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Lower Incidence of Positive Gynecological Cancers in Examinees of a Unique Health Check-Up Institute, Ningen Dock in Japan, 2011-2016  [PDF]
Chinatsu Koiwai, Satoshi Ichigo, Hiroshi Takagi, Hiroyuki Kajikawa, Atsushi Imai
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.75057
Abstract: The present study aims to determine the gynecologic health status of asymptomatic women at a unique Japanese Health Check-up Institute, Ningen Dock. Medical records of Japanese women, who underwent gynecological medical (health) examinations between January 2011 and December 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Of the cervical smears from 8927 women aged 18 - 85 years, 50 (0.6%) were classified as dysplastic and malignant changes: 18 of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 10 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 21 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and 1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma. No case of cervical adenocarcinoma was found. Ultrasonographic examination detected uterus enlargements and ovary tumors in 2.0% and 0.9% of cases, respectively. Most of participants (95.6%) revealed no gynecologic abnormalities. The present study based on the records of Ningen Dock, where asymptomatic participants undergo a medical examination at their own expense, showed very low incidence of abnormal cytologic and/or ultrasonographic findings.
Incidence of Childhood Cancers in Golestan Province of Iran
Abdolvahab Moradi,Shahryar Semnani,Gholamreza Roshandel,Narges Mirbehbehani
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006.Methods: GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis.Findings: Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0-14 years) with mean (±SD) age of 8.06 (±4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively.Conclusion: The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area.
Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers  [PDF]
Luis Soto-Ortiz, James P. Brody
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066694
Abstract: Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma for women aged 85–99, acquired from SEER and the US Census, is consistent with this prediction. We conclude that the age specific data for testicular cancers and colon cancers is similar, suggesting that the underlying process leading to the development of these two forms of cancer may be similar.
Four Polygamous Families with Congenital Birth Defects from Fallujah, Iraq  [PDF]
Samira Alaani,Mozhgan Savabieasfahani,Mohammad Tafash,Paola Manduca
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8010089
Abstract: Since 2003, congenital malformations have increased to account for 15% of all births in Fallujah, Iraq. Congenital heart defects have the highest incidence, followed by neural tube defects. Similar birth defects were reported in other populations exposed to war contaminants. While the causes of increased prevalence of birth defects are under investigation, we opted to release this communication to contribute to exploration of these issues. By using a questionnaire, containing residential history and activities that may have led to exposure to war contaminants, retrospective reproductive history of four polygamous Fallujah families were documented. Our findings point to sporadic, untargeted events, with different phenotypes in each family and increased recurrence. The prevalence of familial birth defects after 2003 highlights the relevance of epigenetic mechanisms and offers insights to focus research, with the aim of reducing further damage to people’s health.
The age specific incidence anomaly suggests that cancers originate during development  [PDF]
James P. Brody
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Cancers are caused by the accumulation of genetic alterations. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence shows that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here I derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two sub-populations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.
