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The Influence of Different Stresses on Glomalin Levels in an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus—Salinity Increases Glomalin Content  [PDF]
Edith C. Hammer,Matthias C. Rillig
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028426
Abstract: Glomalin is a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and the soil fraction containing glomalin is correlated with soil aggregation. Thus, factors potentially influencing glomalin production could be of relevance for this ecosystem process and for understanding AM fungal physiology. Previous work indicated that glomalin production in AM fungi may be a stress response, or related to suboptimal mycelium growth. We show here that environmental stress can enhance glomalin production in the mycelium of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices. We applied NaCl and glycerol in different intensities to the medium in which the fungus was grown in vitro, causing salinity stress and osmotic stress, respectively. As a third stress type, we simulated grazing on the extraradical hyphae of the fungus by mechanically injuring the mycelium by clipping. NaCl caused a strong increase, while the clipping treatment led to a marginally significant increase in glomalin production. Even though salinity stress includes osmotic stress, we found substantially different responses in glomalin production due to the NaCl and the glycerol treatment, as glycerol addition did not cause any response. Thus, our results indicate that glomalin is involved in inducible stress responses in AM fungi for salinity, and possibly grazing stress.
Review of glomalin-related soil protein and its environmental function in the rhizosphere
球囊霉素相关土壤蛋白根际环境功能研究进展

HUANG Yi,WANG Dong-Wei,CAI Jia-Liang,ZHENG Wei-Shuang,
黄艺
,王东伟,蔡佳亮,郑维爽

植物生态学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Glomalin (or glomalin-related soil protein) is thought to be produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. It is a thermotolerant glycoprotein that contains metal ions and has special physical and chemical characteristics. The structure and function of glomalin have been intensively studied. We review progress in the characterization and properties of glomalin as well as its environmental functions in the rhizosphere (especially its chelation of heavy metals). Research has shown that glomalin is a putative homo...
Allelopathy effects of Artemisia ordosica
油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)的化感作用研究

MA Mao Hua,
马茂华

生态学报 , 1999,
Abstract: The allelopathic effects of Artemisia ordosica on receptor plant species: Amaranthus tricolor,Orychopragmus violaceus,Raphanus sativus and Triticum aestivum was gaven.The aqueous extracted from aerial parts of A.ordosica causes inhibition on germination and decreases seedling and root elongation of receptor plants in vitro.The dry weight,seeding height and root length are reduced proportionally at various concentrations of the extracts.In different organic extracts of aqueous extracts,EtOAc extracts significantly inhibited the seedling and root elongation of receptor plants.This EtOAc extracts is separated into three parts.Through identification with chemical reactions,it was found that the bioactive fraction contained flavonoid compounds.
EFFECT OF CROP ROTATION AND LONG TERM FERTILIZATION ON THE CARBON AND GLOMALIN CONTENT IN THE SOIL  [PDF]
Piotr WOJEWóDZKI,Bogumi?a CIESCINSKA
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/13.4.1134
Abstract: The research was performed on the basis of soil samples taken from a multi-year long fertilization experiment carried out in Skierniewice. The source of samples was soil under potato and rye cultivated in monoculture and in the 5-fields rotation system. The following combinations of fertilization were concerned: Ca, NPK and CaNPK (doses since 1976: 1.6 t·ha-1 CaO every 4 years in monoculture and 2 t·ha-1 CaO every 5 years in crop rotation, 90 kg·ha-1 N, 26 kg·ha-1 P, 91 kg·ha-1 K). Laboratory analyzes involved determination of total organic carbon (TOC) and glomalin operationally described as a total glomalin related soil protein (TGRSP). It was found that regardless of cultivated plants and the method of fertilization, only cultivation system such as rotation and monoculture significantly influenced the content of TGRSP. TOC was significantly influenced by interaction between species of cultivated plant and the system of cultivation. The analyzed factors within the method of cultivation (monoculture and crop rotation) did not influence significantly the TGRSP content while cultivated plant species, in monoculture, significantly influenced on TOC content. There was also noted positive correlation (r = 0.72) between TGRSP and TOC.
Glomalin Production and Infectivity of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi in Response to Grassland Plant Diversity  [PDF]
R. L. Burrows
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51013
Abstract:

Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are integral components of most terrestrial ecosystems, with complex interactions between plants and AMF. Our study assessed the impact of plant diversity of native grassland species on AMF infectivity and production of glomalin, an AMF hyphal glycoprotein that may play an important role in soil aggregation. The study was conducted over a 3-year period in field plots planted with 1, 2, 8, or 16 plant species. The mycorrhizal infection potential (MIP) of the plots was assayed in the greenhouse. Glomalin production and MIP were lowest in monocultures and were more closely correlated with plant diversity than with plant cover. Spore density was also greater in higher diversity plots. Lower AMF activity in monoculture plots may contribute to lower productivity and soil quality in plant monocultures. Immunoreactive glomalin levels varied seasonally, with higher levels in late summer than in late spring. Positive correlations were found between glomalin levels and spore density, and between MIP and spore density, but not between MIP and glomalin.

