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Phytogeny of genusGlossina (Diptera:Glossinidae) according to ITS2 sequences
Xiaoai Chen,Song Li,Changben Li,Shouyuan Zhao,Aksoy Serap
Science China Life Sciences , 1999, DOI: 10.1007/BF03183600
Abstract: The flies of genusGlossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) are an important vector of African trypanosomiases which cause diseases in humans and animals. The ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region sequences from differentGlossina species were PCR-amplified and analyzed in order to construct a molecular phylogeny for genusGlossina. Trees generated by parsimony confirmed the monophyletic taxonomic placement of genusGlossina wherefusca group species formed the deepest branch followed bymorsitans andpalpalis groups, respectively. The placement ofGlossina austeni by both the traditional morphological and biochemical criteria has been controversial. Results presented here, based on ITS-2 locus sequence analysis, suggest thatGlossina austeni can be placed into a separate subgenerus which forms a sister-group relationship with themorsitans group species.
Virology, Epidemiology and Pathology of Glossina Hytrosavirus, and Its Control Prospects in Laboratory Colonies of the Tsetse Fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae)  [PDF]
Henry M. Kariithi,Monique M. van Oers,Just M. Vlak,Marc J. B. Vreysen,Andrew G. Parker,Adly M. M. Abd-Alla
Insects , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/insects4030287
Abstract: The Glossina hytrosavirus (family Hytrosaviridae) is a double-stranded DNA virus with rod-shaped, enveloped virions. Its 190 kbp genome encodes 160 putative open reading frames. The virus replicates in the nucleus, and acquires a fragile envelope in the cell cytoplasm. Glossina hytrosavirus was first isolated from hypertrophied salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera; Glossinidae) collected in Kenya in 1986. A certain proportion of laboratory G. pallidipes flies infected by Glossina hytrosavirus develop hypertrophied salivary glands and midgut epithelial cells, gonadal anomalies and distorted sex-ratios associated with reduced insemination rates, fecundity and lifespan. These symptoms are rare in wild tsetse populations. In East Africa, G. pallidipes is one of the most important vectors of African trypanosomosis, a debilitating zoonotic disease that afflicts 37 sub-Saharan African countries. There is a large arsenal of control tactics available to manage tsetse flies and the disease they transmit. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach. The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities. To supply sufficient numbers of sterile males for the SIT component against G. pallidipes, strategies have to be developed that enable the management of the Glossina hytrosavirus in the colonies. This review provides a historic chronology of the emergence and biogeography of Glossina hytrosavirus, and includes researches on the infectomics (defined here as the functional and structural genomics and proteomics) and pathobiology of the virus. Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.
The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus  [PDF]
Henry M. Kariithi,Ikbal A. Ince,Sjef Boeren,Adly M. M. Abd-Alla,Andrew G. Parker,Serap Aksoy,Just M. Vlak ,Monique M. van Oers
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001371
Abstract: Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmission and requires cataloging of G. pallidipes secretome proteins from hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied SGs. Methodology/Principal Findings After electrophoretic profiling and in-gel trypsin digestion, saliva proteins were analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. MaxQuant/Andromeda search of the MS data against the non-redundant (nr) GenBank database and a G. morsitans morsitans SG EST database, yielded a total of 521 hits, 31 of which were SGHV-encoded. On a false discovery rate limit of 1% and detection threshold of least 2 unique peptides per protein, the analysis resulted in 292 Glossina and 25 SGHV MS-supported proteins. When annotated by the Blast2GO suite, at least one gene ontology (GO) term could be assigned to 89.9% (285/317) of the detected proteins. Five (~1.8%) Glossina and three (~12%) SGHV proteins remained without a predicted function after blast searches against the nr database. Sixty-five of the 292 detected Glossina proteins contained an N-terminal signal/secretion peptide sequence. Eight of the SGHV proteins were predicted to be non-structural (NS), and fourteen are known structural (VP) proteins. Conclusions/Significance SGHV alters the protein expression pattern in Glossina. The G. pallidipes SG secretome encompasses a spectrum of proteins that may be required during the SGHV infection cycle. These detected proteins have putative interactions with at least 21 of the 25 SGHV-encoded proteins. Our findings opens venues for developing novel SGHV mitigation strategies to block SGHV infections in tsetse production facilities such as using SGHV-specific antibodies and phage display-selected gut epithelia-binding peptides.
