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百菌清(chlorothalonil)在水中的光化学降解  [PDF]
李学德,花日茂,岳永德,李瑛,汤锋,唐俊
应用生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: 研究了光源种类、溶液ph、水温和表面活性剂对百菌清光解的影响.结果表明,百菌清水溶液在高压汞灯、紫外灯和太阳光照射下的光解半衰期分别为22.4、82.5和123.8min;在太阳光和高压汞灯照射下,百菌清在碱性溶液中比中性和酸性溶液中光解快;随着水温的升高,百菌清光解速率加快,水温平均每升高10℃,光解速率大约增大1倍.表面活性剂十二烷基磺酸钠、tween60和span20对百菌清的光解表现出显著的光敏化效应,十六烷基三甲基溴化铵对百菌清光解有强烈的光猝灭效应.
百菌清在番茄上的自然消解动态及健康风险研究
Study on Natural Dynamic Degradation of Chlorothalonil in Tomato and Its Health Risks
 [PDF]

于安芬,车宗贤,王东晖,李瑞琴,,,,,宋政平
- , 2016, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2016.10.013
Abstract: 试验设喷施百菌清推荐剂量(2 400 g/hm,T1)、加倍剂量(4 800 g/hm2,T2)、喷清水(对照)3个处理。探讨蔬菜上百菌清残留量的安全性,开展番茄中百菌清残留的消解规律试验。结果表明,百菌清在番茄上的自然消解速度随施药剂量的增大而减慢。喷药后24 h内消解最快,T1处理和T2处理施药后1 d的消解率分别为60.22%和27.58%,7 d的消解率达91.72%和46.67%,其半衰期分别为4.3 d和18.0 d。按推荐剂量施药1 d后采摘,番茄中百菌清残留量为0.370 mg/kg,符合国家相关标准的规定;从人体健康风险角度分析,如果按规范施药,百菌清在番茄上施用安全,产品食用无健康风险。
To study the safety of pesticide residues in vegetable, the experiments on natural dynamic degradation of chlorothalonil in tomato were carried out . The results showed that the higher treated dosage was, the slower the degrading speed of chlorothalonil residues in tomato. It degraded fastest in the first 24 h after spraying. The chlorothalonil residues in treatments of recommended dosage and doubled recommended dosage degraded by 60.22% and 27.58% in 1 d, then by 91.72% and 46.67% in 7 d, respectively. Therefore in these cases the half lives of decomposition of chlorothalonil residues in tomato would be 4.3 d and 18.0 d, respectively. In treatments of recommended dosage the content of chlorothalonil in tomato was 0.370 mg/kg in 24 h after spraying, complying with the provisions of the relevant national standards.According to application, specifications, applying pesticide chlorothalonil on tomato was safe in human beings health risk,and tomato products consumption has no health risks.
Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Toxicity of Chlorothalonil on Upland Rice (Oryzal sativa L.)
丛枝菌根真菌对百菌清引起的旱稻(Oryza sativa L.)毒性的影响

ZHANG Xu-hong,LIN Ai-jun,CUI Yu-jing,
张旭红
,林爱军,崔玉静

环境科学 , 2007,
Abstract: Upland rice was selected as a host plant in a greenhouse-pot-culture experiment to investigate the effects of chlorothalonil and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and oxidative damage under chlorothalonil stress. The plants were grown with three concentrations of chlorothalonil (0, 50 and 100 mg x kg(-1) soil).The results suggested that chlorothalonil inhibited the growth of upland rice and reduced dry weight of upland rice shoot from 2.5 g x pot(-1) to 1.0 g x pot(-1), and the root dry weight was reduced from 0.9 g x pot(-1) to 0.3 g x pot(-1). However, with AMF colonization the dry weight of upland rice was increased to 2.1 g x pot(-1). With 50 mg x kg(-1) chlorothalonil addition, the P uptake was reduced from 3200 microg x pot(-1) to 860 microg x pot(-1), but the AMF colonization could increased the P uptake to 1900 microg x pot(-1). Chlorothalonil induced oxidative stress indicating by the changes in activities of antioxidative enzyme and AMF colonization could alleviate the oxidative stress. These results showed that chlorothalonil induced oxidative stress and inhibited P uptake in upland rice and AMF could decrease the side effects of chlorothalonil by increasing P uptake and decreasing oxidative damages.
Effect of chlorothalonil on soil microbial communities of Larix artificial shelter-forest
百菌清对落叶松人工防护林土壤微生物群落的影响

