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Checks and Balances on Executive Compensation  [PDF]
Mai Iskandar-Datta
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2014.21003
Abstract: Checks and Balances on Executive Compensation
Checks and Controls in Spreadsheets  [PDF]
Patrick O'Beirne
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Spreadsheets that are informally created are harder to test than they should be. Simple cross-foot checks or being easily readable are modest but attainable goals for every spreadsheet developer. This paper lists some tips on building self-checking into a spreadsheet in order to provide more confidence to the reader that a spreadsheet is robust.
Regular Health Checks: Cross-Sectional Survey  [PDF]
Christian Gr?nh?j Larsen,Karsten Juhl J?rgensen,Peter C. G?tzsche
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033694
Abstract: To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based.
Incorporating postleap checks in tau-leaping  [PDF]
David F. Anderson
Quantitative Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2819665
Abstract: By explicitly representing the reaction times of discrete chemical systems as the firing times of independent, unit rate Poisson processes, we develop a new adaptive tau-leaping procedure. The procedure developed is novel in that accuracy is guaranteed by performing postleap checks. Because the representation we use separates the randomness of the model from the state of the system, we are able to perform the postleap checks in such a way that the statistics of the sample paths generated will not be biased by the rejections of leaps. Further, since any leap condition is ensured with a probability of one, the simulation method naturally avoids negative population values
粘土沙障及麦草沙障合理间距的调查研究  [PDF]
常兆丰, 仲生年, 韩福桂, 刘虎俊
中国沙漠 , 2000,
Abstract: 确定机械沙障障间距的基本原理是障间风蚀沙量等于积沙量。障间凹曲面面积与障间距及沙面坡度之间存在着显著的回归关系,运用这种回归关系就可以建立障间风蚀沙量等于积沙量的等式方程。在民勤沙区取样分别建立粘土沙障和麦草沙障的风蚀沙量等于积沙量的等式方程,计算出沙面坡度0°~8°和0°~10°的粘土沙障和麦草沙障间距分别是253.1~185.9cm和261.4~155.0cm;粘土沙障高度应为适宜高度范围内的最小值;粘土沙障在障高为15cm、沙面坡度>8°时障间没有风蚀。麦草沙障在坡度>10°时障间没有风蚀;15cm高的粘土沙障和固沙有效高度13cm的麦草沙障的最小间距分别是185.9cm和155.0cm;若需要在固定就地沙面的基础上接纳外来流沙或者需要风蚀部分就地沙粒时,可将接纳沙量或风蚀沙量的平均厚度作为参数之一计算障间距;按照风蚀沙量≤积沙量的障间距设置的沙障,其方格形式只适合在害风方向多变的地段设置。
新型生物可降解PLA沙障与传统草方格沙障防风效益  [PDF]
党晓宏,,,,,,,,,,,王红霞,赵鹏宇
北京林业大学学报 , 2015, DOI: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20140245
Abstract: 为了解新型材料生物可降解聚乳酸纤维(PLA)沙障防风效益,通过测定PLA沙障样地内不同高度风速,分别研究1mx1m、2mx2m、3mx3m规格PLA沙障防风效能、地表粗糙度与风速廓线特征,同时以相同坡位同种规格的传统半隐蔽式麦草沙障样地和流动沙丘为对照,对比研究了PLA沙障与传统麦草沙障的防风效益。结果表明,新型生物可降解PLA沙障防风效能显著大于麦草沙障,2种类型沙障最大差值可达10.3%,2种材料沙障不同规格防护效果为1mx1m规格较其他2种规格更好;2种材料沙障增加地表粗糙度表现为PLA沙障>麦草沙障>流动沙丘,且均随规格增大呈逐渐下降趋势,在相同地形条件下,PLA沙障地表粗糙度均值为麦草沙障的1.4倍;2种材料沙障在迎风坡坡底、坡中、坡顶及背风坡4种地形下地表粗糙度差异不明显,其地表粗糙度均值为0.7cm;1mx1m规格的PLA方格沙障和麦草沙障内的风速廓线曲线呈现“S"型曲线特征,而在2mx2m和3mx3m规格的2种材料沙障内,风速廓线与对照裸沙丘相似,其风速廓线均呈指数函数分布。随着沙障规格的增大,降低风速作用减弱,其风速廓线逐渐由“S"型趋向于指数函数曲线。
Non-Trivial Checks of Novel Consistency Relations  [PDF]
Lasha Berezhiani,Justin Khoury,Junpu Wang
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2014/06/056
Abstract: Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of slow-roll single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed.
