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Antioxidant Activities of Extracts and Main Components of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Leaves  [PDF]
Nan Wu,Kuang Fu,Yu-Jie Fu,Yuan-Gang Zu,Fang-Rong Chang,Yung-Husan Chen,Xiao-Lei Liu,Yu Kong,Wei Liu,Cheng-Bo Gu
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14031032
Abstract: Antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves, as well as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions and the four main compounds separated from the ethanol extract, i.e. cajaninstilbene acid (3-hydroxy-4-prenylmethoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), pinostrobin, vitexin and orientin, were examined by a DPPH radical-scavenging assay and a β-carotene-linoleic acid test. In the DPPH system, the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was superior to that of the aqueous extracts, with IC50 values were 242.01 and 404.91 μg/mL, respectively. Among the four fractions, the ethyl acetate one showed the highest scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 194.98 μg/mL. Cajaninstilbene acid (302.12 μg/mL) and orientin (316.21 μg/mL) showed more efficient radical-scavenging abilities than pinostrobin and vitexin. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid test, the inhibition ratio (%) of the ethyl acetate fraction (94.13%±3.41%) was found to be the highest, being almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (93.89%±1.45%) at 4 mg/mL. Pinostrobin (>500 μg/mL) and vitexin (>500 μg/mL) showed insignificant antioxidant activities compared with cajaninstilbene (321.53 μg/mL) and orientin (444.61 μg/mL). In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract showed greater activity than the main compounds in both systems, such results might be attributed to the synergistic effects of the components. The antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were concentration-dependent. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that the pigeonpea leaf extracts may be valuable natural antioxidant sources and are potentially applicable in both medicine and the healthy food industry.
Allelopathic potential of Sesbania grandiflora Pers. on germination of Cajanus cajan Millsp. (Redgram) varieties
Chinnappan Alagesaboopathi * , Mahalingam Deivanai
International Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: In the present study, the leaf extracts of Sesbania grandiflora Pers. showed inhibitory effects on seed germination, plumule length, radicle length, fresh and dry weight in redgram (Cajanus cajan Millsp. var. Vamban 2 and Cajanus cajan var. Vamban 3). The allelopathic effect of leaf extracts of S. grandifloradecreased the seed germination of Cajanus cajan var. Vamban 2 and var.Vamban 3 with increase of extracts concentration. The extracts also inhibited the plumule and radicle length of Cajanus cajan var. Vamban 2 and var. Vamban 3 seedlings with increase of S. grandiflora extracts concentration. The result revealed that the inhibitory and stimulatory effect may be due to the presence of these allelochemicals like sterols, saponins, phenols and tannins etc., in the aqueous leaf extracts of S. grandiflora from the present investigation.
Guandu bean (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) on tropical forest restoration/ Feij o guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) na restaura o de florestas tropicais  [cached]
Tiago Pavan Beltrame,Efraim Rodrigues
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2007,
Abstract: This work aims to evaluate alternative models in forest restorations by means of agroforestry systems, where a leguminous species is incorporated to the system. The hypothesis is that guandu bean Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., in combination and intercropped with native species, can promote restoration by decreasing mortality and increasing tree basal area and height. Cajanus cajan was planted in line with the forest seedlings in 2 x 4 m spacing. Four different treatments were analyzed; 1) control, with no Cajanus cajan ; 2) one seedling of Cajanus cajan between the forest seedlings in the plantation line; 3) two seedlings of Cajanus cajan between the forest seedlings in the plantation line; and 4) full harvest Cajanus cajan six months after plot implementation. In each treatment, 100 native trees (Fifty pioneer, and fifty non pioneer trees) were measured and evaluated in mortality rates, height, and basal diameter. Guandu planting reduced pioneer mortality, increased basal area, and tree height of all species. In spite of the mortality was not affected by guandu density, the density of one plant of guandu was associated with larger basal area and tree average height. The mortality reduction of non pioneers on the absence of guandu trees was interpreted as a response of antropic pioneers to the increased solar radiation. This result points to the differences in tree behavior between fertile gaps (on which the classification on sucessional stages was based) and degraded areas. The positive effects of guandu planting recommend its use for the ecological restoration cost reduction. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar formas alternativas de restaura o de áreas degradadas, utilizando sistemas agroflorestais com uma espécie leguminosa incorporada ao sistema. A hipótese é que o feij o guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) possa auxiliar o processo de restaura o, diminuindo a mortalidade e aumentando a altura e área basal das árvores. O feij o guandu foi plantado na linha de plantio florestal, entre as espécies florestais nativas da regi o, que foram plantadas em espa amento 2 X 4m. Foram avaliados quatro tratamentos: plantio florestal sem feij o guandu (testemunha); uma planta de feij o guandu consorciado entre duas plantas de espécies florestais; duas plantas de feij o guandu consorciado entre duas plantas de espécies florestais; e corte raso aos seis meses após o plantio do feij o guandu consorciado com as espécies florestais. Em cada tratamento, foram sorteados 100 indivíduos sendo 50 pioneiras e 50 n o pioneiras, nos quais foram medidos mortalidade, altura e
Propriedades funcionais da farinha e concentrado protéico de feij?o guandu (Cajanus cajan (I.) Millsp)
Mizubuti,Ivone Yurika; Biondo Júnior,Oswaldo; de Oliveira Souza,Luiz Waldemar; dos Santos Ferreira da Silva,Rui Sérgio; Iouko Ida,Elza;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2000,
Abstract: functional properties of pigeon pea (cajanus rajan (l) millsp) flour and protein concentrate. the objective of this investigation was to study the functional properties of pigeon pea (cajanus cajan (l.) millsp) flour and protein concentrate. the solubility of both samples were superior than 70% at ph above 6.7 and below 3.5. the water and oil absorption were 1.2 and 1.07 ml/g of sample and 0.87 and 1.73ml/g of flour and protein concentrate samples, respectively. the minimum concentration of flour and protein concentrate needed for gelation was 20% and 12%, respectively. the emulsifying capacity of flour and concentrate was 129.35g and 191.66g oil/g of protein and the emulsion stability 87.50and 97.97%, respectively, after 780 minutes. the foam capacity and stability of flour foam were 36.0% and 18.61, while of the concentrate were 44.70% and 78.97% after 90 minutes. these properties indicate that the flour as well as the concentrate could have application in various food systems.
