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Orthographic Contamination of Broca’s Area  [PDF]
Marie Montant,Daniele Sch?n
Frontiers in Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00378
Abstract: Strong evidence has accumulated over the past years suggesting that orthography plays a role in spoken language processing. It is still unclear, however, whether the influence of orthography on spoken language results from a co-activation of posterior brain areas dedicated to low-level orthographic processing or whether it results from orthographic restructuring of phonological representations located in the anterior perisylvian speech network itself. To test these hypotheses, we ran a fMRI study that tapped orthographic processing in the visual and auditory modalities. As a marker for orthographic processing, we used the orthographic decision task in the visual modality and the orthographic consistency effect in the auditory modality. Results showed no specific orthographic activation neither for the visual nor the auditory modality in left posterior occipito-temporal brain areas that are thought to host the visual word form system. In contrast, specific orthographic activation was found both for the visual and auditory modalities at anterior sites belonging to the perisylvian region: the left dorsal–anterior insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus. These results are in favor of the restructuring hypothesis according to which learning to read acts like a “virus” that permanently contaminates the spoken language system.
Deep Learning of Orthographic Representations in Baboons  [PDF]
Thomas Hannagan, Johannes C. Ziegler, Stéphane Dufau, Jo?l Fagot, Jonathan Grainger
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084843
Abstract: What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords [1]. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.
语言族的L可识性、L半可识性与L强可识性  [PDF]
雷忠学
科学通报 , 1986,
Abstract: 郭聿琦等建立和讨论了语言族的半可识性和强可识性,给出了积分语言族可识的充要条件。本文建立和讨论了语言族的L可识性、L半可识性和L强可识性,给出了L积分语言族的L可识、L半可识和L强可识的充分条件。
印度的童婚  [PDF]
汶江
人口研究 , 1984,
Abstract: ?<正>印度的童婚由来已久,在现今世界婚姻制度中也是一种特有的现象。印度古籍《家范经》中已经提到新娘是nagnika(原义为“裸露”,此处指还未出现第二次性征的幼女)。约成书于公元前二世纪左右的《摩奴法典》三卷27—34节,对古代印度的婚姻制度有详尽而明确的引记载。
Orthographic Influences When Processing Spoken Pseudowords: Theoretical Implications  [PDF]
Marcus Taft
Frontiers in Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00140
Abstract: When we hear an utterance, is the orthographic representation of that utterance activated when it is being processed? Orthographic influences have been previously examined in relation to spoken pseudoword processing in three different paradigms. Unlike real word processing, no orthographic effects with pseudowords have been observed in a phoneme goodness ratings task, and there is a mixed outcome in studies looking for spelling–sound consistency effects. In contrast, the orthography of spoken pseudohomographs has been shown to be activated, given that they prime their homographic base word. Explanations are sought for the findings in these three paradigms, leading to an exploration of theoretical models of spoken word recognition.
NOTES ABOUT PROSODY ORTHOGRAPHIC / ARUZ IML SI üZERINE NOTLAR  [PDF]
Prof. Dr. Atabey KILI?
Turkish Studies , 2008,
Abstract: We have the problem of orthographic in TurkishLiterature since our first writings. Furthermore Arabicletters are not enough to symbolize our vocal so thisproblem became more confused. As everyone knoworthographic is used differently in poems and prose. Inthis study we are going to point out prosody orthographicthat none of books points out it. We can say that“Prosody orthographic is writing the Turkish words in thesuitable form for prosody”. Also we are going to giveexamples for it which were from mecmuas and publishedtexts.
The Nature of Abstract Orthographic Codes: Evidence from Masked Priming and Magnetoencephalography  [PDF]
Liina Pylkk?nen,Kana Okano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010793
Abstract: What kind of mental objects are letters? Research on letter perception has mainly focussed on the visual properties of letters, showing that orthographic representations are abstract and size/shape invariant. But given that letters are, by definition, mappings between symbols and sounds, what is the role of sound in orthographic representation? We present two experiments suggesting that letters are fundamentally sound-based representations. To examine the role of sound in orthographic representation, we took advantage of the multiple scripts of Japanese. We show two types of evidence that if a Japanese word is presented in a script it never appears in, this presentation immediately activates the (“actual”) visual word form of that lexical item. First, equal amounts of masked repetition priming are observed for full repetition and when the prime appears in an atypical script. Second, visual word form frequency affects neuromagnetic measures already at 100–130 ms whether the word is presented in its conventional script or in a script it never otherwise appears in. This suggests that Japanese orthographic codes are not only shape-invariant, but also script invariant. The finding that two characters belonging to different writing systems can activate the same form representation suggests that sound identity is what determines orthographic identity: as long as two symbols express the same sound, our minds represent them as part of the same character/letter.
A ORTHOGRAPHIC DISCUSSION IN DERGAH MECMUASI / DERG H MECMUASI’NDA BIR IML TARTISMASI
Dr. Fikret USLUCAN
Turkish Studies , 2008,
Abstract: Orthographic is a Notion from invention fromwritting. At the same time this Notion is a problem. Inthis study a discossion about orthographic is explainedin Dergah Mecmuas between 1921 and 1922.Ahmet Hasim critcizes the orthographic of Ali Zeki Bey inhis novel “Alev”. Ahmet Hasim says his thinks aboutTurkish and foreign languages in Turkish language fromthis novel’s orthographic. Than Nurullah Ata , AbdülhakSinasi Hisar and Yahya Kemal weigh in with, too. Thediscussion finished without a result.
ORTHOGRAPHIC INTERFERENCE and THE TEACHING OF BRITISH PRONUNCIATION TO TURKISH LEARNERS
Prof. Dr.Sinan Bayraktaro?lu
Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies , 2008,
Abstract: This article is the report of an investigation of pronunciation difficulties of Turkish speakers/learners of English which are due to differences in the sound-letter representations in the orthographies of the two languages, namely called “ortographic interference”. These difficulties are different in nature than those arising from differences in the sound sysytems of Turkish and English.1While Turkish orthography is to a large extent phonemic, i.e. employing a one-to-one letter-sound correspondence (with few exceptions such as k - kar- ɡ - yegane- gavur, etc.), English orthography, on the other hand, represents 46 sounds of the spoken language with 102 single or group of letters in the written language.Such actual difficulties arising from the differences in the orthographic sound-letter represenatations of Turkish and English are classified, evaluated, and their sources are explained through a detailed phonetic analysis as applied to research methods of “contarstive analysis” and “error analysis”, which are effective approaches in the field of Applied Linguistics and Foreign Language Learning.For different categories of difficulties, corrective exercises are recommended for the teaching and learning of English pronunciation to Turkish students.
阿赖耶识试析  [PDF]
黄晨
浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版) , 2002,
Abstract: ?阿赖耶识是佛教唯识宗建立的根据,"万法唯识"是依据它而成立的.作为区别于眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意的第八识,它含藏一切,变现一切,是人类认识的起源和究竟.但是它又不是一个客体的存在,不能混同于灵魂、神我或者本体,它是精神之流,是通过对佛教缘起论和性空无我论的深度阐释而证成的.
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