Comparative study on spatial patterns of Artemisia ordosica populations in the Mu Us sandy land
毛乌素沙地油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)种群空间格局对比

YANG Hong-Xiao,ZHANG Jin-Tun,LI Zhen-Dong,WU Bo,ZHANG Zhong-Shan,WANG Yan,
杨洪晓
,张金屯,李振东,吴波,张忠山,王妍

生态学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Artemisia ordosica is undershrub species, which dominates the vegetation of the Mu Us sandy land, north China. The spatial patterns of A. odorsica populations in different sandy lands were compared with the methods of Spatial Auto-correlation Analysis, Semi-variance Analysis and Nine-Term Local Quadrat Variance (9TLQV). The results showed that, by contrast with the A. ordosica population in fixed sandy land, the population in semi-fixed sandy land was of stronger autocorrelation and greater spatial heterogeneity, and meanwhile presented more intense differentiation between patches and patch gaps. The spatial patterns of A. ordosica population in semi-fixed sandy land are probably governed by sand drifting caused by strong winds. Drifting sand can easily put A. ordosica plants to death unless they live together in form of A. ordosica patches, where the distances between plants are small. In semi-fixed sandy land, patches are not merely the form of A. ordosica population to survive drifting sand, but also the foundation of A. ordosica population to develop and broaden their area. A. ordosica population is supposed to broaden their area through edge out-extending from the patches scattering in semi-fixed sandy land. The spatial patterns of A. ordosica population in fixed sandy land are possibly affected by intra-specific competition resulting from high plant cover. This study is ecologically useful to improve the practice of vegetation restoration from sandy lands. When transplanting A. ordosica plants to bare sandy lands, we had better arrange them in form of patches separated by patch gaps lacking A. ordosica plants. If so, it is favorable to the survival of transplanted plants, and also helpful to take advantage of the abilities of A. ordosica patches to revegetate patch gaps.
吾??壤?域?荒?查?行?法  [PDF]
地质论评 , 1937,
Abstract: 引言荒地一?,在??上?具有??意?:一指不毛之地,未?供?用者,一指耕?之地,因管理失宜,以致肥土消失,全???於荒?者。前一?荒地,大都有?植或利用之可能,後一?荒地,?短期??有?原之希望。
Comparative study on spatial patterns of the Artemisia ordosica population in the Mu Us sandy land

Yang Hongxiao,Zhang Jintun,Li Zhendong,Wu Bo,Zhang Zhongshan,Wang Yan,

生态学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Artemisia ordosica is an under-shrub species, which dominates the vegetation of the Mu Us sandy land in North China. The spatial patterns of the A. ordosica population in different sandy lands were compared with the methods of Spatial Auto-correlation Analysis, Semi-variance Analysis and Nine-Term Local Quadrat Variance (9TLQV). The results show that, by contrast with the A. ordosica population in fixed sandy land, the population in semi-fixed sandy land is of stronger auto-correlation and greater spatial heterogeneity, and meanwhile it presents more intense differentiation between patches and gaps. The spatial patterns of the A. ordosica population in semi-fixed sandy land are probably governed by drifting sand caused by strong winds. Drifting sand can easily put A. ordosica shrubs to death unless they live together in form of A. ordosica patches, where the distances between shrubs are short. In semi-fixed sandy land, patches are not only the form of the A. ordosica population to survive drifting sand, but also the foundation of the A. ordosica population to develop and broaden the area. The A. ordosica population is supposed to broaden the area through edge extending out from the patches scattering in semi-fixed sandy land. The spatial patterns of the A. ordosica population in fixed sandy land are possibly affected by intra-specific competition related to high plant coverage. This study is ecologically useful to improve the practice of vegetation restoration in sandy land. When transplanting A. ordosica shrubs to bare sandy land, one had better arrange them in form of patches separated by gaps, which can promote the survival of transplanted shrubs, and also help to take advantage of A. ordosica patches to revegetate bare gaps.
Effect of land use type on profile distribution of glomalin
土地利用方式对球囊霉素土层分布的影响

TANG Hong-Liang,LIU Long,WANG Li,BA Chao-Jie,
唐宏亮
,刘 龙,王 莉,巴超杰

中国生态农业学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Despite evident importance of glomalin in maintaining soil organic carbon balance and soil aggregate stability, little remains known about soil profile distribution patterns and influencing factors of glomalin under different land use types. In this study, we selected four land use types (farmland, artificial grassland, orchard and abandoned land) to examine soil profile distribution patterns and influencing factors of glomalin. Soil samples were collected from depths of 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm, 20~30 cm and 30~40 cm respectively. Soil glomalin, pH, available phosphorus, organic carbon and protease activity were determined for the collected soil samples. The results show that average soil glomalin content ranges from 1.41~3.18 mg·g-1, accounting for 6.98%~31.34% of soil organic carbon. Glomalin is therefore regarded as a major carbon pool in soil. Significant differences in soil glomalin are observed among the land use types and soil layers (P< 0.01). Soil glomalin exhibits obvious vertical distribution pattern, which decreases with increasing soil depth (except for abandoned lands). Soil glomalin is significantly directly related with soil available phosphorus and protease (P< 0.01). Soil available phosphorus, to a large degree, determines the content and distribution of soil glomalin. A simple and indirect correlation is observed between soil glomalin and protease. However, more research is recommended to further clarify the relationship. Based on the study, we conclude that glomalin is an important indicator for arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal growth and variations in soil ecosystem.
Extraction conditions of glomalin-related soil protein
球囊霉素相关土壤蛋白的提取条件

XIE Xiao-Lin,XU Peng-Yang,ZHU Hong-Hui,YAO Qing,
谢小林
,许朋阳,朱红惠,姚青

菌物学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Glomalin is a soil glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,presently named as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) due to its unspecific extraction. The extraction conditions of GRSP can affect its measured value,therefore,the influences of pre-sterilization of soil sample,centrifugation and soil sample mass on the measured value of GRSP were studied with citrus orchard soil. The results showed that both pre-sterilization of soil sample and centrifugation at higher centrifugal force (15,0...
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