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The generation and distribution of central bank seigniorage in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland  [cached]
Eduard Hochreiter,Riccardo Rovelli
PSL Quarterly Review , 2002,
Abstract: We measure the amount of central bank seigniorage generated in three economies in transition and inquire to what extent seigniorage ultimately accrues to the government. We relate our findings to the institutional environment of the three countries. We find that, in parallel to the process of disinflation, seigniorage has declined substantially in the 1990s in all three countries under consideration pointing to more monetary discipline and a strengthening of central bank independence. Only in Hungary seigniorage benefited the government to a significant amount. We interpret this as being the consequence of past policies, rather than an obstacle to further disinflation.
The Limits of the State: Political Participation and Representation of Roma in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia  [PDF]
Eva Sobotka
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2001,
Abstract: The author analyses the political involvement of Roma in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in the 1990s. It is argued that while Romani political participation has developed substantially over the years, political representation has not yet been attained. The author identifies models of involvement in state structures as related to the effectiveness of political participation and influence on policy formation. Romani leaders often put the bulk of the blame on governments for the absence of real political representation of Roma. The author argues that trans-national organizations have formed financial and social incentives to Roma industry that have played a key role as a 'brain drain' in attracting those who might have otherwise been involved in party politics. While political systems and demographics have precluded the possibility for an ethnic Romani political party in the Czech Republic, the Romani leaders in Hungary and Slovakia have yet to fully utilise the electroal potential of the Romani electorate.
THE OMBUDSMAN AND THE JUDICIAL POWER. THE ROMANIAN EXPERIENCE
Emil B?LAN,Gabriela VARIA
Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The main objective of the present paper consists in evaluating the judicial actions of the Ombudsman and in determining its position in the framework of the legal instruments placed at his/hers disposal for carrying out the missions conferred by the legal norms and the public expectances. The paper aims at (1) identifying the historical stages during which were introduce the legal instruments at the Ombudsman’s disposal, (2) studying the institutional reforms generated by the modifications of the Romanian Constitution from 2003, (3) analyzing the Romanian practice concerning the People’s Advocate (Romanian Ombudsman) intervention into the constitutional justice and in front of the administrative review courts, and (4) effectuating a foray in the European practice and achieving a comparative study in the field.The research is conducted within the project entitled “The right to a good administration and its impact on public administration’s procedures” (PN II CCSIS ID_698) financed by the Romanian National University Research Council.
Institutional and infrastructure barriers to competitiveness of the Republic of Serbia
Parau?i? Vesna
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0704597p
Abstract: The analyses of the process of transition in Serbia, made by some international institutions and organisations, have shown that the fundamental problems in our economy are ineffective institutions and necessity of overall infrastructure changes. The author considers that any significant economic growth in Serbia in the future is unrealistic in the unfavourable macro- and microeconomic business environment. She emphasises the necessity to implement institutional and infrastructure reforms, which should be the first postulate for growth of productivity and competitiveness of enterprises and national economy.
Risk premium shocks, monetary policy and exchange rate pass-through in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland
Balázs,Vonnák;
Ensayos sobre POLíTICA ECONóMICA , 2010,
Abstract: this paper investigates the role of monetary policy in a small open economy, where exchange rate shocks are important. var models are estimated for the czech republic, hungary and poland. contemporaneous and sign restrictions are imposed in order to identify the effect of monetary policy and risk premium shocks. estimates from the same model for canada, sweden and the uk are used as a benchmark for developed economies with low inflation. the results suggest that the typical size of a risk premium shock renders it almost impossible for the interest rate policy to smooth the exchange rate with the aim of minimizing inflationary consequences. on the other hand, low inflation may decrease the exchange rate pass-through, which helps the monetary policy ignore exchange rate shocks.
The Financial Impact of Government Policies on Families with Children in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia  [PDF]
Natálie ?varcová,Petr ?varc
AUCO Czech Economic Review , 2009,
Abstract: In the presented paper we focus on the two ways in which family policy influences life of the society. Firstly, we discuss incentives that the family policy provides to families when they are deciding about having a child. Secondly, we describe the impact of family policies on standard of living and well-being of the families with children. European countries already acknowledged the fact that increase in the fertility rates would be natural solution of the ageing of the European population and family policy is seen as one of the tools available to achieve higher fertility rates. At the same time empirical evidence suggests that the families with children are overrepresented among the population at risk of poverty and family policy can be seen as an instrument for alleviating the financial burden of the families with children. Presented study compares the impact of the government policies on the net income of families with children in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Comparative ana lysis of the birth grants, the maternity allowances, the child-rearing allowances and child allowances in the four examined countries is undertaken followed by the assessment of tax systems in these countries. Second part of the paper is devoted to the discussion of the income situation of the families with children in the four countries and tries to shed light on the impact of family benefit system on the households with dependent children. Our results indicate that family provisions in the Czech Republic and Hungary are relatively generous with the Czech system working simultaneously as a social assistance to poor families and the Hungarian system working on much less of a sliding scale of benefits. Poland provides only very modest financial support to families with children and the burden imposed by the parenthood is much heavier than in the three other countries. Czech and Slovak family support systems are similar in its structure but amounts paid to Slovak families are lower.
