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Potential Conflict between Fishermen and Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) Populations by Fishermen in Response to Declining Stocks of Arowana Fish (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) in Northeastern Peru
Maribel Recharte,Mark Bowler,Richard Bodmer
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2008,
Abstract: Giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) populations are increasing in many parts of the Peruvian Amazon, and are coming into contact with people more regularly. Giant otters are piscivores and fishermen often see them as potential competitors for fish stocks. We report on giant otter - fisherman conflict on the River Yanayacu. During informal discussions, we found that fishermen considered the giant otter a competitor for fish, and one of their main concerns was for the fisheries of arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum). This fishery, for young arowanas for sale to the ornamental fish trade, is very important for the communities in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, and fishermen believe that stocks of this species are declining. Although arowana can be preyed upon by giant otter, smaller fish are preferred and there is no evidence for giant otters impacting on populations of this species. We identify a need for more research into giant otter populations, arowana populations, the exploitation of arowana, and the diet of giant otters in northeastern Peru, to support conservation initiatives aimed at changing the perception of giant otters as competitors for fish.
Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana  [cached]
Barnett A.,Shapley R.,Lehman S.,Henry E.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2000,
Abstract: The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.
Presence of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, in the Corrientes Province, Argentina
Beccaceci M.D.,Waller T.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2000,
Abstract: The skull of a giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) recovered in the Corrientes Province from Argentina is described. The skull, which lacks one upper canine and the lower mandible, is believed to be several decades old. This is the first collection of biological material confirming the existence of this species in the province.
Distribution and Population Status of the Giant Otter Pteronura brasiliensis in Bolivia  [cached]
Damme P. van,Wallace R.,Swaenepoel K.,Painter L.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2002,
Abstract: The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is one of the most endangered mammal species in the Neotropical region. In Bolivia, it has been reduced to very low population numbers as a result of poaching in the 40s and 70s. Recently, 14 researchers on the giant otter, who together estimated that around 350 individuals exist in Bolivia, published a preliminary distribution map. In this report, we briefly present the most recent information on the distribution and population status of this species in the Bolivian Del Plata and Amazon river basins. Moreover, we comment on the superposition of giant otter family groups, hydro-ecoregions, and National Parks. Finally, we present a short discussion on the possibilities of interchange between Bolivian giant otter subpopulations.
Report of an Adaptive Reintroduction of a Juvenile Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis)
Diana Morales-Betancourt
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2011,
Abstract: Adaptive programs based on soft release and individual behavior changes may increase the survival rate of reintroduced giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis). Key components of the program include the development of temporary enclosures and refuges, implementation of a responsive feeding program, an environmental adaptation program, as well as the use of a registered vocal repertoire and behavior information. This study was conducted by the Omacha Foundation, from March to June in 2008 in the Colombian Orinoco Ecorregion. The entire process occurred over 74 days, with 54 spent evaluating the animal, and the following 20 days spent implementing an intensive adaptive reintroduction program. The juvenile otter was successfully reintroduced, as evidenced by its repeated sighting after 17 months.
Report on the Rehabilitation and Release of Two Giant River Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) Pups in the Bita River (Vichada, Colombia)  [cached]
Gómez J.R.,Jorgenson J.P.,Valbuena R.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 1999,
Abstract: Two Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) cubs were rehabilitated and released successfully and adopted into wild otter groups. The protocol used is presented. For a successful rehabilitation and release program, it is necessary to understand the basic ecology and behaviour of the species, as well as to have the appropriate facilities, feeding protocols, and adequate veterinary services available.
Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae)
Garcia, DM.;Marmontel, M.;Rosas, FW.;Santos, FR.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842007000500004
Abstract: the giant otter (pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the mustelidae family, endemic to south america. its original distribution corresponds to the region from the guyanas to central-north argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. currently, the species is considered endangered by the world conservation union (iucn). based on its geographic distribution in the south american continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: p. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the amazon and orinoco river basins, and p. brasiliensis paranensis, in the paraná and paraguai river basins. however, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. this study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of pteronura brasiliensis along its range in brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. we analyzed the control region, and the cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i genes of the mitochondrial dna in several giant otter populations from the amazon and paraguai river basins. analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. as we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. the results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in p. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.
