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Sustainable Urban Mobility: Challenges, Initiatives and Planning  [PDF]
Viswanadha Kumar Giduthuri
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.33022
Abstract: The growth of cities is not spontaneous and uncontrollable but guided and shaped by human interaction and by physical infrastructure. However, urban expansion around the world is characterised by uncontrolled urban sprawl leading to inefficient use of space and natural resources. Interactions between humans and opportunities for innovations are constrained by low density and social segregation. For the cities and towns to function efficiently, accessibility is essential to carry the goods and for services. But accessible cities are being encouraged to shift towards more sustainable modes of transportation and draw more travelers in different modes of transport including sidewalks. Mobility is about more than just the mode of transport available. Urban planning and design should focus on how to bring people and places together, by creating cities that focus on accessibility and optimal urban densities, rather than simply increasing the length of urban transport infrastructure. This paper gives a brief review of urban planning initiatives taken by government of Indian towards a sustainable urban mobility plans and outlines urban planning challenges for the local urban bodies, urban designers and policy makers.
Land-Use Planning for Urban Sprawl Based on the CLUE-S Model: A Case Study of Guangzhou, China  [PDF]
Linyu Xu,Zhaoxue Li,Huimin Song,Hao Yin
Entropy , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/e15093490
Abstract: In recent years, changes in land use resulting from rapid urbanization or urban sprawl have brought about many negative effects to land ecosystems, and have led to entropy increases. This study introduces the novel ideas of a planning regulation coefficient for sustainable land-use planning in order to decrease entropy, combined with the CLUE-S model to predict land-use change. Three scenarios were designed as the basis for land-use projections for Guangzhou, China, in 2015, and the changes in the land ecological service function for each scenario were predicted. The results show that, although the current land-use plan is quite reasonable, it will be necessary to further strengthen the protection of farmland and important ecological service function areas.
Measuring Urban Sprawl Indices at Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) Level  [PDF]
Tahmina Khan, Michael Anderson
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.64027
Abstract:
High rates of land use change causing unsustainable development have attracted the attention of policy and planning and raised the need to understand the factors behind it. Sprawl occurs because of the residents’ preference to live in suburbs, low-cost auto travel, technological innovations, the aspiration for urbanized-automobile dependent lifestyle, the disappearance of rural agricultural land, and spatial fragmentation. Thus, it induces sustainability challenges and leads to excessive commuting and congestion. There is a greater necessity to quantify urban sprawl at Traffic Analysis Zone level so that transportation and land use planners can identify potential sprawling TAZ and can promote/develop sustainable strategies for future land use planning. In this study, sprawling indices at TAZ level were derived with and without incorporating centering effect and compared the scores of sprawling TAZs in 2010 to the sprawling TAZs for 2000. The main goal was to propose a methodology for determining potential sprawling TAZs and to identify locations responsible for sprawl in a case study city. The results can be a substantial input in planning and decision-making process.
CHALLENGES OF URBAN PLANNING AT THE FACE OF COUNTER-URBANIZATION  [PDF]
Kazi Saiful ISLAM
Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management , 2009,
Abstract: Counter-urban movement is becoming more and more common phenomenon nowadays. Several countries have started loosing population; many other are facing tremendous loss of urban population. This paper has addressed the global and local challenges and issues of counter-urban movement and subsequently their response pattern at the same scale.
URBAN SPRAWL, PATTERN AND MEASUREMENT IN LOKOJA, NIGERIA
Michael Oloyede ALABI
Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management , 2009,
Abstract: Lokoja have been experiencing a large influx of population from its surrounding regions, which had led to rapid growth and expansion that had left profound changes on the landscape in terms of land use and land cover. This study uses the GIS techniques and the application of Shannon’s entropy theory to measure the behavior of sprawl which is based on the notion that landscape entropy or disorganization increases with sprawl, analysis was carried out based on the integration of remote sensing and GIS, the measurement of entropy is devised based on the town location factors, distance from roads, to reveal and capture spatial patterns of urban sprawl. Then Entropy value for each zone revealed a high value, especially areas outside the core city area; like Felele, with the entropy of 0.3, Adankolo, 0.2 and Lokongoma, 0.2. These areas are evenly dispersed settlement, as one move away from the city core. Study shows a correlation of population densities and entropy values of 1987 and 2007, for areas like Felele ,Adankolo, and Lokongoma , which is indicative of spread over space , an evidence of sprawl. But as we go down the table the entropy values seem to tend towards zero. This study provides quantitative data for effective planning and decision making in projecting the town growth and in planning the direction of growth.
Urban sprawl in Iranian cities and its differences with the western sprawl  [PDF]
Ebrahimpour-Masoumi Houshmand
Spatium , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/spat1227012e
Abstract: Recently a number of studies have focused on urban sprawl in the Iranian cities and the negative impacts of such development pattern. Although in a general view the phrase “urban sprawl” is used for fast and sometimes uncontrolled urbanizations, but there are dissimilarities between the urban sprawl in the western societies with the so-called Iranian urban sprawl. This paper discusses these differences as part of five main aspects that are mentioned in the internationally recognized urban sprawl definitions. Suburban sprawl, single-use developments/zoning, disconnected street network, low accessibility of the new developments, and commercial strip development are the aspects that are descriptively discussed as the main differences between the two types of sprawl. The main point of the discussion is that due to the wide range of similarities, which are briefly introduced, the type of the fast outward urban growth that is observed in the periphery of the Iranian cities can be defined as a part of the universal urban sprawl trend. Finally a definition is suggested for explaining urban sprawl in Iran.