EU Enlargement and Minority Rights Policies in Central Europe: Explaining Policy Shifts in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland
Peter Vermeersch
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2003,
Abstract: To what extent has the EU's growing concern for norms of minority protection influenced domestic policy-making in the candidate member states in Central Europe? In order to begin to explore this question, the present article assesses the impact of both domestic and international factors on the development of policies towards national minorities in three Central europen countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Following an introduction, which places the subject in the context of the larger debates on minority rights, the first part of the article describes the ways in which regional organizations in Europe have attempted to persuade or induce the three countries under consideration to adopt minority rights policies. The second section then describes policy developments in Central Europe and considers the factors that have contributed to policy shifts. Finally, the third part reflects on the uneven impact of the EU's accession criteria on the development of minority rights policies in the candidate countries and concludes that the EU's impact on policy has crucially depended both on domestic interests and receptivity to international concerns for internal security.
Clinical and Economic Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia among Adults in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia  [PDF]
Ales Tichopad, Craig Roberts, Igor Gembula, Petr Hajek, Anna Skoczynska, Waleria Hryniewicz, Karina Jahnz-Rozyk, Roman Prymula, Ivan Solovi?, Vitězslav Kolek
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071375
Abstract: We estimate and describe the incidence rates, mortality, and cost of CAP (community-acquired pneumonia), in both inpatient and outpatient settings, in the Czech Republic (CZ), Slovakia (SK), Poland (PL), and Hungary (HU). A retrospective analysis was conducted on administrative data from the health ministry and insurance reimbursement claims with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia in 2009 to determine hospitalization rates, costs, and mortality in adults ≥50 years of age. Patient chart reviews were conducted to estimate the number of outpatient cases. Among all adults ≥50 years, the incidence of hospitalized CAP per 100,000 person years was: 456.6 (CZ), 504.6 (SK), 363.9 (PL), and 845.3 (HU). The average fatality rate for all adults ≥50 is 19.1%, and for each country; 21.7% (CZ), 20.9% (SK), 18.6% (PL), 17.8% (HU). Incidence, fatality, and likelihood of hospitalization increased with advancing age. Total healthcare costs of CAP in EUR was 12,579,543 (CZ); 9,160,774 (SK); 22,409,085 (PL); and 18,298,449 (HU); with hospitalization representing over 90% of the direct costs of treatment. The burden of CAP increases with advancing age in four CEE countries, with hospitalizations driving the costs of CAP upwards in the elderly population. Mortality rates are generally higher than reported in Western EU countries.
THE JUNE 2012 OPINION OF THE VENICE COMMISSION OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE ON THE ACT ON THE RIGHTS OF NATIONALITIES OF HUNGARY. PRESENTATION AND ASSESSMENT
Bogdan AURESCU
Lex et Scientia , 2012,
Abstract: The paper undertakes an analysis of the June 2012 Opinion of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission) of the Council of Europe on the Hungarian Act on the Rights of Nationalities of Hungary, adopted in December 2011. The paper approaches this task having as a reference point the European standards on minority protection, but also the concrete needs of the Romanian minority of Hungary in preserving and developing its cultural identity, effort which might be directly affected by the Act. The paper shows that the Opinion of the Venice Commission acknowledges not only the positive aspects set forth by the Act, but also certain important shortcomings that have to be redressed by further amending the Act. Among these, inter alia, one may identify the following: the fact that, being a “cardinal” law, it is quite difficult to amend it; the fact that it sometimes includes an excessively detailed regulation; that it changes the terminology from “national minority” to “nationality”, with important consequences on the manner of projecting the Hungarian interests in connection with the Hungarian minorities abroad (as well as the fact that the Act consecrates the controversial concept of “collective rights”); it includes a narrow definition of the “nationality”, thus excluding the new minorities and creating some difficulties for the Roma, who are not (by tradition) strictly linked to territory; it does not include sufficient guarantees as to the accuracy of ethnic data collection, especially by censuses; it does not provide for concrete measures to ensure the verification of the mother tongue knowledge by minority electors and candidates for self-governments, thus living place for the perpetuation of the phenomenon of the so-called “ethno-business”; the regulation of education for minorities has a degree of uncertainty with regard to the stability and continuity of minority education and might have a negative impact on the parents’ choice as to their children education; it does not address in an appropriate manner the problem of financing of the media for national minorities, and so on.
THE DANISH OMBUDSMAN – A NATIONAL WATCHDOG WITH EUROPEAN RESERVATIONS
Michael G?TZE
Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The Danish Parliamentary Ombudsman occupies a central position as a watchdog over public authorities within the national context. The statutory and functional powers of the institution are wide and the ombudsman enjoys an a priori sympathy from e.g. Parliament and the media. In addition, there are no specialised administrative courts in Denmark and the ombudsman is thus unrivalled on the legal scene as the primary specialist protector of good administration. Nevertheless, the ombudsman subscribes to a narrow scope of focus in the protection of citizens’ rights. In practice the ombudsman often limits his review to the compliance by authorities of national law and in particular of general procedural requirements. The rights of citizens are only actively protected by the ombudsman as far as certain parts of general administrative law in concerned. The current strategy of selected preferences of the Danish ombudsman leaves European Union rights of citizens largely unidentified and unprotected. The Danish ombudsman is a watchdog with teeth but with discerning taste buds. As to EU Law, the ombudsman is reserved and has no appetite at all.
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