Identifying related cancer types based on their incidence among people with multiple cancers
Chris D Bajdik, Zenaida U Abanto, John J Spinelli, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Richard P Gallagher
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-17
Abstract: In people with two or more cancer types, the probability that a specific type is diagnosed was determined as the number of diagnoses for that cancer type divided by the total number of cancer diagnoses. If two types of cancer occur independently of one another, then the probability that someone will develop both cancers by chance is the product of the individual probabilities for each type. The expected number of people with both cancers is the number of people at risk multiplied by the separate probabilities for each cancer. We performed the analysis on records of cancer diagnoses in British Columbia, Canada between 1970 and 2004.There were 28,159 people with records of multiple primary cancers between 1970 and 2004, including 1,492 people with between three and seven diagnoses. Among both men and women, the combinations of esophageal cancer with melanoma, and kidney cancer with oral cancer, are observed more than twice as often as expected.Our analysis suggests there are several pairs of primary cancers that might be related by a shared etiological factor. We think that our method is more appropriate than others when multiple diagnoses of primary cancer are unlikely to be the result of therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.There are several reasons that someone might be diagnosed with cancer at more than one anatomic site. First, a new cancer might be caused by the therapy for a previous cancer. The risk of breast cancer is significantly increased among women who were treated for Hodgkin Disease with radiation [1]. Second, cancer might occur at multiple sites because a factor is associated with cancer at each site. Germline mutations in mismatch repair genes can produce susceptibility to cancers of the colorectum, ovary, stomach, small bowel, upper uroepithelial tract, hepatobiliary tract and brain [2]. Likewise, cigarette smoking affects the risk of several cancer types. Third, a different cancer type might be diagnosed because of diagnostic or surveillance proced
Incidence and Mortality Rate of Common Gastrointestinal Cancers in South of Iran, a Population Based Study
Hassanzade J,Molavi e vardanjani H,Farahmand M,Rajaiifard AR
Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Considering the importance of updating information about incidence and mortality of common or fatal cancers and the need for studying the effectiveness of changes in the Iranian cancer registration system from pathological based to population based since 2007, the aim of this study was to provide updated population based information on incidence and mortality rates of esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum cancers in south of Iran , and also to provide basic data for investigating the performance of population based cancer registration system in these regions.Methods: This study was a review of population based data of esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum cancers in Fars province during 2008-9.We estimated Age Standardized Incidence and Mortality Rates (ASIRs and ASMRs), truncated ASIRs and ASMRs for each cancer using direct age standardization based on Iran's population and also based on the standard population of world.Finally, considering poison distribution, we calculated standard error of incidenceand mortality rates.Results: Adjusted incidence rates of esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum cancers(per 100,000) and their standard error were 2.56(0.0092), 9.99(0.0182),4.85(0.0127) and 1.56(0.0072) in males; and 1.60(0.0072), 4.66 (0.0123),3.24(0.0103) and 0.93(0.0055) in females respectively. These values for ASMRs per 100000 were 0.94(0.0056), 11.54(0.0195), 2.46(0.009), 0.34(0.0033) for men, and 0.51(0.004), 4.21(0.0117), 1.54(0.0071) and 0.41(0.0037) for women.Conclusion: Incidence and mortality rates of esophagus cancer in southern regions of Iran were less than the national average. We also clarified that stomach and colorectal cancers were the most important digestive cancers in this area.
Time trends in socioeconomic differences in incidence rates of cancers of gastro-intestinal tract in Finland
Elisabete Weiderpass, Eero Pukkala
BMC Gastroenterology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-6-41
Abstract: We studied social class variation among 45–69 year-old Finns during 1971–95 in incidence of cancers of the gastro-intestinal tract by means of a computerized record linkage of the Finnish Cancer Registry and the 1970 Population Census, which included social class data.There were 2.3 million individuals in the cohort under follow-up, with 1622 cases of cancer of the esophagus, 8069 stomach (non-cardia), 1116 cardia, 408 small intestine, 6361 colon, 5274 rectum, 1616 liver, 1756 gallbladder, and 5084 pancreas during 1971–1995. