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Review of OSmanthus fragrans,/i> planting and utilization in China
X Yan, T Zhang
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2006,
Abstract: Osmanthus fragrans, an horticulture plant, is one of the National plants in China. As China’s native plants, they were usually utilized in seasoning, health protection, perfuming and dressing. Based on analyzing China history literature, this paper highlights native varieties of Osmanthus fragrans as well as their planting technologies. Finally the methods of utilization of Osmanthus fragrans are discussed in ancient China, and its impact on the traditional living in China.
A Summary of the Research on Osmanthus fragrans

李冉, 闵清, 胡文祥
Journal of Microwave Chemistry (MC) , 2019, DOI: 10.12677/MC.2019.31001
Osmanthus fragrans is a member of the family osmanthus. It is a characteristic plant resource in Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan and Hubei provinces in China. It is one of the ten famous tradi-tional flowers in China. This paper reviews the morphology, distribution, variety, function, efficacy, microwave extraction and application of Osmanthus fragrans.
Studies on the Increment, Flower and Mineral Nutrient Change of Three Cultivars of Osmanthus fragrans Lour

CHEN Hong-Guo,ZHOU Kai-Bing,ZHANG Hong-Yan,

植物科学学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 以桂花(Osmanthus fragrans Lour)品种'柳叶银桂'、'四季桂'和'山桂'为试材,对其生长量、花量及叶片矿质营养含量的变化进行了分析.结果表明:(1)'柳叶银桂'、'四季桂'和'山桂'的总生长量和鲜花产量差异显著,总生长量为'柳叶银桂'>'山桂'>'四季桂',而全年鲜花产量为'柳叶银桂'>'四季桂'>'山桂'.(2)不同元素年周期变化不同,K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu均呈单锋曲线,K、Ca、Cu峰值出现在4月,Fe和Mg峰值出现在8月;N、P含量的年变化呈双峰曲线,峰值出现在4月和10月.Mn和Zn分别有单峰和双缝两种不同的变化趋势.
Phenolic Antioxidants Isolated from the Flowers of Osmanthus fragrans  [PDF]
Chien-Ya Hung,Yu-Cheng Tsai,Kuo-Yu Li
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules170910724
Abstract: O. fragrans has slightly less antioxidative activity than green tea. Five phenolic compounds, tyrosyl acetate (1), (+)-phillygenin (2), (8E)-ligustroside (3), rutin (4), and verbascoside (5), were isolated from the CHCl3 sub-extract of O. fragrans. The structures were elucidated by interpreting their spectral data. Evaluation of the antioxidative property of the isolated (+)-phillygenin (2), rutin (4), and verbascoside (5) revealed strong DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 19.1, 10.3, and 6.2 μM, respectively. These isolates also exhibited an H2O2 scavenging ability, with IC50 values of 10.5, 23.4, and 13.4 μM, respectively.
Architectural analysis of Osmanthus fragrans Crown

