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Evaluation of a public expense-covered gynecologic screening program in Japan 2005-2009  [PDF]
Hiroshi Takagi, Satoshi Ichigo, Kazutoshi Matsunami, Atsushi Imai
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.12005
Abstract: Introduction: In Japan, there is free physical check-up programs of cancer screening, by which asymptomatic participants undergo a medical examination at public expense. The present study aims to describe their gynecologic findings and compare them with the literatures reported from general hospitals and self-paid check-up programs. Methods: Medical records of Japanese women, who underwent gynecological examinations at public expense between 2005 and 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the cervical smears from 2850 women aged 21 - 82 years, 33 (1.1%) were classified as dysplastic and malignant changes: 28 of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 3 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 2 atypical squamous cells of undeterimined significance (ASC-US). No case of cervical squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma was found. Ultrasonographic examination detected uterus enlargements and ovary tumors in less than 1% of cases. Most of participants (98%) revealed no gynecologic abnormalities. Conclusion: Annual gynecologic screening and proper follow-up programs even against asymptomatic women may remarkably reduce the probability of (pre)malignant disease.
The Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Spirometric Values in Participants in a Health Check: The Takahata Study  [cached]
Yasuko Aida, Yoko Shibata, Daisuke Osaka, Shuichi Abe, Sumito Inoue, Koji Fukuzaki, Yoshikane Tokairin, Akira Igarashi, Keiko Yamauchi, Takako Nemoto, Keiko Nunomiya, Hiroyuki Kishi, Masamichi Sato, Tetsu Watanabe, Tsuneo Konta, Sumio Kawata, Takeo Kato
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Tissue hypoxia induces the degradation of adenosine triphosphate, resulting in the production of uric acid (UA). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported to have high serum levels of UA (sUA), compared with control subjects. However, the relationship between sUA levels and spirometric measures has not been investigated in detail in a general population. Methods: Subjects aged 40 years or older (n = 2,917), who had participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, in 2004 and 2005, were enrolled in the study. These subjects performed spirometry, their blood pressure was measured, and a blood sample was taken. Results: sUA levels were significantly higher in males than in females. Percent predicted forced vital capacity [FVC %predicted] (r = -0.13) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 %predicted] (r = -0.118) were inversely correlated with sUA levels in females but not in males. Univariate regression analysis indicated that age, body mass index (BMI), ethanol intake, mean blood pressure (BP), and serum creatinine (sCr) were significantly associated with sUA levels in males. In females, age, BMI, mean BP, hemoglobin A1c, sCr, FVC %predicted, and FEV1 %predicted were significantly associated with sUA levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both genders, FVC %predicted and FEV1 %predicted were predictive for sUA levels, independently of the other clinical parameters. Subjects with lung restriction had higher sUA levels than subjects without lung restriction. In addition, subjects with moderate and severe airflow limitation had higher sUA levels than subjects without airflow limitation or those with mild airflow limitation. Conclusion: FVC %predicted and FEV1 %predicted were significantly associated with sUA levels in a general population.
Lower Incidence of Positive Gynecological Cancers in Examinees of a Unique Health Check-Up Institute, Ningen Dock in Japan, 2011-2016  [PDF]
Chinatsu Koiwai, Satoshi Ichigo, Hiroshi Takagi, Hiroyuki Kajikawa, Atsushi Imai
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.75057
Abstract: The present study aims to determine the gynecologic health status of asymptomatic women at a unique Japanese Health Check-up Institute, Ningen Dock. Medical records of Japanese women, who underwent gynecological medical (health) examinations between January 2011 and December 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Of the cervical smears from 8927 women aged 18 - 85 years, 50 (0.6%) were classified as dysplastic and malignant changes: 18 of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 10 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 21 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and 1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma. No case of cervical adenocarcinoma was found. Ultrasonographic examination detected uterus enlargements and ovary tumors in 2.0% and 0.9% of cases, respectively. Most of participants (95.6%) revealed no gynecologic abnormalities. The present study based on the records of Ningen Dock, where asymptomatic participants undergo a medical examination at their own expense, showed very low incidence of abnormal cytologic and/or ultrasonographic findings.