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, cardia, gallbladder and pancreas were most common among persons belonging to a low social class. Cancers of the small intestine in males only, colon in both genders, and rectum in females were most common in the higher social classes. Incidence of stomach cancer decreased and incidence of colon cancer increased over time in both genders in all social classes, and the large differences between social classes remained unchanged over time. Incidence rates of cardia cancer did not change substantially over time.There is a large variation in incidence of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract by social class in Finland. Although much of the observed social class differences probably could be explained by known etiological factors such as diet, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking and exogenous hormone use, part of the variation is apparently attributable to largely unknown factors.The magnitude of socioeconomic differences in health varies between societies, and over time within a given society. Previous studies identified associations between low social class and stomach, esophagus and pancreas cancers (both for incidence and mortality). Positive socio-economic gradients (i.e. low risk in low socioeconomic strata) were observed for colon cancer for males and females, both for incidence and mortality [1-3]. No consistent trends according to socio-economic strata were observed in most studies for rectum [1,2
Incidence and mortality rates of selected infection-related cancers in Puerto Rico and in the United States
Ana P Ortiz, Marievelisse Soto-Salgado, William A Calo, Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, Cynthia M Pérez, Carlos J Romero, Javier Pérez, Nayda Figueroa-Vallés, Erick Suárez
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-5-10
Abstract: Age-standardized rates [ASR(World)] were calculated based on cancer incidence and mortality data from the PR Cancer Central Registry and SEER, using the direct method and the world population as the standard. Annual percent changes (APC) were calculated using the Poisson regression model from 1992-2003.The incidence and mortality rates from stomach, liver and cervical cancer were lower in NHW than PR; with the exception of mortality from cervical cancer which was similar in both populations. Meanwhile, the incidence rates of stomach, liver and cervical cancers were similar between NHB and PR; except for NHB women who had a lower incidence rate of liver cancer than women in PR. NHB had a lower mortality from liver cancer than persons in PR, and similar mortality from stomach cancer.The burden of liver, stomach, and cervical cancer in PR compares to that of USH and NHB and continues to be a public health priority. Public health efforts are necessary to further decrease the burden of cancers associated to infections in these groups, the largest minority population groups in the US. Future studies need to identify factors that may prevent infections with cancer-related agents in these populations. Strategies to increase the use of preventive strategies, such as vaccination and screening, among minority populations should also be developed.Infection with several viruses and bacteria has been associated to the development of various cancer types [1]. Nearly 17.8% of the global cancer burden is attributable to infectious agents [2], with a higher percentage in developing countries (26.3%) than in developed countries (7.7%) [3]. The principal infectious agents associated with cancer morbidity worldwide are Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) (5.5% of all cancers), human papilloma viruses (HPV) (5.2% of all cancers), and hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) (4.9% of all cancers); these agents account for 87.6% of the total cancer burden associated to infections [2]. M
Regional differences in incidence and mortality trends in cancers of the larynx, thyroid, oral cavity and pharynx in England and Scotland: 1975-2002  [PDF]
Oladejo Olaleye, Somiah Siddiq, Rehan Kazi, Udeme Ekrikpo
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.32011

Context: There have been significant changes in the epidemiology of head and neck cancers (HNC) in the last three decades worldwide. Documenting these trends helps to facilitate cancer prevention measures and aids resource allocation. Objective: To analyse incidence and mortality trends in Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) in the UK and compare regional differences between England and Scotland. Design: Retrospective quantitative analysis of time trends of HNC cases in the UK recorded in the International Agency for Research into Cancer (IARC) CI5 database and WHO mortality database. Setting: Cancer databases with extraction of UK HNC incidence and mortality time trends. Patients: All patients with cancers of the larynx, thyroid, oral cavity and pharynx in the UK (1975-2002) recorded in the IARC and WHO databases. Main Outcome Measures: HNC incidence and mortality trends in the UK. Results: There has been an increase in incidence of oral and pharyngeal cancer in the UK especially among males with higher rates in Scotland. However mortality has increased in Scotland and reduced in England. Thyroid cancer incidence has increased in the UK especially among females with higher rates in Scotland. Mortality has reduced in both regions. Laryngeal cancer among males has increased in incidence particularly in Scotland with a decline in incidence in England. Mortality has reduced significantly in England among males but increased in Scotland. Conclusions: In the UK, Scotland has higher incidence rates of HNC compared with England. Mortality has reduced in England from all the HNC sub-sites but has increased in Scotland for laryngeal, oral & pharynxgeal cancers. Although socioeconomic deprivation and its relation to higher alcohol and tobacco consumption have been highlighted as drivers, further studies are required.

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