Identification of landing Site Preference of Fully-fed Glossina pallidipes and Glossina morsitans (diptera: glossinidae)  [PDF]
Nyengerai, T.,Gori, E.,Mwandiringana, E.,Mushayi, W.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2012,
Abstract: An experiment to identify landing sites of fully fed Glossina pallidipes and Glossina morsitans was set up at the end of the winter season in Zimbabwe at Rukomichi Research Station. Five experiments subjected to three treatments differing in duration of catch, interval of catch and landing position were performed. A mean catch of 13 was recorded for 15-minute interval catches on logs wrapped in black cloth for the same species. Site and treatment had a significant effect on mean catch levels for Glossina morsitans (LSD=0.0979) and Glossina pallidipes (LSD=0, 1409). The mean catch (1644) for both fully fed Glossina morsitans and Glossina pallidipes was highest for 15-minute interval catches on unwrapped upright logs. This was twice higher than the overall mean catch recorded for continuous catch on unwrapped upright logs indicating the repellent effect of man on Glossina morsitans and Glossina pallidipes. Unwrapped upright logs could alternatively be used to catch Glossina pallidipes and Glossina morsitans after feeding for the purpose of biological and chemical assays to determine the effectiveness of chemicals on trials. This could also avoid the rubbing effect on the animal body and hence eliminating contamination on the hand-nets.
The Effects of a DNA Virus Infection on the Reproductive Potential of Female Tsetse Flies, Glossina morsitans centralis and Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae)
Sang, Rosemary C;Jura, Walter GZO;Otieno, Leonard H;Mwangi, Richard W;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761998000600030
Abstract: reproductive anomalies associated with the tsetse dna virus infection in the female tsetse hosts, glossina morsitans centralis machado and glossina morsitans morsitans westwood, inoculated with the virus during the 3rd instar larval stage were studied and the data compared to those obtained from the control females injected with sterile physiological saline. virus infected flies had significantly longer first and second pregnancy cycles (p<0.0001) and produced pupae that were of significantly less weight in milligrams (p<0.0001) compared to controls. transmission of the virus to progeny was not absolute and only 21% of g. m. centralis and 48% of g. m. morsitans first progeny flies from infected females developed salivary gland hypertrophy as a result of transmission from mother to progeny. the virus infected females produced significantly fewere pupae compared to the controls during the experimental period (p<0.00001).
The Effects of a DNA Virus Infection on the Reproductive Potential of Female Tsetse Flies, Glossina morsitans centralis and Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae)  [cached]
Sang Rosemary C,Jura Walter GZO,Otieno Leonard H,Mwangi Richard W
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1998,
Abstract: Reproductive anomalies associated with the tsetse DNA virus infection in the female tsetse hosts, Glossina morsitans centralis Machado and Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, inoculated with the virus during the 3rd instar larval stage were studied and the data compared to those obtained from the control females injected with sterile physiological saline. Virus infected flies had significantly longer first and second pregnancy cycles (P<0.0001) and produced pupae that were of significantly less weight in milligrams (P<0.0001) compared to controls. Transmission of the virus to progeny was not absolute and only 21% of G. m. centralis and 48% of G. m. morsitans first progeny flies from infected females developed salivary gland hypertrophy as a result of transmission from mother to progeny. The virus infected females produced significantly fewere pupae compared to the controls during the experimental period (P<0.00001).
Parasitism data of Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae) by trypanosome species in parts of Abia State, Nigeria  [cached]
Carmelita C. Ohaeri,Mark C. Eluwa
Veterinary Science Development , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/vsd.2011.e17
Abstract: Glossina species are important medical and agricultural vectors transmitting the African animal trypanosomes and also the agent of sleeping sickness in human. Parasitism data of Glossina species by trypanosomes were carried out over a period of one year, from April 2003 to March 2004 using bioconical traps to catch tsetse at some selected Local Government Areas of Abia State, Nigeria. Four hundred and twenty seven (427) flies were dissected and examined microscopically for the presence of trypanosome infection. The survey found Glossina palpalis as the predominant tsetse species in the area. Out of the 427 flies dissected, 17 (3.9%) were infected with trypanosome. The highest infection was recorded among G. palpalis (3.7%) and this was significantly higher (P<0.001) when compared with those of G. tachinoides (0.2%). Female flies had higher infection than males (2.3% as against 1.6%, respectively). Majority of the infected flies were caught during rainy season (2.8%) and few were caught in dry season (1.1%). Twelve (2.8%) of all the parasites were located in the proboscis indicating Trypanosoma vivax infection, while 5 (1.1%) were from mid-gut of the flies indicating T. congolense infection. No parasite was observed in all the Glossina species caught at Ikwuano and Umuahia South areas, while trypanosome parasitism was highest in Glossina species caught at Isuikwuato, 2.5% of the flies in this area were parasitized. The low parasitic infection rate observed here indicates a marginal effect on the vector population of trypanosomes in Abia State, Nigeria.
