Abstract:
This review describes the physics of spins in quantum dots containing one or two electrons, from an experimentalist's viewpoint. Various methods for extracting spin properties from experiment are presented, restricted exclusively to electrical measurements. Furthermore, experimental techniques are discussed that allow for: (1) the rotation of an electron spin into a superposition of up and down, (2) the measurement of the quantum state of an individual spin and (3) the control of the interaction between two neighbouring spins by the Heisenberg exchange interaction. Finally, the physics of the relevant relaxation and dephasing mechanisms is reviewed and experimental results are compared with theories for spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions. All these subjects are directly relevant for the fields of quantum information processing and spintronics with single spins (i.e. single-spintronics).

Abstract:
In double quantum dots, the exchange interaction between two electron spins renormalizes the excitation energy of pair-flips in the nuclear spin bath, which in turn modifies the non-Markovian bath dynamics. As the energy renormalization varies with the Overhauser field mismatch between the quantum dots, the electron singlet-triplet decoherence resulting from the bath dynamics depends on sampling of nuclear spin states from an ensemble, leading to the transition from exponential decoherence in single-sample dynamics to power-law decay under ensemble averaging. In contrast, the decoherence of a single electron spin in one dot is essentially the same for different choices of the nuclear spin configuration.

Abstract:
We study the phenomenon of decoherence during the operation of one qubit transformation, controlled-not (CNOT) and controlled-controlled-not (C^{2}NOT) quantum gates in a quantum computer model formed by a linear chain of three nuclear spins system. We make this study with different type of environments, and we determine the associated decoherence time as a function of the dissipative parameter. We found that the dissipation parameter to get a well defined quantum gates (without significant decoherence) must be within the range of . We also study the behavior of the purity parameter for these gates and different environments and found linear or quadratic decays of this parameter depending on the type of environments.

Abstract:
A coherent superposition of many nuclear spin states can be prepared and manipulated via the hyperfine interaction with the electronic spins by varying the Landau level filling factor through the gate voltage in appropriately designed Quantum Hall Ferromagnet. During the manipulation periods the 2D electron system forms spatially large Skyrmionic spin textures, where many nuclear spins follow locally the electron spin polarization. It is shown that the collective spin rotation of a single spin texture is gapless in the limit of zero Zeeman splitting, and may dominate the nuclear spins relaxation and decoherence processes in the quantum well.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme for implementing quantum gates and entanglement between spin qubits in the outer dots of a triple-dot system with an empty central dot. The voltage applied to the central dot can be tuned to realize the gate. Our scheme exemplifies the possibility of quantum gates outside the regime where each dot has an electron, so that spin-spin exchange interaction is not the only relevant mechanism. Analytic treatment is possible by mapping the problem to a t-J model. The fidelity of the entangling quantum gate between the spins is analyzed in the presence of decoherence stemming from a bath of nuclear spins, as well as from charge fluctuations. Our scheme provides an avenue for extending the scope of two qubit gate experiments to triple-dots, while requiring minimal control, namely that of the potential of a single dot, and may enhance the qubit separation to ease differential addressability.

Abstract:
We describe a design to implement a two-qubit geometric phase gate, by which a pair of electrons confined in adjacent quantum dots are entangled. The entanglement is a result of the Coulomb exchange interaction between the optically excited exciton-polaritons and the localized spins. This optical coupling, resembling the electron-electron Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) inter- actions, offers high speed, high fidelity two-qubit gate operation with moderate cavity quality factor Q. The errors due to the finite lifetime of the polaritons can be minimized by optimizing the optical pulse parameters (duration and energy). The proposed design, using electrostatic quantum dots, maximizes entanglement and ensures scalability.

Abstract:
We present the study of a quantum Controlled-Controlled-Not gate, implemented in a chain of three nuclear spins weakly Ising interacting between all of them, that is, taking into account first and second neighbor spin interactions. This implementation is done using a single resonant $\pi$-pulse on the initial state of the system (digital and superposition). The fidelity parameter is used to determine the behavior of the CCN quantum gate as a function of the ratio of the second neighbor interaction coupling constant to the first neighbor interaction coupling constant ($J'/J$). We found that for $J'/J\ge 0.02$ we can have a well defined CCN quantum gate.

Abstract:
We analyze a microscopic decoherence model in which the total system is described as a spin gas. A spin gas consists of N classically moving particles with additional, interacting quantum degrees of freedom (e.g. spins). For various multipartite entangled probe states, we analyze the decoherence induced by interactions between the probe- and environmental spins in such spin gases. We can treat mesoscopic environments (10^5 particles). We present results for a lattice gas, which could be realized by neutral atoms hopping in an optical lattice, and show the effects of non-Markovian and correlated noise, as well as finite size effects.

Abstract:
Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, however controlling decoherence remains a considerable challenge. Recently, hole spins have emerged as a promising alternative. Holes in III-V semiconductors have unique properties, such as strong spin-orbit interaction and weak coupling to nuclear spins, and therefore have potential for enhanced spin control and longer coherence times. Weaker hyperfine interaction has already been reported in self-assembled quantum dots using quantum optics techniques. However, challenging fabrication has so far kept the promise of hole-spin-based electronic devices out of reach in conventional III-V heterostructures. Here, we report gate-tuneable hole quantum dots formed in InSb nanowires. Using these devices we demonstrate Pauli spin blockade and electrical control of single hole spins. The devices are fully tuneable between hole and electron QDs, enabling direct comparison between the hyperfine interaction strengths, g-factors and spin blockade anisotropies in the two regimes.

Abstract:
Confined electron spins are preferred candidates for embodying quantum information in the solid state. A popular idea is the use of optical excitation to achieve the ``best of both worlds'', i.e. marrying the long spin decoherence times with rapid gating. Here we study an all-optical adiabatic approach to generating single qubit phase gates. We find that such a gate can be extremely robust against the combined effect of all principal sources of decoherence, with an achievable fidelity of 0.999 even at finite temperature. Crucially this performance can be obtained with only a small time cost: the adiabatic gate duration is within about an order of magnitude of a simple dynamic implementation. An experimental verification of these predictions is immediately feasible with only modest resources.