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Yinpingmudan, the Wild Relative of the King of Flowers, Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews
银屏牡丹——花王牡丹的野生近亲

HONG De-Yuan,PAN Kai-Yu,XIE Zhong-Wen,
洪德元
,潘开玉,谢中稳

中国科学院研究生院学报 , 1998,
Abstract: Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews subsp. spontanea (Rehder) S. G. Haw et L. A. Lauener ( =P. spontanea = P. jishanensis) has been considered as the wild form of widely cultivated P. suffruticosa. However, the subspecies differs from the cultivated one in shape, division and indumentum of leaves and reproductive biology. As a result of extensive field work, a form with two individuals in Yinping Shan, Caohu, Anhui, and Songxian, Henan, are found to be extremely similar to P. suffruticosa, but apparently different from P. jishanensis. The form is considered to be the wild one of P. suffruticosa and described as new: P. suffruticosa subsp, yinpingmudan Hong, K. Y. Pan et Z. W. Xie.
Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews 的界定,兼论栽培牡丹的分类鉴定问题
洪德元,潘开玉,周志钦
中国科学院研究生院学报 , 2004,
Abstract: 栽培牡丹一直称为Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews。 在把作丹皮用的栽培牡丹(凤丹)描述为新种P. ostii后,观赏的栽培牡丹仍然被统称为P. suffruticosa。 但在P. suffruticosa复合体内, P. rockii, P. jishanensis, P. qiui 和P. suffruticosa ssp. yinpingmudan 等野生类型相继被描述并得到承认。于是,有人提出了栽培牡丹多元发生的观点,同时也出现了P. suffruticosa “是牡丹组数
Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews 的界定,兼论栽培牡丹的分类鉴定问题
洪德元,潘开玉,周志钦
植物分类学报 , 2004,
Abstract: 栽培牡丹一直称为Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews。在把作丹皮用的栽培牡丹(凤丹)描述为新种P.ostii后,观赏的栽培牡丹仍然被统称为P.suffruticosa。但在P.suffruticosa复合体内,P.rockii,P.jishanensis,P.qiui和P.suffruticosa ssp.yinpingmudan等野生类型相继被描述并得到承认。于是,有人提出了栽培牡丹多元发生的观点,同时也出现了P.suffruticosa“是牡丹组数种植物复合体”的说法。本文在详细论述P.suffruticosa复合体分类历史的基础上,根据我们自己对野生类型和栽培类型的考察研究,认为观赏栽培牡丹的形成是多元的,并且包含几个物种;P.suffruticosa有明确的概念,它是观赏栽培牡丹的组成部分,而不代表栽培牡丹的全部,更不是数种植物的复合体。我们认为应根据形态特征正确鉴定观赏栽培牡丹,不应把它们一概鉴定为P.suffruticosa。通过文献和标本引证,文中界定了P.suffruticosa的范围。此外,把P.yinpingmudan(D.Y.Hong,K.Y.Pan&Z.W.Xie)B.A.Shen作为P.suffruticosa ssp.yinpingmudan D.Y.Hong,K.Y.Pan&Z.W.Xie的异名,并且认定P.yinpingmudan(D.Y.Hong,K.Y.Pan&Z.W.Xie)B.A.Shen ssp.henanensis(D.Y.Hong,K.Y.Pan&Z.W.Xie)B.A.Shen是不合法名称。
Dynamic changes in enzyme activities and phenolic content during in vitro rooting of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) plantlets  [PDF]
Songlin He
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The dynamic changes of phenolic content and peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), indole-3-acetic acid oxidase (IAAO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities were assessed during the in vitro rooting process of three cultivars of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.). These changes in enzyme-related activity and phenolic content__observed at the level of the whole plant__differed during the first 20 days of the rooting process in easy-to-root ‘Feng Dan Bai’ cultivar and difficult-to-root ‘Wu Long Peng Sheng’ and ‘Tai Ping Hong’ cultivars, and in most cases they were actually opposite. The ease with which ‘Feng Dan Bai’ was able to root was closely related to the activity of all four enzymes (POD, PPO, IAAO, PAL) as well as to the phenolic content.
PRELIMINARY REPORT OF RAPD ANALYSIS IN PAEONIA SUFFRUTICOSA SUBSP.SPONTANEA AND PAEONIA ROCKII
矮牡丹与紫斑牡丹RAPD分析初报

Pel Yan-long Zou Yu-ping Yin Zhen Wang Xiao-quan Zhang Zhi-xian Hong De-yuan,Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,
裴颜龙
,邹喻苹