SHAO Yuanyuan,WANG Zhiying,ZOU Li,WU Shaoping,
邵元元
,王志英,邹莉,吴韶平

生态学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Chlorothalonil is considered to be a non-selective fungicide and used commonly to control a broad spectrum of plant diseases. Hence, it is important to study its impact on ecological safety. In this study, the recommended dosage of chlorothalonil was sprayed on the soil of larch artificial shelter-forest to evaluate the impact of the fungicide on soil microbial communities. At the same time, analysis of correlations between soil diversity and propertities showed that it can provide basic data of the influence to soil microbial community and thus, provide basic foundings of scientifical usage and crisis managament for the pesticide. Using dilution-plate method, data of culturable microbial populations, soil properties and microbial functional diversity indexes were collected before spraying fungicide, 0 MAT, 2 MAT, 4 MAT and 12 MAT respectively. The results showed that bacterium was the dominant species among soil microbes whose number directly affected the dynamics of total soil microbial amount of larch artificial shelter-forest. As a whole, chlorothalonil had inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the soil bacteria. The inhibition occurred mainly in both the surface and the upper-layer (0-10cm) soils on 0 day after spraying.Moreover, the inhibitory effect on the bacteria in surface soil was significantly different from that in upper soil two months after spraying and the difference reached the climax four months later. At the time of both 0 MAT and 2 MAT, chlorothalonil facilitated the proliferation of the fungi in both the surface and the upper-layer (0-10cm) soils. Nevertheless, it showed little influence on the under layer soil fungi populations. Although the actinomycetes amount in both the surface and upper layer(0-10cm) soils were decreased as a result of the applicaton of chlorothalonil, the inhibition was weaker than those on bacterial populations. Correlation analysis between three main groups of microbial populations, soil propertities and diversity indices showed that the contents of both the effective phosphorus and available potassium in the soil were significantly positively correlated to the numbers of soil actinomycetes. The bacterium count was correlated positively to the content of soil hydrolysable nitrogen as well, whereas not to the soil microbial community diversity. Biolog-Eco Plate detecting showed that, 2 MAT, chlorothalonil had no significant effect on the carbon conversion ratio of the surface soil microbes while significant to that of the upper-layer microbes. And there was significant difference on the carbon conversion ratios of the under-layer microbes between two experiments tested on two months and four months after spraying respectively. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between different soil layers. Principal component analysis of 31 carbon sources showed that the ability of single carbon conversion ratio of soil microbial community strikingly improved after chlorothalonil spaying. Furtherm
Effects of fungicide chlorothalonil on soil nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions.
百菌清对土壤氧化亚氮和二氧化碳排放的影响

LANG Man,CAI Zu-cong,
郎漫
,蔡祖聪

应用生态学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 在25 ℃、60%WHC(最大持水量)的好氧条件下进行14 d的培养试验,研究杀菌剂百菌清在添加水平为0 mg·kg-1(CK)、5.5 mg·kg-1(田间施用量,FR)及110 mg·kg-1(20FR)和220 mg·kg-1(40FR)时对酸性、中性和碱性土壤中N2O和CO2排放的影响.结果表明:百菌清对N2O和CO2排放的影响取决于土壤类型和施用浓度.与对照相比,百菌清在20FR和40FR时显著抑制了酸性土壤N2O的产生与排放;3种施用量均显著促进了中性土壤N2O的排放,其中FR水平的促进效果最显著;高浓度(20FR和40FR)的百菌清在培养初期抑制了碱性土壤N2O的排放,而在培养后期显著促进了N2O的排放.田间用量的百菌清对土壤CO2排放量没有明显影响;高浓度(20FR和40FR)时显著促进了酸性土壤CO2的排放,显著抑制了中性和碱性土壤CO2的排放.
The effects of chlorothalonil on nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soils under anaerobic conditions
厌气条件下百菌清对土壤N2O和CH4排放的影响

