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Optimization of lovastatin production in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus terreus
N. Jaivel,,P. Marimuthu
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Solid state fermentation is observed for better production of ovastatin than the submerged fermentation process. The lovastatin yield by Aspergillus terreus isolate JPM 3 was higher in case of wheatbran as a substrate (982.3 g g-1). Wheat bran was found to be the best solid substrate for increased lovastatin production, followed by sorghum grains, rice bran and paddy straw.
Response surface methodology for optimization of production of lovastatin by solid state fermentation
Pansuriya, Ruchir C.;Singhal, Rekha S.;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822010000100024
Abstract: lovastatin, an inhibitor of hmg-coa reductase, was produced by solid state fermentation (ssf) using a strain of aspergillus terreus uv 1718. different solid substrates and various combinations thereof were evaluated for lovastatin production. wheat bran supported the maximum production (1458 ± 46 μg g-1 dfm) of lovastatin. response surface methodology (rsm) was applied to optimize the medium constituents. a 24 full-factorial central composite design (ccd) was chosen to explain the combined effects of the four medium constituents, viz. moisture content, particle size of the substrate, di-potassium hydrogen phosphate and trace ion solution concentration. maximum lovastatin production of 2969 μg g-1 dfm was predicted by the quadratic model which was verified experimentally to be 3004 ± 25 μg g-1 dfm. further rsm optimized medium supplemented with mycological, peptone supported highest yield of 3723.4±49 μg g-1 dfm. yield of lovastatin increased 2.6 fold as with compared to un-optimized media.
PRODUCTION OF LOVASTATIN AND SULOCHRIN BY Aspergillus terreus USING SOLID STATE FERMENTATION  [PDF]
Rizna Triana Dewi,Nina Artanti,Hani Mulyani,Puspa Dewi Narrij Lotulung
Makara Seri Teknologi , 2011,
Abstract: Lovastatin is an anti-cholesterol agent that was produced by Aspergillus terreus using solid state fermentation (SSF). During this fermentation process, sulochrin is also produced as an unwanted co-metabolite. However, our previous result showed that sulochrin had potential as antidiabetes because it is an inhibitor agent of α-glucosidase. In this paper, we reported our observation on lovastatin and sulochrin production pattern in relation with inhibitor α-glucosidase activity during eleven days fermentation of A. terreus koji (SSF) ethyl acetate extract. Koji obtained from solid state fermentation with rice as the substrate and incubated at room temperature, sample is taken daily for eleven day (D-1 to D-11). Lovastatin and sulochrin production was measured by Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometer based on their molecular weight m/z 404.5 and 332.3 respectively. The inibitory activity is measured by inhibition model of koji extract against α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) from Saccharomyces cereviceae. The results show that lovastatin production was started on the day 2 (0.04 mg/g) and achieving the optimal production on day 7 (11.46 mg/g), while sulochrin production was started on day 4 (0.60 mg/g) and keep produced until the end of fermentation period at Day 11(3.11 mg/g). Koji extract was started to show inhibitory to α-glucosidase activity on Day 5 (IC50= 23.34 μg/mL) and keep showed activity until Day 11 (IC50=3.33 μg/mL). These results suggest that inhibitory activity of koji extract to α- glucosidase activity have relation with sulochrin biosynthesis production.
Lovastatin Production by Aspergillus terreus Using Agro-Biomass as Substrate in Solid State Fermentation
Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi,Juan Boo Liang,Yin Wan Ho,Rosfarizan Mohamad,Yong Meng Goh,Parisa Shokryazdan
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/196264
Abstract: Ability of two strains of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 74135 and ATCC 20542) for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw (RS) and oil palm frond (OPF) was investigated. Results showed that RS is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using A. terreus ATCC 74135 and RS as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (DM)). Although additional nitrogen source has no benefit effect on enhancing the lovastatin production using RS substrate, it improved the lovastatin production using OPF with maximum production of 70.17 and 63.76 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and A. terreus ATCC 74135, respectively (soybean meal as nitrogen source). Incubation temperature, moisture content, and particle size had shown significant effect on lovastatin production (<0.01) and inoculums size and pH had no significant effect on lovastatin production (>0.05). Results also have shown that pH 6, 25°C incubation temperature, 1.4 to 2 mm particle size, 50% initial moisture content, and 8 days fermentation time are the best conditions for lovastatin production in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin using optimized condition was 175.85 and 260.85 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and ATCC 74135, respectively, using RS as substrate.
Evaluation of the bioconversion of genetically modified switchgrass using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and a consolidated bioprocessing approach  [cached]
Yee Kelsey L,Rodriguez Jr Miguel,Tschaplinski Timothy J,Engle Nancy L
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-81
Abstract: Background The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the major economic hurdles for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. Additionally, lignin is recognized as having a negative impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and as a result much interest has been placed on modifying the lignin pathway to improve bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Results Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin pathway yielded switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) that was more susceptible to bioconversion after dilute acid pretreatment. Here we examined the response of these plant lines to milder pretreatment conditions with yeast-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and a consolidated bioprocessing approach using Clostridium thermocellum, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis. Unlike the S. cerevisiae SSF conversions, fermentations of pretreated transgenic switchgrass with C. thermocellum showed an apparent inhibition of fermentation not observed in the wild-type switchgrass. This inhibition can be eliminated by hot water extraction of the pretreated biomass, which resulted in superior conversion yield with transgenic versus wild-type switchgrass for C. thermocellum, exceeding the yeast-based SSF yield. Further fermentation evaluation of the transgenic switchgrass indicated differential inhibition for the Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strains, which could not be rectified by additional processing conditions. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolite profiling was used to examine the fermentation broth to elucidate the relative abundance of lignin derived aromatic compounds. The types and abundance of fermentation-derived-lignin constituents varied between C. thermocellum and each of the Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strains. Conclusions The down-regulation of the COMT gene improves the bioconversion of switchgrass relative to the wild-type regardless of the pretreatment condition or fermentation microorganism. However, bacterial fermentations demonstrated strain-dependent sensitivity to the COMT transgenic biomass, likely due to additional soluble lignin pathway-derived constituents resulting from the COMT gene disruption. Removal of these inhibitory constituents permitted completion of fermentation by C. thermocellum, but not by the Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strains. The reason for this difference in performance is currently unknown.
Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique
M. Taher-Maddah,N. Maheri-Sis,R. Salamatdoustnobar,A. Ahmadzadeh
Open Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds.
Comparison of the Efficiency of Lovastatin and Seed Dill Extract in Reduction of Serum Lipid Levels in Rats
A Rafati,S Moradi,M Ismaeili Dahadje,B Jalali
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Introduction: Serum lipid disorders are one of the important risk factors for development of coronary arterial atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the drug lovastatin and a liquid vegetable extract (dill) on blood plasma lipid levels of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 mouse vistar rats weighing 250±30 grams were included and maintained at 23±1 degrees Celsius. The rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 rats each. Groups I and II were given normal and high cholesterol diet, while groups III and IV were given high cholesterol diet with either lovastatin or seed dill extract for a period of 3 weeks, respectively. At the end of study, blood samples were taken and plasma lipid levels determined by the manual method. (It is worth mentioning that ultimately 26 rats were included in the study groups). Results: Results showed that both administration of lovastatin and the seed dill extract led to a significant reduction in plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and LDL/HDL, TG/HDL ratios. There was a significant reduction in the levels of LDL (P<0.001) and also a significant increase in levels of HDL (P<0.001) in both the groups. The effects on plasma triglycerides levels, LDL/HDL and TG/HDL ratios were not significant. Conclusion: Considering the results of the study, seed dill extract affects plasma lipid levels and is more effective in lowering plasma cholesterol and LDL levels as compared to lovastatin.
Isolation and screening of lovastatin producing microorganisms  [PDF]
N. Jaivel,P. Marimuthu
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: In the present study, ten fungal cultures were screened for the lovastatin production by submerged fermentation technique. All the ten fungal cultures were able to produce this compound. However, wide variations were observed in the quantity of lovastatin produced by these cultures. The results revealed that, JPM3 produced the maximum lovastatin (138.4 mg l-1) followed by JPM1 (116.8 mg l-1), MTCC 479 (105.7 mg l-1) and JPM2 (97.6 mg l-1) in the screening work through submerged fermentation. Other fungal isolates recorded lower yield of lovastatin. The selected higher yielding fungal isolates axonomically characterized based on their colony morphology and microscopic observations and identified as Aspergillus terreus. The lovastatin analysis in UV spectrophotometer, TLC and HPLC confirmed its identity with that of authentic lovastatin.
Microbial production and biomedical applications of lovastatin  [cached]
Seenivasan A,Subhagar S,Aravindan R,Viruthagiri T
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Lovastatin is a potent hypercholesterolemic drug used for lowering blood cholesterol. Lovastatin acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Commercially lovastatin is produced by a variety of filamentous fungi including Penicillium species, Monascus ruber and Aspergillus terreus as a secondary metabolite. Production of lovastatin by fermentation decreases the production cost compared to costs of chemical synthesis. In recent years, lovastatin has also been reported as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various types of tumors and also play a tremendous role in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune response, coagulation process, bone turnover, neovascularization, vascular tone, and arterial pressure. This review deals with the structure, biosynthesis, various modes of fermentation and applications of lovastatin.
Bioprocessing of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Production of Bioethanol using Thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus under Solid State Fermentation Conditions  [PDF]
A.A. Sherief,Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar,Sarah Shawky Hamza
Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Screening of cellulolytic activity by ten fungal isolates recovered from soil and agricultural wastes indicated that Aspergillus fumigatus showed the highest cellulolytic activity, under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw as substrate. Optimization of fermentation conditions showed that highest cellulolytic enzymes production on 4th day at pH 5.5 and at 40°C. The production of enzymes was reached its maximal value at 5.0 g/flask of rice straw. Avicellase, endoglucanase and CMCase productivity were highly increased by addition of L-asparagine, NH4Cl and NaNO3, respectively as N-sources to the fermentation medium. Maximum activities of avicellase and endoglucanase were recorded at inoculum size of 2.5 mL, while maximum activity of CMCase was detected at inoculum size of 0.5 mL. The influence of various physico-chemical factors “incubation period, temperature, pH and substrate concentration” on enzyme activity was also investigated. The half life time of avicellase, endoglucanase and CMCase at 60°C were 67.8, 79.1 and 96.5 min, respectively. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw was used as a substrate for bioethanol production. Maximum ethanol production by Saccharomyces cereviseae using dilute acid pretreated rice straw hydrolysate with initial soluble sugar 4.1055±0.0146% was recorded after 48 h of fermentation (2.26424±0.0206%).
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