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不同育苗方式麦后移栽棉生长发育及产量特点
Characteristics of Growing & Development and Yield of Transplanting Cotton after Winter Wheat Harvest in Different Seedling Ways
 [PDF]

李伶俐, 郭红霞, 李文, 马宗斌, 朱伟, 杨铁钢
Hans Journal of Agricultural Sciences (HJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.12677/HJAS.2015.53012
Abstract:
在大田条件下,研究了不同育苗方式麦后移栽棉花的生长发育及产量特点,结果表明:传统营养钵育苗麦后移栽棉与两苗互作育苗麦后移栽棉的生育进程、产量构成及子棉产量和霜前子棉产量基本相同,与麦后直播棉相比,现蕾期和开花期提早26~28 d,吐絮期提早26~27 d,有效结铃期延长27~28 d,单株铃数显著增加35.5%~39.4%,优质桃数(伏桃 + 早秋桃)提高74%~80.3%,平均铃重增加15.4%~ 15.5%,子棉产量极显著提高39.5%~41.7%,霜前子棉产量极显著提高79.75%~80.5%,霜前花率达86.4%~86.6%,提高了近20个百分点。同时,棉花两苗互作育苗实现了专业化、商业化和规模化育苗,利于机械移栽,可以完全替代棉花传统营养钵育苗,推动麦后机械化移栽棉的发展,稳定棉花生产,实现小麦棉花两熟双高产。
Under field condition, the characteristics of growing & development and yield of cotton over various seedling ways were studied after winter wheat harvest. The results indicated that the development progress, yield components, seed cotton yield and the pre-frost seed cotton yield of transplanting cotton were almost same both under the traditional nutritional bowl grow seedlings after winter wheat harvest and under the technique of factory mutual aid grow seedlings. Compared with the treatment of direct-seeding, budding period and flowering period 26 - 28 d earlier, boll opening stage 26 - 27 d earlier, effective boll setting period prolonged 27 - 28 d, boll number per plant increased by 35.5% - 35.5%, high-quality boll number (the boll in Summer dog days + early autumn boll) increased by 74% - 80.3%, the average bell weight increased by 15.4% - 5.4%, un-ginned cotton yield significantly increased by 39.5% - 41.7%, the unginned cotton yield before frost significantly improved 79.75% - 80.5%, the flower proportion before frost was 86.4% - 86.6% (increased by nearly 20 percentages). Meanwhile, the technique of the cotton factory mutual aid grow seedlings with wheat in same hole has realized specification, commercialization and large scale grow seeding, which favor the cotton mechanized transplanting, completely replace traditional nutritional bowl grow seedlings, promote the development of mechanized transplanting cotton, stabilize cotton production, and realize the double high yields of wheat-cotton double cropping system.
Genetic Diversity Analysis of Brown Cotton and Green Cotton
棕色棉和绿色棉遗传多样性的比较研究 Genetic Diversity Analysis of Brown Cotton and Green Cotton

GUO Jiang-Yong,WANG Yi-Qing,WU Ming-Gang,ZHANG Li-Ming,LIU Feng-Jiang,LI Wen-Bin,LIU Hai-Feng,ZHAO Tian-Peng,SUN Yong-Ru,
郭江勇
,王义琴,吴明刚,张利明,刘丰疆,李文彬,刘海峰,赵天鹏,孙勇如GUO Jiang-Yong,WANG Yi-Qing,WU Ming-Gang,ZHANG Li-Ming,LIU Feng-Jiang,LI Wen-Bin,LIU Hai-Feng,ZHAO Tian-Peng,SUN Yong-Ru