Age prevalence of trypanosomal infections in female Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera : Glossinidae) on the plateau area of eastern Zambia  [cached]
C. Kubi,M. Billiouw,P. Van den Bossche
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v74i3.125
Abstract: Trypanosomal infections in female Glossina morsitans morsitans were investigated in an area in the Eastern Province of Zambia between 1992 and 1994. A total of 4 416 flies were captured, aged using the ovarian ageing method and screened for trypanosomal infections in both the mouthparts, salivary glands and the midgut. Congolense-type infections were identified in 4.8 % of the flies. Vivax-type and immature infections were identified in 1.8 % and 6.8 % of the flies, respectively. The prevalence of con golense-type, vivax-type and immature infections increased with age. For vivax-type infections the age-prevalence relationship could be described by a model assuming a constant per capita rate of infection. For congolense-type and midgut infections, a polynomial term was added to the model significantly improving the fit. The per capita at which flies become infected was significantly higher for immature compared to mature infections. Observations strongly suggest that tsetse acquire new midgut infections at any age and that maturation of these infections is not limited to those obtained during the first blood meal.
Temporal stability of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations in Uganda
Richard Echodu, Jon S Beadell, Loyce M Okedi, Chaz Hyseni, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-19
Abstract: Results of an AMOVA indicated that time of sampling did not explain a significant proportion of the variance in allele frequencies observed across all samples. Estimates of differentiation between samples from a single population ranged from approximately 0 to 0.019, using Jost's DEST. Effective population size estimates using momentum-based and likelihood methods were generally large. We observed significant change in mitochondrial haplotype frequencies in just one population, located along the zone of contact. The change in haplotypes was not accompanied by changes in microsatellite frequencies, raising the possibility of asymmetric mating compatibility in this zone.Our results suggest that populations of G. f. fuscipes were stable over the 8-12 generations studied. Future studies should aim to reconcile these data with observed seasonal fluctuations in the apparent density of tsetse.Tsetse flies, Glossina spp (Diptera: Glossinidae) transmit several species of pathogenic trypanosomes causing Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT). HAT affects human welfare directly through the chronic and acute forms of the disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense respectively. AAT, on the other hand, stands as a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in tsetse-infested areas [1]. A major challenge to controlling HAT is lack of suitable prophylactic drugs and vaccines against trypanosomiasis. Furthermore, chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of HAT are expensive, difficult to administer in remote areas and exhibit poor safety profiles. Consequently, vector control remains a viable alternative for large-scale control of trypanosomiasis.Understanding tsetse population dynamics is critical for determining which control strategy is most appropriate (e.g., suppression, eradication), for choosing the best method for enacting that strategy (e.g., traps, insecticide
A peridomestic population of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis palpalis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Glossinidae) at Kontagora town, Niger state, Nigeria
Ahmed, A. B.;
Entomología y Vectores , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0328-03812004000400004
Abstract: the present article considers some aspects of a peridomestic population of the tsetse fly glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy, 1830 in kontagora, nigeria. this situation characterizes an abnormal behaviour of the vector, and it is of significant epidemiological importance. data on the ecology of this species were collected in 1995 and 1999. the results indicated that the species exists during both dry and wet seasons; approximately 30.0% of the catches were gorged with blood giving a mhs of 2.4, indicating a well-nourished population. dissection of inseminated pars indicated pregnancy rates of approximately 30.0% and 70.0% in the dry and wet seasons and the presence of all 4 stages of pregnancy, suggesting that breeding occurs at both seasons. longevity of flies was approximately 16 days in dry season and 25 days in the wet season. overall results indicated that vector/host contact was high and the fly population has adapted and actively breeding in the area. trypanosome infection rates of 18.2% consist of 1 brucei-type and 5 vivax-type infections. the public health implications of the close proximity of the wild natural reservoir hosts of the human t. b. gambiense dutton, 1902 parasites at the kainji wild life park is discussed.
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