LIN Yongming,HONG Tao,WU Chengzhen,HONG Wei,HU Xisheng,FAN Hailan,SONG Ping,

热带亚热带植物学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Branching pattern was studied in Osmanthus fragrans grown in Shifengzai Scenery, Fujian Province, China, by the Strahler method. The architectural parameters (overall bifurcation ratio, stepwise bifurcation ratio (SBR1:2 and SBR2:3), length of the first-order branch, ratio of branch diameter (RBD2:1), branch angle and leaf angle) varied with the different growth and development stages. The architectural comparison of branches showed that height growth was obvious at the seedling stage, transition from height growth to crown expansion occurred at the sapling stage, and the crown diameter increased rapidly with slow height growth at the mature stage. The analysis of leaf distribution showed that the leaves are distributed mainly at the first-order branches and the third-order branches, and the leaf size increased with the growth and development of O. fragrans. It is suggested that the plasticity of branching pattern is an adaptive strategy of O. fragrans.
The Ethanol Extract of Osmanthus fragrans Flowers Reduces Oxidative Stress and Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Animal Model  [PDF]
Chien-Ya Hung,Fu-Long Huang,Li-Shian Shi,Shuk-Man Ka,Jing-Yao Wang,Yu-Cheng Tsai,Tsung-Jen Hung,Yi-Ling Ye
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/304290
Abstract: The Osmanthus fragrans flower, a popular herb in Eastern countries, contains several antioxidant compounds. Ben Cao Gang Mu, traditional Chinese medical literature, describes the usefulness of these flowers for phlegm and stasis reduction, arrest of dysentery with blood in the bowel, and stomachache and diarrhea treatment. However, modern evidence regarding the therapeutic efficacy of these flowers is limited. This study was aimed at assessing the antioxidative effects of the ethanol extract of O. fragrans flowers (OFE) in vivo and evaluating its antioxidant maintenance and therapeutic effect on an allergic airway inflammation in mice. After OFE’s oral administration to mice, the values obtained in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay as well as the glutathione concentration in the lungs and spleens of mice increased while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances decreased significantly, indicating OFE’s significant in vivo antioxidant activity. OFE was also therapeutically efficacious in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. Orally administered OFE suppressed ovalbumin-specific IgE production and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung. Moreover, the antioxidative state of the mice improved. Thus, our findings confirm the ability of the O. fragrans flowers to reduce phlegm and suggest that OFE may be useful as an antiallergic agent. 1. Introduction Osmanthus fragrans, known as sweet olive, tea olive, and fragrant olive, is a species of Oleaceae native to southwestern China [1]. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant for its fragrant flowers in Taiwan, southern Japan, southern China, Europe, North America, and elsewhere. The flower of O. fragrans, called Kwai-fah in China, has been used as a beverage and as an additive for tea and foods such as cake, pastry, paste, vinegar, and liqueurs. It is popular because of its delicate fruity/floral aroma. Various volatile components of the flowers are also used, primarily for perfumes, flavors, and aromatherapy. It was recorded in Ben Cao Gang Mu that the O. fragrans flower was used to reduce phlegm and stasis as well as to arrest dysentery with blood in the bowel. Traditional Chinese medicine has also suggested the use of O. fragrans to treat weakened vision, halitosis, panting, asthma, cough, toothache, stomachache, diarrhea, and hepatitis. However, modern evidence for the biomedical use of the ethanol extract of O. fragrans flowers (OFE) is limited. Overproduction of free radicals can cause oxidative damage and may eventually lead to chronic diseases. Many plants
Determination of Essential Oil Composition from Osmanthus fragrans Tea by GC-MS Combined with a Chemometric Resolution Method  [PDF]
Chun-Di Hu,Yi-Zeng Liang,Fang-Qiu Guo,Xiao-Ru Li,Wei-Ping Wang
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15053683
Abstract: The essential oils of the Osmanthus fragrans tea (OFT), Osmanthus fragrans (OF) and green tea (GT) had been extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with the help of heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP), an effective chemometric resolution method (CRM). The overlapping peak clusters were resolved into pure chromatograms and pure mass spectra with HELP. The qualitative analysis was performed by similarity searches in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectra database with the obtained pure mass spectrum of each component. Identification of some compounds was also assisted by comparison of temperature-programmed retention indices (PTRI) with authentic standards included in our own laboratory database under construction. The quantitative results were obtained by overall volume integration (OVI) method. A total of 67, 73 and 53 components in essential oils of the OFT, OF and GT were identified, accounting for 90.83%, 93.65% and 89.97% total contents of the essential oil of OFT, OF and GT, respectively.
Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among Osmanthus fragrans cultivars using AFLP markers