植物分类学报 , 1995,
Abstract: Ten different oligonucleotide primers of arbitrary sequence were used in Capillary and Air Thermocycler to amplify genomic total DNA of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spon-tanea and P. rockii isolated from several local populations in Shanxi, Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Under the strictly standardized amplification condition for all the primers, these primers yielded clear and reproducible bands corresponding to amplified products and separable by agarose gel electrophoresis. Among a total of 71 bands amplified, 16(22. 5%) were polymorphic in a single individual of P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea, while among a total of 76 bands 21(27. 6%)were polymophic in a single individual of P. rockii. On an average, the pairwise marker difference between band profiles of conspecific individuals (different populations) was 7. 9 for P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and 8. 7 for P. rockii respectively. The average marker difference between P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and P. rockii was 10. 3. Obviously, greater number of plants and primers will be required to detect satisfactorily level of genetic diversity. These preliminary results showed that intraspecific genetic diversity was low for the two endangered species. RAPD as a molecular marker was useful and feasible for detecting the genetic variation within species of wild moutans. And it was also potential for studying evolution and relationships between species.
GC-MS analysis of essential oil of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews from ZhaoFen and RouFurong flowers in China  [PDF]
Weiping Yin, Wenlu Duan, Pu Liu, Ruixue Deng, Yunlai Ren, Shuang Zhao
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.48073
Abstract: The flowers of ZhaoFen and RouFurong may contain essential oils with natural aromatic ingredients. In the present work, the chemical compositions of essential oil of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews from the flowers of ZhaoFen and RouFurong grown only in China were investigated by GC-MS analysis. The results indicate that there are 27 constituents in ZhaoFen and 29 constituents in RouFurong, which account for 96.04% and 95.90% of the oils of ZhaoFen and RouFurong, respectively. The major components of the essential oils are character-rized by oxygenated terpenols, and their content is, respectively, 85.06% and 83.47%. The essential oil of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews was reported for the first time on the aerial parts.
Aqueous Extract of Paeonia suffruticosa Inhibits Migration and Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells via Suppressing VEGFR-3 Pathway
Shih-Chin Wang,Sai-Wen Tang,Sio-Hong Lam,Chung-Chieh Wang,Yu-Huei Liu,Hsuan-Yuan Lin,Shoei-Sheng Lee,Jung-Yaw Lin
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/409823
Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells are characterized by strong drug resistance and high metastatic incidence. In this study, the effects of ten kinds of Chinese herbs on RCC cell migration and proliferation were examined. Aqueous extract of Paeonia suffruticosa (PS-A) exerted strong inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, mobility, and invasion. The results of mouse xenograft experiments showed that the treatment of PS-A significantly suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. We further found that PS-A markedly decreased expression of VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and phosphorylation of FAK in RCC cells. Moreover, the activation of Rac-1, a modulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, was remarkably reduced by PS-A. Additionally, PS-A suppressed polymerization of actin filament as demonstrated by confocal microscopy analysis and decreased the ratio of F-actin to G-actin in RCC cells, suggesting that PS-A inhibits RCC cell migration through modulating VEGFR-3/FAK/Rac-1 pathway to disrupt actin filament polymerization. In conclusion, this research elucidates the effects and molecular mechanism for antimigration of PS-A on RCC cells and suggests PS-A to be a therapeutic or adjuvant strategy for the patients with aggressive RCC.
A STUDY ON POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF PAEONIA SUFFRUTICOSA SUBSP. SPONTANEA(PAEONIACEAE)
矮牡丹传粉生物学的初步研究

LUO Yi Bo,PEI Yan Long,PAN Kai Yu,HONG De Yuan,
罗毅波
,裴颜龙,潘开玉,洪德元

植物分类学报 , 1998,
Abstract: Field observation on pollination in three populations of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea in southern Shanxi Province showed that five species of bees in two families and four species of beetles were engaged in pollination. Examination on bodies of these insects under SEM, and seed set produced by controlled insect pollination indicated that the bees, especially the species in the genus Andrena were main pollinators and the beetles except those of small size were only fluctuating vectors.Flowers of this taxon are scented and nonectariferous.Flowers attracted bees and beetles mainly by pollen. A study on seed set in the three populations revealed considerable variation within and among populations. The plants were no apomict and autogamy,but geitonogamy sometimes could produce mature seeds (x=2.86 seeds per carpel). In the population with less flowers (less than 40 flowers), natural seed set (x=3.88) was close to the seed set produced by hand cross pollination (x=3.21), but in the population with more flowers(near 100 flowers) natural seed set (x= 2.48 ) was lower than that by hand cross pollination (x=3.21). The seed set was low for both natural and artificial cross pollination with only about one forth of ovules developing into seeds.
A STUDY ON Ag-NORS AND GIEMSA C BANDING OF CHROMOSOMES IN PAEONIA SUFFRUTICOSA
牡丹染色体的Ag-NORs和Giemsa C带的研究