遗传 , 2004,
Abstract: Genetic diversity analysis of brown cotton Xincai 1 and Xincai 2 and green cotton Xincai 3 and Xincai 4 and other 47 color cottons was conducted by the random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) techniques,using 6 random primers.Cluster and similarity analysis of these cottons showed that the differences in genetic relationship and similarity among the brown cottons,green cottons and brown-green cottons are not remarkable.The results also reflect that the genetic bases of the brown and green cottons are narrow,and they are at the same genetic diversity level.These results are probably due to the same basic germplasms,the same breeding aims and the similar breeding approaches.
棉仁高油分材料筛选及其脂肪酸发育分析  [PDF]
宋俊乔,孙培均,张 霞,张献龙,聂以春,郭小平,朱龙付
棉花学报 , 2010, DOI: 1002-7807(2010)04-0291-06
Abstract: 对2个主要栽培棉种共61个棉花材料的棉仁油分含量测定表明,棉花种间的棉仁油分含量差异较大。陆地棉和海岛棉材料的平均棉仁油分含量分别为30.42%和37.25%。陆地棉材料中棉仁油分含量变幅较大,从25.27%到35.42%;海岛棉材料的棉仁油分含量相对一致。分别以海岛棉‘Pima90-53'和陆地棉‘徐州142'、‘T586'为材料,考察了棉子发育过程中,油分含量及成分的发育变化进程。研究发现,棉仁油分含量在开花后20d时已达到棉仁干重的25%左右,棉子完全成熟时油分相对含量达到最高。气相色谱分析表明,棉仁脂肪酸主要包括棕榈酸、硬脂酸、油酸、亚油酸等,其中亚油酸的含量可达50%以上。随着棉子的发育,棉仁亚油酸含量逐渐减少,而棕榈酸、硬脂酸和油酸含量逐渐增加。棉花种间和种内材料的棉仁油分含量差异较大,说明对棉花材料的棉仁油分含量进行遗传改良具有较大的潜力。关键词棉花;棉仁油分;成分;发育中图分类号S562文献标识码A文章编号1002-7807(2010)04-0291-06
梳针分梳板对棉结去除的影响  [PDF]
纺织学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 为研究梳针分梳板对棉结去除的影响,用AFIS单纤维测试仪对梳棉机刺辊下采用梳针分梳板、锯齿分梳板、小漏底在不同加工条件下所加工的生条进行棉结检测,结果显示:1)在隔距较小范围内,梳针分梳板去除棉结和SCN能力更强一些;2类分梳板去除棉结和带籽屑棉结(SCN)能力都比加小漏底方案要好。2)在隔距较大的条件下,锯齿分梳板去除棉结能力要强于梳针分梳板,分梳板去除棉结能力不如小漏底。分梳板和小漏底对SCN的去除随原料不同而有所差异。3)在小隔距条件下,锯齿分梳板所加工生条棉结直径稍大,在大隔距条件下,梳针分梳板所加工生条棉结直径稍大;和小漏底相比,分梳板所加工生条棉结直径略小。
WAXD分峰研究多晶型等规聚丙烯的相结构  [PDF]
胡家(王总),金毅敏
高分子学报 , 1986,
Abstract: 本文对含α、β结晶相的多晶型等规聚丙烯(i-PP)进行WAXD的分峰研究。选用不对称高斯-柯西函数表征结晶与非晶衍射峰,对结晶峰其结果优于对称高斯-柯西函数,对非晶峰其结果优于多项式、指数函数和双指数函数;在微处理机上采用阻尼最小二乘法,分峰结果比较满意。对加β成核剂的含α、β多晶型试样,分峰研究得到了它们的相态、结晶度、晶粒度及α、β两相比等随结晶温度了Tc(100°~140℃)变化的规律。结果指出α相含量随Tc变化甚小,β相变化与非晶相反,β晶粒随T_c变化的重组大于α相,β相的最佳结晶温度在130℃。将分峰法得到的两相比k与Turner-Jones公式的kT-J作了比较,就非晶扣除、峰面积代替峰高、考虑(hk1)晶面贡献及重叠峰的分离等进行了改进。并提出了计算WAXD中各相峰面积的简便方法。
枣棉间作系统棉花产量的形成与影响因素
Formation and influencing factors of cotton yield in jujube\|cotton intercropping system
 [PDF]