Participatory Challenges in Urban-Environmental Planning: The Anthropological Contribution
Ariel Gravano
Universitas Humanística , 2007,
Abstract: This essay offers reflections on the anthropological contribution to institutional processes of “community participation” in urban-environmental planning in a metropolitan setting. The case presented is of a participation imposed by law, its difficulties and opportunities, from the different and asymmetrical rationalities in the game. Faced with a concrete demand from the State, we analyze methodological possibilities for adopting a process of effective transformation, through the facilitation of organizational culture issues.
Measuring urban sprawl in Beijing with geo-spatial indices

JIANG Fang,LIU Shenghe,YUAN Hong,ZHANG Qing,

地理学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Concerning about the rapid urban growth in recent China, this study takes Beijing as a case and puts forward that urban sprawl can be measured from spatial configuration, urban growth efficiency and external impacts, and then develops a geo-spatial indices system for measuring sprawl, a total of 13 indicators. In order to calculate these indices, different sources data are selected, including land use maps, former land use planning, land price and floor-area-ratio samples, digitized map of the highways and city centers, population and GDP statistical data, etc. Various GIS spatial analysis methods are used to spatialize these indices into 100m×100m cells. Besides, an integrated urban sprawl index is calculated by weight sum of these 13 indices. The application result indicates that geo-spatial indices system can capture most of the typical features and interior differentia of urban sprawl. Construction land in Beijing has kept fast growing with large amount, low efficiency and disordered spatial con-figuration, indicating a typical sprawling tendency. The following specific sprawl features are identified by each indicator: (1) typical spatial configuration of sprawling: obvious fragmenta-tion and irregularity of landscape due to unsuccessful enforcement of land use planning, unadvisable pattern of typical discontinuous development, strip development and leapfrog development; (2) low efficiency of sprawl: low development density, low population density and economic output in newly developed area; and (3) negative impacts on agriculture, en-vironment and city life. According to the integrated sprawl index, the sprawling amount in the northern part is larger than that in the southern, but the sprawling extent is in converse case; most sprawling area include the marginal area of the near suburbs and the area between highways, etc. Four sprawling patterns are identified: randomly expansion at urban fringe, strip development along or between highways, scattered development of industrial land, leapfrog development of urban residence and industrial area.
Urban Sprawl Analysis and Modeling in Asmara, Eritrea  [PDF]
Mussie G. Tewolde,Pedro Cabral
Remote Sensing , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3102148
Abstract: The extension of urban perimeter markedly cuts available productive land. Hence, studies in urban sprawl analysis and modeling play an important role to ensure sustainable urban development. The urbanization pattern of the Greater Asmara Area (GAA), the capital of Eritrea, was studied. Satellite images and geospatial tools were employed to analyze the spatiotemporal urban landuse changes. Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA), Landuse Cover Change (LUCC) analysis and urban sprawl analysis using Shannon Entropy were carried out. The Land Change Modeler (LCM) was used to develop a model of urban growth. The Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network was employed to model the transition potential maps with an accuracy of 85.9% and these were used as an input for the ‘actual’ urban modeling with Markov chains. Model validation was assessed and a scenario of urban land use change of the GAA up to year 2020 was presented. The result of the study indicated that the built-up area has tripled in size (increased by 4,441 ha) between 1989 and 2009. Specially, after year 2000 urban sprawl in GAA caused large scale encroachment on high potential agricultural lands and plantation cover. The scenario for year 2020 shows an increase of the built-up areas by 1,484 ha (25%) which may cause further loss. The study indicated that the land allocation system in the GAA overrode the landuse plan, which caused the loss of agricultural land and plantation cover. The recommended policy options might support decision makers to resolve further loss of agricultural land and plantation cover and to achieve sustainable urban development planning in the GAA.
URBAN SPRAWL AND CLIMATIC CHANGES IN TEHRAN  [PDF]
*1Gh. R. Roshan, 2S. Zanganeh Shahraki, 3D. Sauri, 4R. Borna
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Urban sprawl beginning in the developed countries around 1950 is currently experienced in almost all countries. Many studies on the effects of urban sprawl indicate the emergence of harmful effects of this phenomenon. One of the most important environmental effects is the changes in climate. The purpose of this research was to identifythe relation between urban sprawl components of Tehran with changes in climate variables. To this end, two data sets have been used to study the relation between these elements and components. The first data set included climatic elements such as rainfall, temperature, the percent of relative humidity and the percent of calm wind, as well as its mean speed for a period of 54 years (1953-2006). The second set of data was formed by components relevant to urban sprawl such as city area, private cars per capita, population density and number of urban population.Pearson correlation and multiple regression methods have been applied to compare and identify the relation between climatic components with urban sprawl indices. Results of correlation indicate that among the 5 aforementionedclimatic components, annual rainfall and the mean of wind speed do not appear to have significant relation with sprawl, but the oscillations in percent of relative humidity and percent of calm wind seem to have a significant relation with Tehran sprawl. Consequently and using multivariate regression, it was concluded that the most important factor in the increasing temperature of Tehran, is the number of cars; the most important factor in increasing the percent of relative humidity is the area of Tehran, whereas the increase of the percent of calm wind may be attributed to the increase of population.
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