Habitat Use and Food Niche Overlap by Neotropical Otter, Lontra longicaudis, and Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, in the Pantanal Wetland, Brazil  [PDF]
Manoel C. Muanis,Luiz Flamarion B. Oliveira
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2011,
Abstract: Environmental variables that can influence the presence of giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) and Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) otters were studied in Correntoso River, Pantanal, Brazil. In this study site both species are diurnal and primarily piscivorous. Descriptive variables of habitats were selected based on literature related to other otter species around the world, and based on the judgment of the authors, using the concept of niche gestalt and the field experience with the species. Statistical analyses included Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) using the Euclidean Distances matrix and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). NMS was used to graphically summarize and analyse the multidimensional space components of the niche of both species. The results showed that giant otter has a smaller ecological space, enclosed by the Neotropical otter space. The ecological interpretation is that the Neotropical otter tends to be more generalist regarding the structure of habitat used. PCA was used to analyse differences between the species in subsets of variables. The variables were grouped in two subsets: one with variables about the structure of banks and the other about characteristics of water bodies. The main differences between the two species of otters are expressed through the axes related to water body’s features; the condition of banks appears to have less relevance.
TOPOGRAFIA DO CONE MEDULAR NA ARIRANHA (Pteronura brasiliensis Zimmermann, 1780) ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE MEDULLAR CONE IN GIANT OTTER (Pteronura brasiliensis Zimmermann, 1780)  [cached]
Gilberto Valente Machado,Fernando César Weber Rosas,Stela Maris Lazzarini
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2009,
Abstract: Com o propósito de disponibilizar dados anat micos que sirvam de base para a prática das anestesias epidurais, em especial aqueles relativos à topografia do cone medular, foram dissecados três exemplares adultos de ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis), dois machos e uma fêmea, após morte natural, provenientes do Laboratório de Mamíferos Aquáticos, do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz nia (INPA). Após as disseca es, observou-se que: a) o ápice do cone medular encontra-se ao nível da quarta vértebra lombar (L4) em dois animais (66,6%), sendo um macho e uma fêmea, e entre as vértebras L3 e L4 em um animal (33,3%) macho; b) o cone medular apresentou cerca de 5,50 cm de comprimento, nos três animais estudados, estando sua base sobre a vértebra L3 em dois animais (66,6%), ou entre as vértebras L2 e L3, em um espécime (33,3%); c) intumescência lombar, que se apresentou contínua com a base do cone medular, foi registrada entre as vértebras T12 e L2, nos três espécimes. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, cone medular, Pteronura brasiliensis. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Pteronura brasiliensis, anatomia, cone medular. Aiming to offer the anatomical bases for epidural anesthesia, particularly relative to the topographical anatomy of the medullar cone, three specimens of adult giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), two male and one female, after natural death, were dissected. Those animals were donated from Laboratory of aquatic mammals (INPA – National Institute for Amazonia Research). After the dissection were observed: a) in two animals (66.6%), one male and one female, the medullar cone apex is close to fourth lumbar vertebra (L4) and, in other one animal (33.3%), male, between the L3 and L4 vertebrae; b) the medullar cone length is 5.50cm in alls animals to this study, and your base is close to L3 (66.6%) or between the L2 and L3 vertebrae (33.3%); c) the lumbar enlargement (Intumescentia lumbalis), that continuous to the base of the medullar cone, were noted between the T12 and L2 vertebrae. KEY WORDS: Anatomy, medullar cone, Pteronura brasiliensis.
Predation or Scavenging of Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) Cubs by Lizards?  [PDF]
Fernando César Weber Rosas,Márcia Munick Mendes Cabral,Gália Ely de Mattos
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2008,
Abstract: Despite the fact that several species have been mentioned as being giant otter predators, there is no direct evidence of most of them actually preying on P. brasiliensis. In this study we report for the first time a lizard (Tupinambis teguixin), commonly known as a tegu, either preying or scavenging on a giant otter cub. We also present some interactions of free-ranging giant otters with other potential predators, showing that their interactions are not always negative.
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