1. The ripe seeds of Eupatorium adenophorum Spr. have higher percentage of germination under the favorable conditions, but they do not germinate in the darkness and in the abnormal pH value.2. The seeds can germinate only in a range of pH 4-7, but not over pH 8 or below pH 3. The optimum pH ...
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