New microsatellite markers for pigeonpea (cajanus cajan (L.) millsp.)
DA Odeny, Jayashree B, C Gebhardt, J Crouch
BMC Research Notes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-2-35
Abstract: Primers were designed for 113 pigeonpea genomic SSRs, 73 of which amplified interpretable bands. Thirty-five of the primers revealed polymorphism among 24 pigeonpea breeding lines. The number of alleles detected ranged from 2 to 6 with a total of 110 alleles and an average of 3.1 alleles per locus. GT/CA and GAA class of repeats were the most abundant di-nucleotide and tri-nucleotide repeats respectively. Additionally, 220 soybean primers were tested in pigeonpea, 39 of which amplified interpretable bands.Despite the observed morphological diversity, there is little genetic diversity within cultivated pigeonpea as revealed by the developed microsatellites. Although some of the tested soybean microsatellites may be transferable to pigeonpea, lack of useful polymorphism may hinder their full use. A robust set of markers will still have to be developed for pigeonpea genome if molecular breeding is to be achieved.The increasing concern of the effect of global climate change and its likely impact on agriculture has stimulated scientists to search for crops that can withstand extreme environmental conditions. Among legumes, pigeonpea {Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh} (2n = 22) has attracted attention as being both drought-tolerant [1] and highly nutritious [2]. Extensive morphological variation within the genus Cajanus as a whole and in cultivated species in particular has always led to the assumption that there exists abundant genetic diversity within the cultivated species. To the contrary, molecular studies have reported extremely low levels of polymorphism within the cultivated species compared to its wild relatives [3,4]. Such findings suggest that efforts towards the development of a linkage map of pigeonpea should focus on the use of an interspecific cross, and the development of a substantially high number of markers. We report the development of new 36 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that will be an asset in characterising and understanding the nat
Evaluation of the shoot regeneration response in tissue culture of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa
S de Villiers, Q Emongor, R Njeri, E Gwata, D Hoisington, I Njagi, S Silim, K Sharma
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Seven varieties of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) of varying growth durations and adapted to a wide range of environments across eastern and southern Africa were evaluated for their shoot regeneration response in tissue culture. On a standardized shoot regeneration medium, the short duration varieties (ICPV 88091 and ICPV 86012) generally responded faster and better than the medium duration (ICEAP 00554 and ICEAP 00557) and long duration (ICEAP 00020, ICEAP 00040 and ICEAP 00053) varieties. However, all the tested varieties produced healthy rooted plants in vitro that could be transferred to the greenhouse where they exhibited normal growth, flowering and viable seed set. This study established the basis for genetic engineering of African pigeonpea varieties.
Inheritance of sterility mosaic disease resistance to Bangalore and Patancheru isolates in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)
B.N. Gnanesh,, K.N. Ganapathy, B.C. Ajay, M. Byre Gowda
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2011,
Abstract: Sterility mosaic disease (SMD), is an important biotic constraint in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) in Indiansubcontinent. It is caused by a virus and transmitted by eriophyid mites, Aceria cajani Channabasavanna. A comprehensive studyof variability in the sterility mosaic pathogen revealed the occurrence of five different isolates in India. Amongst them, threedistinct isolates have been characterised, viz., Bangalore, Patancheru and Coimbatore. Studies were conducted at Bangalore andPatancheru to determine the inheritance of resistance to Bangalore and Patancheru isolates of the SMD involving a resistant (ICP7035) and susceptible (TTB 7) genotypes. Observations in parents, F1 indicated dominance of susceptibility over resistance. Thedisease reaction of the individual F2 plant derived F3 families for Patancheru isolate was controlled by two genes with dominanceepistasis and for Bangalore isolate, absence of resistant plants indicate action of two or more genes in controlling resistance toSMD.