LANG Man,CAI Zucong,
郎漫
,蔡祖聪

环境科学学报 , 2009,
Abstract: 在密闭、淹水、充N2的严格厌氧条件下对土壤进行了14d的培养试验,研究了杀菌剂百菌清在添加水平为田间施用量(FR)(5.5 mg·kg-1),20倍(20FR)和40倍田间施用量(40FR)时对强酸性、酸性、中性和碱性土壤N2O和CH4排放的影响.结果表明,20FR和40 FR的百菌清能够显著促进N2O向N2的还原,降低N2O排放,在酸性、中性和碱性土壤中培养14d后,对照处理的N2O排放量为0.076~0.46mg·kg-1,而20FR和40FR处理的N2O排放量为0.004~0.06mg·kg-1,降低了1个数量级.反硝化作用和有机氮矿化作用强的土壤中,百菌清减少N2O排放作用更明显.反硝化底物NO-3的存在对CH4的产生与排放具有显著的抑制作用.在加入百菌清未对NO-3浓度产生显著影响的土壤中,百菌清对CH4排放量没有明显影响,在对NO-3浓度产生显著影响的土壤中,CH4排放量随着NO-3的增加而减少,说明百菌清可能通过影响反硝化过程中NO-3的消耗而影响CH4排放.
茵莲清肝颗粒保肝降酶作用的研究  [PDF]
王志斌,周建平
中国中医药信息杂志 , 2004,
Abstract: 目的研究茵莲清肝颗粒保肝降酶作用。方法选用d-半乳糖胺所致小鼠急性肝损伤模型、酒精性小鼠肝损伤模型、四氯化碳(ccl4)所致慢性肝损伤模型,研究茵莲清肝颗粒保肝降酶作用。结果茵莲清肝颗粒对d-半乳糖胺所致小鼠急性肝损伤、小鼠酒精性肝损伤、ccl4所致大鼠慢性肝损伤均有保护。结论茵莲清肝颗粒具有保肝降酶作用。
黄连清降合剂对原发性高血压大鼠血压及血浆(清)et、no、angⅱ的影响  [PDF]
李运伦
中国中医药信息杂志 , 2003,
Abstract: 目的:探讨黄连清降合剂的降压作用及作用机制。方法:选用30只自发性高血压大鼠(shr),随机分为5组,分别采用尾动脉法测sbp、放射免疫分析法测血浆et及angⅱ、硝酸还原酶法测血清no。结果:黄连清降合剂能降低shr的血压,对心率无明显的影响,能降低shr的血浆et、升高血清no并调整二者的平衡,降低血浆angⅱ。结论:黄连清降合剂对shr有明显的降压效应,其机制为降低血浆et和升高血清no并调整二者的平衡、降低血浆angⅱ。
黄连清降合剂治疗高血压病的实验研究  [PDF]
袁成民,丁书文
中国中医药信息杂志 , 2005,
Abstract: 目的探讨黄连清降合剂的降压效果和降压机理。方法采用自发性高血压大鼠(shr)模型,设黄连清降合剂高剂量组、低剂量组、模型组、卡托普利组,对shr的血压、血浆肾素、血管紧张素ⅱ(angⅱ)、血浆内皮素(et-1)、肾动脉中膜厚度/管腔半径、中膜面积/管腔面积进行了实验观察。结果黄连清降合剂能显著降低shr的血压及血浆肾素、angⅱ、et-1、肾动脉中膜厚度/管腔半径、中膜面积/管腔面积,且高、低剂量间有显著性差异(p<0.05)。结论黄连清降合剂降低血浆肾素、angⅱ、et-1,可能是其降压、防止血管重构的重要机制之一。
大口径毛细管气相色谱法测定果蔬中百菌清残留量
周昱
色谱 , 1993,
Abstract: 百菌清(Chlorothalonil)的化学名称为2,4,5,6-四氯-1,3-苯二甲腈,它是一种非内吸性广谱杀菌剂,对多种作物真菌病害有预防作用,广泛应用于果蔬等农作物上。百菌清残留量的测定方法国内未见研究。国外虽有气相色法报道,但文献2]存在操作繁琐,回收率不高的缺点;Bicchi等人在净
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