Yuan,Wang Jun; Han,Yuan Ji; Dong,Mei Fang; Shang,Fu De;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: this study was conducted to reveal genetic diversity among 100 osmanthus fragrans cultivars using amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers. eight aflp primer combinations produced a total of 443 polymorphic fragments with an average of 64 per primer combination. the percentage of polymorphic bands (86.81%), the resolving power (rp) (32.71) and the pic values (0.331) showed the efficiency of used primer combinations. the revealed aflp makers were effective in distinguishing all the cultivars considered. cluster analysis were performed to assess patterns of diversity among cultivars and showed the abundant genetic diversity. the overall distribution pattern of molecular variation suggested that 93.33% of the total genetic variance was within the identified groups and 6.67% of the genetic variation was among the identified groups. our results showed that aflp markers are useful for osmanthus fragrans germplasm discrimination as well as for investigation of genetic diversity and variation. the information will facilitate germplasm identi?cation, conservation and new cultivar development.
Growth Responses and Metal Accumulation in an Ornamental Plant (Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii) Submitted to Different Cd Levels  [PDF]
Fu-Zhong Wu,Wan-Qin Yang,Jian Zhang,Li-Qiang Zhou
ISRN Ecology , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/738138
Abstract: To characterize the effects of Cd supplies on the accumulation efficiency of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu in an ornamental plant (osmanthus, Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii), a pot experiment using current-year osmanthus in field was carried out in western China. Biomass and its components showed a decreasing tendency as Cd supply increased, though insignificant differences were observed between treatments with a low and no Cd supply. Cd supplies increased the concentrations of Cd and Pb in plants, but the concentrations of Zn and Cu in plant showed a decreasing tendency with the increase of Cd supplies. Cd supplies also increased Cd accumulation for the plant, although the highest Cd accumulation was observed at a low Cd supply (T1). A higher Pb accumulation in the osmanthus was also detected in T1 than the other treatments. However, Zn and Cu accumulations decreased with the increase of Cd supplies. The examined osmanthus showed relative higher Cd and Pb transfer efficiencies in the presence of Cd supplies, but Cd supplies can limit the transfer of Zn and Cu. The results suggested that the examined osmanthus has potential for use in metal-contaminated environments due to phytoremediation application in the soil. 1. Introduction One of the main environmental problems in many developing countries is the increasing pollution by toxic metals related to increased industrial activity and the heavy use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, and herbicides in agriculture [1–3]. Bioaccumulation of toxic metals in humans can result in several harmful symptoms in gastrointestinal, neurological, and immunological systems [4, 5]. The most dangerous metals include the so-called “toxic trio”: Cd, Pb, and Hg, for which no biological function has been found [6–8]. Besides them, there is a long list of other metals which although essential in low doses, become toxic in high doses, such as Zn, Cu, and Mn [5]. Many soils are receiving lots of toxic metals with high pollution, but many others only display pollution with one or two metal. Compared with other toxic metals, Cd is not an essential nutrient in higher plants, and the exposure to relatively low concentrations results in high toxicity to plants and animals [9]. Unfortunately, Cd is the most common toxic metal in many areas worldwide. Since Cd stress often decreases plant growth [10], exposure to Cd can decrease accumulation of other toxic metals (such as Pb, Zn, and Cu) in plants. Moreover, the study on tobacco found that there were negative correlations as Cd accumulation increased, Zn accumulation decreased, implying
Fractal Characteristics of Leaves of Osmanthus fragrans Lour

LIU Ting-Kai~,

植物科学学报 , 2005,
Abstract: This paper offers a method to measure leaf's fractal dimension (FD) by introducing the box-counting dimension, one method the fractal theory provided. The scanned photos of mature leaves are treated according to the box-counting dimension. We use this method to measure the leaf's FD of Osmanthus fragrans Lour. By analyzing the result, we find that: (1) The goodness of linear fit of double-logarithmic plot of the number of boxes to box size is significantly great: all the absolute values of coefficient of correlation are greater than 0.9991 that is very close to 1, the expectation. So we conclude that leaves have typical fractal characteristics, which can be studied by fractal theory. (2) The FDs of all leaves of Tree01 from the sample are between 1.7258 and 1.8880, with an average of 1.8065, a standard deviation of 0.0393 and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.7180%, which imply the low discreteness. And all the data are normally distributed as well. Other trees in the sample share the same case, so we conclude that the mature leaves of the same tree have the same FD statistically. (3) The ANOVA using the completely random model shows that the differences between the 10 sample trees are not significant: F=0.706
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