Zhang Zanping,Li Maoxue,Yuan Jiazheng,
.张赞平
,.李懋学,.袁甲正

植物科学学报 , 1990,
Abstract: In this paper, the Ag-NORs and Giemsa C banding patterns of 5 cultivars in Paeonia suffruticosa and P. suffrugioos a var. papaveracea were reported for the first time. All of their karyotypes are 2n=2x=10=6m+2sm+2st. They have 6Ag-NORs which are different in location on chromosomes. The C banding patterns are also varied in 1, 2, 3 pair chromosomes. It was found that the numbers and locations of terminal bands (T) and AgNORs of chromosomes are same Therefore, T bands are actually N bands, and the satellites shown by normal stained are actually terminal NORs.
牡丹与芍药的授粉亲和性表现及其生理机制分析
Analysis of pollination affinity performance and its physiological mechanism in Paeonia suffruticosa and Paeonia lactiflora
 [PDF]

,,解梦珺,吕博雅,
- , 2017,
Abstract: 【目的】探究花粉 柱头相互作用及主要保护酶、内源激素与牡丹芍药远缘杂交不亲和性的关系,为阐明不亲和的生理机制奠定基础。【方法】对芍药与牡丹杂交授粉及芍药自交授粉过程中,花粉在雌蕊上不同时间(1,3,5,8,12,24,36,48,72,96 h)的生长动态进行荧光显微观察,并对此过程中雌蕊内的保护酶(SOD、POD)活性和内源激素(ZR、ABA、IAA、GA3)含量变化进行比较,分析其形态变化的内在生理机制。【结果】芍药自交授粉后花粉大量萌发,花粉管伸长速度先慢后快,并通过花柱基部;芍药与牡丹杂交后,花粉大部分不能萌发,并在柱头上出现扭曲、肿胀等现象,且产生强烈的胼胝质反应。自交亲和及杂交不亲和授粉雌蕊的POD和SOD活性在授粉过程中发生明显变化,且2种雌蕊的变化趋势存在明显差异;当POD和SOD处于高活性时,花粉管迅速向胚囊伸长并进入胚囊(授粉后3 h)。高含量的ZR、IAA和GA3有利于花粉 柱头识别、萌发和受精作用(授粉后3 h);整个受精过程中,自交亲和授粉雌蕊的IAA和GA3含量均显著高于杂交不亲和授粉雌蕊,而杂交授粉雌蕊中的ABA含量高于自交授粉,说明高含量的ABA与杂交不亲和性相关。【结论】芍药与牡丹远缘杂交过程中的不亲和性与内部酶活性变化及内源激素含量的动态变化有关。
【Objective】This paper explored the pollen-stigma interaction and the relationship between the dynamic changes of protective enzymes and endogenous hormones in pistil during pollinations of Paeonia lactiflora×P.suffruticosa.【Method】The development at different time(1,3,5,8,12,24,36,48,72,96 h) of pollen in pistil was observed under fluoroscope,to compare the dynamic changes of protective enzymes(SOD,POD) active and endogenous hormones(ZR,ABA,IAA,GA3)and analysis of the morphological changes of internal physiological mechanism were studied during pollinations (P.lactiflora×P.suffruticosa and P.lactiflora×P.lactiflora).【Result】The results showed that a large proportion of pollen was germinated and the pollen tube grew slowly at first then fast and entered into the style base after self pollination of P.lactiflora;The pollen was not germinated,and callose largely deposited in papillose cells,and the pollen tube was distortion and swollen on the stigma in P.lactiflora×P.suffruticosa.The co-changes of protective enzymes and endogenous hormones of pistil inside were caused by pollination compatibility,which varied with pollen development;The pollen tube elongated and entered the embryo sac quickly with the high level of POD and SOD (3 h after pollination).The high contents of ZR,IAA and GA3 were beneficial to compatible pollen germination and fertilization (3 h after pollination).The content of ABA of cross-pollination was higher than self-pollination indicating that the high level of ABA was related with cross-incompatibility.【Conclusion】Incompatibility with the dynamic changes of the internal indicators were studied during pollinations (P.lactiflora×P.suffruticosa) laid a solid foundation to elucidate its physiological mechanism
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