ω-Petri nets  [PDF]
Gilles Geeraerts,Alexander Heu?ner,M. Praveen,Jean-Fran?ois Raskin
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We introduce {\omega}-Petri nets ({\omega}PN), an extension of plain Petri nets with {\omega}-labeled input and output arcs, that is well-suited to analyse parametric concurrent systems with dynamic thread creation. Most techniques (such as the Karp and Miller tree or the Rackoff technique) that have been proposed in the setting of plain Petri nets do not apply directly to {\omega}PN because {\omega}PN define transition systems that have infinite branching. This motivates a thorough analysis of the computational aspects of {\omega}PN. We show that an {\omega}PN can be turned into an plain Petri net that allows to recover the reachability set of the {\omega}PN, but that does not preserve termination. This yields complexity bounds for the reachability, (place) boundedness and coverability problems on {\omega}PN. We provide a practical algorithm to compute a coverability set of the {\omega}PN and to decide termination by adapting the classical Karp and Miller tree construction. We also adapt the Rackoff technique to {\omega}PN, to obtain the exact complexity of the termination problem. Finally, we consider the extension of {\omega}PN with reset and transfer arcs, and show how this extension impacts the decidability and complexity of the aforementioned problems.
Model Adequacy Checks for Discrete Choice Dynamic Models  [PDF]
Igor Kheifets,Carlos Velasco
Statistics , 2012,
Abstract: This paper proposes new parametric model adequacy tests for possibly nonlinear and nonstationary time series models with noncontinuous data distribution, which is often the case in applied work. In particular, we consider the correct specification of parametric conditional distributions in dynamic discrete choice models, not only of some particular conditional characteristics such as moments or symmetry. Knowing the true distribution is important in many circumstances, in particular to apply efficient maximum likelihood methods, obtain consistent estimates of partial effects and appropriate predictions of the probability of future events. We propose a transformation of data which under the true conditional distribution leads to continuous uniform iid series. The uniformity and serial independence of the new series is then examined simultaneously. The transformation can be considered as an extension of the integral transform tool for noncontinuous data. We derive asymptotic properties of such tests taking into account the parameter estimation effect. Since transformed series are iid we do not require any mixing conditions and asymptotic results illustrate the double simultaneous checking nature of our test. The test statistics converges under the null with a parametric rate to the asymptotic distribution, which is case dependent, hence we justify a parametric bootstrap approximation. The test has power against local alternatives and is consistent. The performance of the new tests is compared with classical specification checks for discrete choice models.
Impact of redundant checks on the LP decoding thresholds of LDPC codes  [PDF]
Louay Bazzi,Hani Audah
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Feldman et al.(2005) asked whether the performance of the LP decoder can be improved by adding redundant parity checks to tighten the LP relaxation. We prove that for LDPC codes, even if we include all redundant checks, asymptotically there is no gain in the LP decoder threshold on the BSC under certain conditions on the base Tanner graph. First, we show that if the graph has bounded check-degree and satisfies a condition which we call asymptotic strength, then including high degree redundant checks in the LP does not significantly improve the threshold in the following sense: for each constant delta>0, there is a constant k>0 such that the threshold of the LP decoder containing all redundant checks of degree at most k improves by at most delta upon adding to the LP all redundant checks of degree larger than k. We conclude that if the graph satisfies a rigidity condition, then including all redundant checks does not improve the threshold of the base LP. We call the graph asymptotically strong if the LP decoder corrects a constant fraction of errors even if the LLRs of the correct variables are arbitrarily small. By building on the work of Feldman et al.(2007) and Viderman(2013), we show that asymptotic strength follows from sufficiently large expansion. We also give a geometric interpretation of asymptotic strength in terms pseudocodewords. We call the graph rigid if the minimum weight of a sum of check nodes involving a cycle tends to infinity as the block length tends to infinity. Under the assumptions that the graph girth is logarithmic and the minimum check degree is at least 3, rigidity is equivalent to the nondegeneracy property that adding at least logarithmically many checks does not give a constant weight check. We argue that nondegeneracy is a typical property of random check-regular graphs.
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