Mercado potencial de subproductos derivados del quinchoncho (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) para consumo humano en Maracaibo Potential market of by-products of (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for human consumption in Maracaibo
A Colina,A Higuera,A Gómez,N Rincón
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2008,
Abstract: El quinchoncho, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp, es una leguminosa de amplia adaptación, con bajos costos de producción, por lo que los productos derivados de esta leguminosa son económicos y de fácil preparación. La investigación consistió en determinar el grado de percepción de los derivados del quinchoncho por la población marabina y su grado de aceptación, a través del perfil socio-económico y geo-demográfico del habitante del municipio. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de una encuesta, aplicada a una muestra de 384 habitantes. La investigación resultó en tres categorías de consumidores, 49% con gran aceptación por el producto; 26% con mediana aceptación; y los de baja aceptación, el 25%. Se obtuvo 5 estratos socio-económicos: A, formado por 7%; B, 13%; C, 37%; D, 39% y E, 4%. Los consumidores de la clase C y D, que representan el 77%, fueron los que respondieron con mayor grado de aceptación y constituyen el mercado potencial de los productos. El perfil de este consumidor es una mujer menor a los 44 a os, de condición laboral estable, casada y perteneciente a los estratos C y D. El consumidor de mediana aceptación, puede ser hombre o mujer, menor de 44 a os, no trabaja, soltero o casado, y pertenece a los estratos C y D. El consumidor con baja aceptación es mujer, entre los 44 y 64 a os, casada y perteneciente al estrato social D. Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. is a leguminous with an ample adaptation, with low costs of production, the by-products are easy to prepare and very economic. The investigation was based on the way in which Maracaibo inhabitants observed the products, and which was the grade of approbation, doing also a social and economic profile, by including other characteristics like sex, age and labor condition. The data was compiled by a poll that was taken on a sample of 384 subjects, on the 18 Maracaibo Parrish. The results showed three category of consumers: one consumer with a high grade of approbation, formed by 49%, one consumer with a medium grade of approbation, 26%, and other consumer with a low grade of approbation, 25%. It was obtained 5 social classes: class A, formed by 7%, class B, 13%, class C 37%, class D 39% and class E 4%. In the category of high grade of approbation of the by-product, the classes C and D were the most numerous with 77%, and these classes will be the potential market of the by-products. The profile of the high grade of approbation consumer is woman, below 44 years old with stable job, married and forming the classes C and D. The consumer with a medium grade of approbation can be man or woman, over 44 ye
Desenvolvimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular do guandu, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp
Santos, Durvalina Maria Mathias dos;Rodrigues, Teresinha de Jesus Deléo;Banzatto, David Ariovaldo;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33061998000400019
Abstract: the objective of this study was to analyse the early development of two cultivars of the pigeonpea (cajanus cajan (l.) millsp.), namely iac-fava larga (c1), icp-7035 (c3) and the inbred line iac-87318 (c2), at 14, 28 and 42 days after sowing (das). the experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, and the following characteristics were evaluated: height (cm), leaf number, leaf area (dm2), root density (cm/cm3 of soil), and dry mass (g) of the stems, leaf blades and roots. the experiment was conducted under a completely randomized design with three replications. the means of growth of the cultivars were compared by tukey's test, at each sampling date. cultivar c2 presented the highest growth of the root system at 14, 28 and 42 das. cultivars c3 and c1 presented less vigorous seedlings, with fewer roots. the roots of c1, c2 and c3, were 60cm deep at 14 das, and the roots of c2 and c3 reached 100cm at 42 das.
Amelioration of Aluminium Toxicity in Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Plant by 24-Epibrassinolide  [PDF]
N. Divya Sri, M. Madhan Mohan, K. Mahesh, K. Raghu, S. Seeta Ram Rao
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.712153
Abstract: The effect of 24-epibrassinolide on growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] under aluminium toxicity was studied. 24-EBL reduced the impact of Al stress on plant growth. Particularly 24-EBL reduced the inhibitory impact of aluminium toxicity on root growth which was further manifested in overall improvement of vegetative growth. Application of 24-epibrassinolide removed the inhibitory influence of Al nodulation. The growth stimulation in Cajanus plants by 24-EBL under Al stress was associated with elevated levels of chlorophylls, nucleic acids and soluble proteins. 24-Epibrassinolide application enhanced proline content in Al3+ stressed Cajanus plants. Further, the supplementation of 24-epibrassinolide to Al stress treatments increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase [EC 1.11.1.6]; peroxidase [EC 1.11.1.7]; superoxide dismutase [EC 1.15.1.1] and ascorbate peroxidase [EC 1.11.1.11]. Lipid peroxidation induced by Al was found reduced with the supplementation of 24-epibrassinolide. The present studies demonstrated the ameliorating capability of 24-epibrassinolide on the Al induced inhibition of plant growth of C. cajan.
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