Paleopathological Evidence and Detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from Archaeological Skeletal Remains of Nabe-kaburi (Head-Covered with Iron Pots) Burials in Japan  [PDF]
Koichi Suzuki, Aiko Saso, Keigo Hoshino, Junya Sakurai, Kazunari Tanigawa, Yuqian Luo, Yuko Ishido, Shuichi Mori, Kazuaki Hirata, Norihisa Ishii
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088356
Abstract: The Nabe-kaburi is a unique burial method, the purpose of which is shrouded in mystery. The burials were performed during the 15th to 18th centuries in eastern Japan, and involved covering the heads of the deceased with iron pots or mortars. The identification of leprosy-specific osteological lesions among some of the excavated remains has led to the suggestion that Nabe-kaburi burials were a reflection of the social stigma against certain infectious diseases, such as leprosy, tuberculosis or syphilis. However, molecular evidence for the presence of disease has been lacking. The goal of this study was to detect Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) DNA in archaeological human skeletal remains from Nabe-kaburi burials. The paleopathological data from three Nabe-kaburi burials were re-evaluated before small samples were taken from affected and control areas. DNA was extracted and used as a template to target the M. leprae-specific DNA using a combination of whole genome amplification, PCR analysis and DNA sequencing. M. leprae DNA fragments were detected in the two sets of skeletal remains that had also shown paleopathological evidence of leprosy. These findings provide definitive evidence that some of the Nabe-kaburi burials were performed for people affected by leprosy. Demonstration of the presence of M. leprae DNA, combined with archeological and anthropological examinations, will aid in solving the mystery of why Nabe-kaburi burials were performed in medieval Japan.
Factors associated with the use of home-visit nursing services covered by the long-term care insurance in rural Japan: a cross-sectional study  [cached]
Kashiwagi Masayo,Tamiya Nanako,Sato Mikiya,Yano Eiji
BMC Geriatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-13-1
Abstract: Background In Japan, there is a large increase in the number of elderly persons who potentially need home-visit nursing services (VNS). However, the number of persons using the VNS has increased only little in comparison to the number of individuals who use home social services, which are also covered by the Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system. This cross-sectional study investigated the predictors of the VNS used under the LTCI system in Japan. Methods We used 1,580 claim data from all the users of community-based services and 1,574 interview survey data collected in 2001 from the six municipal bodies in Japan. After we merged the two datasets, 1,276 users of community-based services under the LTCI were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression models stratified by care needs levels were used for analysis. Results Only 8.3% of the study subjects were VNS users. Even among study participants within the higher care-needs level, only 22.0% were VNS users. In the lower care level group, people with a higher care level (OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 1.50–8.93), those whose condition needed long term care due to respiratory or heart disease (OR: 4.31, 95% CI: 1.88–89.20), those whose period of needing care was two years or more (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.14–3.48), those whose service plan was created by a medical care management agency (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.31–4.33), those living with family (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.00–3.42), and those who use home-help services (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.17–3.83) were more likely to use the VNS. In the higher care level group, individuals with higher care level (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.56–8.66), those with higher income (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.01–14.25), and those who had regular hospital visits before entering the LTCI (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.11–5.38) were more likely to use the VNS. Conclusions Our results suggested that VNS use is limited due to management by non-medical care management agencies, due to no caregivers being around or a low income household. The findings of this study provide valuable insight for LTCI policy makers: the present provision of VNS should be reconsidered.
Japan Japan Japón
Kazujo Suzuki
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2000,
Abstract: Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verst ndnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften in Japan. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153 This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000153
The Direction of Research on Active Aging and Healthy Life Expectancy in Japan  [PDF]
Atsuko Tokushige, Daiji Araki, Miyuki Suzuki, Yukie Iwasaki, Mizuho Ozawa
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.47050
Abstract:

In Japan, 18.1% of the population known as baby-boomers will become the late-stage elderly in 2025, thereby needing a foundation to support this change. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is promoting the development of a regional comprehensive system allowing the elderly to continue living in their familiar surroundings. However, a care shortage is inevitable unless elders are able to age in good health, regardless of the system’s level of enhancement. This study aims to review the literature on active aging, clarify trends in clinical operations undertakings and research in Japan, and consider relevant research issues. After combining the search results of “active aging” and “healthy life expectancy,” we used a text mining technique to analyze the abstracts of 120 original articles and 213 reviews, commentaries, and features. Eight categories were extracted from the original articles: health statistics, gender, age, etc. From the reviews, commentaries, and features, 16 categories were extracted: orientation, disease, and living, etc. Cerebrovascular disease and osteoporosis were the most common diseases covered in the original articles; there has been a substantial amount of research on “active aging” and “healthy life expectancy” because they can easily lead to being bedridden and to a decrease in QOL. In the reviews, commentaries, and features, lifestyle-related diseases and menopause rather than cerebrovascular disease and osteoporosis, were extracted. The categorical differences found in the original articles may be due to the possibility that Japanese researchers are publishing their research abroad rather than in Japan or they submit research on topics that are guaranteed to be published at home or abroad. Little research has been conducted using the terms, “active aging” and “healthy life expectancy,” evidenced by the small number of studies generated. Preparations for 2025 will require an increase in the number of studies from the perspective of “active aging” and “healthy life expectancy.”

Projecting HIV Transmission in Japan  [PDF]
Stuart Gilmour, Jinghua Li, Kenji Shibuya
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043473
Abstract: Background Little is known about the epidemiology of HIV in Japan, though newly-identified cases amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) show an increasing trend. Predictions of future trends in the HIV epidemic are essential to identify suitable interventions. Methods A deterministic, compartmental model was developed that incorporated risk groups, disease stages, and treatment and testing parameters. This model was calibrated against current figures on new infections and run over 30 years to identify trends in prevalence amongst MSM, low-risk men and low-risk women. Multivariate sensitivity analysis was used to estimate sensitivity ranges for all outcomes. Results Without new interventions amongst MSM in Japan, HIV prevalence will climb from its current rate of 2.1% to 10.4% (sensitivity range 7.4% to 18.7%), while HIV prevalence among low-risk men and women will likely decline. With small changes in safer sex behavior and testing rates, HIV prevalence can remain stable or even decline amongst MSM. Conclusions Japan is at risk of an epidemic of HIV amongst MSM unless significant changes are made to its current public health intervention framework. More research is necessary to understand the key drivers of the epidemic in Japan.
Prevalence of abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance (MR) examinations in adult participants of brain docking
Yoshito Tsushima, Ayako Taketomi-Takahashi, Keigo Endo
BMC Neurology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-5-18
Abstract: We analyzed screening brain MR examinations for 1113 adults (age, 52.6+/-8.5 years; range, 22–84; 761 male and 352 female) performed during 6-year period from April 1998 to March 2004. All participants voluntarily sought a brain MR examination at their own expense. All subjects were studied using the same 1.0-T MR scanner, on axial T1-weighted spin echo (SE) images, proton-density-weighted and T2-weighted fast SE images, and intracranial MR angiography (MRA). All abnormal findings were classified into three basic categories: (1) findings with no referral necessary; (2) findings not requiring further evaluation, but which needed to be reported to the referring physician; (3) findings requiring further evaluation.Participants with abnormal MR findings requiring further evaluation accounted for 1.3 %, but five of seven suspected intracranial aneurysms were not confirmed by other imaging modalities (false positive). No malignant tumors or other life-threatening pathology was detected, and only three participants (0.27 %) with abnormalities underwent surgical treatment. No participant groups were identified from our data as being high risk for MR abnormal findings requiring further evaluation.Brain-docking participants had a variety of abnormalities on brain MR examinations, but only a small percentage of these findings required further evaluation. The usefulness of the brain docking with MRI and MRA has yet to be proven, and at this time we cannot approve this screening procedure."Brain docking", a method of screening for brain disease, has become popular in Japan in recent years. This unique Japanese practice, which may be performed as a part of an annual medical check-up, usually consists of brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography (MRA) in addition to routine physical and laboratory examinations. It has been believed that brain docking may be beneficial for early diagnosis of some brain disorders, since it is well established that unexpected abnormali
On threefolds covered by lines  [PDF]
Emilia Mezzetti,Dario Portelli
Mathematics , 2000,
Abstract: A classification theorem is given of projective threefolds that are covered by a two-dimensional family of lines, but not by a higher dimensional family.
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