段志平,刘天煜,张永强,焦超,栾鹏飞,杨涛,石岩松,田钰泉,郝向东,李鲁华,张伟
- , 2018, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2018.03.14
Abstract: 枣棉间作条件下,通过设置两行枣树之间种植4行棉花(Int-4)与2行棉花(Int-2)两种不同的间作模式,研究一年生枣树对间作棉花的产量形成与影响因素。结果表明,不同间作模式棉花在盛花期前LAI、SPAD及光合生理特性差异不显著,盛花期后差异显著。与单作棉花相比,Int-4间作模式下棉花的株高、LAI及净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和产量比单作下降5.85%、10.40%、15.51%、13.26%、9.18%和41.61%,其胞间CO2浓度(Ci)比单作增加4.18%;Int[CD*2]2间作模式下棉花的株高、LAI及净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和产量比单作下降3.10%、5.39%、11.80%、9.25%、6.09%和47.74%,其胞间CO2浓度(Ci)比单作增加0.84%;SPAD差异不显著。而经济收入表现为间作4行棉花模式>间作2行棉花模式>单作棉花,4行枣棉间作与2行枣棉间作相比,株高、LAI和干物质质量分别显著下降2.85%、5.29%和6.85%,Int-4产量比Int-2显著增加11.73%,而SPAD值和光合生理特性差异不显著。因此在枣棉间作系统中,适当增加棉花种植密度有利于棉花高产,同时有利于经济收入的增加。
Setting up two jujube-cotton intercropping systems, we is planted 4 rows of cotton or 2 rows of cotton between two rows of jujube, to study on the yield formation and influencing factors of one-year jujube on intercropping cottons. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in leaf area index, SPAD value and photosynthetic physiological characteristics in different intercropping patterns before flowering period, while there was significant difference after flowering period. Compared with 1-row cotton, the plant height, leaf area index and net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and yield of cotton in Int-4 intercropping pattern decreased by 5.85%, 10.4%, 15.51%, 13.26%, 9.18% and 41.61%, and the intercellular CO2 concentration increased by 4.18%, respectively. The plant height, leaf area index and net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and yield of cotton in Int-2 intercropping model decreased by 3.10%、5.39%、11.80%、9.25%、6.09% and 47.74%, and the intercellular CO2 concentration increased by 0.84%, respectively. There was no significant difference in SPAD value. The economic income from high to low was: Int-4>Int-2>1-row cotton. Compared to Int-2, the plant height, leaf area index and dry matter of Int-4 decreased markedly by 2.85%, 5.29% and 6.85%, respectively. The yield of Int-4 was significantly increased by 11.73% compared to Int-2. However, there were no significant difference in SPAD value and photosynthetic physiological characteristics in Int-4 and Int-2. So we concluded that appropriate increase of cotton planting density is beneficial to the high yield of cotton in the jujube-cotton intercropping systems, it is also conducive to increase economic income.
不同水分状况下化控对棉株蕾铃数和产量品质的影响
Effects of AFD and DPC sprays on the growth and yield of cotton under water stress
 [PDF]

,,孙景生,陈智芳,强小嫚,刘祖贵
- , 2015, DOI: 10.16302/j.cnki.1000-7601.2015.02.007
Abstract: 采用桶栽试验,研究不同水分状况下喷施2种植物生长调节剂——艾氟迪(AFD)和缩节胺(DPC)对棉花蕾铃数量、叶片叶绿素相对含量、籽棉产量、纤维品质的影响。结果表明,在本试验条件下,土壤含水量的高低是决定籽棉产量的重要因素,水分高则产量高。喷施调节剂后棉株叶绿素含量明显高于未喷施处理。喷施DPC对棉株蕾铃生长影响较小,土壤含水量较高时喷施DPC可使棉花增产,但纤维品质下降。喷施AFD对棉株蕾铃生长影响较大,使棉蕾铃数在生育期内的变化从大幅升降趋势变为先升后降的平缓趋势或缓慢上升趋势,对棉蕾开花成铃有显著促进作用,但抑制了新蕾生成,使得伏前桃产量明显增加,秋桃产量大幅下降,导致籽棉产量减少,棉花纤维品质略微改善。
A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of two plant growth regulators (AFD and DPC) on the bud-boll number, leaf chlorophyll content, seed-cotton yield and fiber quality of cotton. The results showed that soil water content was an important factor to determine the yield of cotton, the higher, the more. After spraying plant growth regulators, the chlorophyll content of cotton plant was higher than that with no sprays. DPC spray had little influence on bud and boll growth of cotton plant, but it made cotton yield increased and fiber quality decreased under high soil water condition. Spraying AFD resulted in a great influence on bud and boll growth of cotton plant. The changes of bud-boll number tended to gently enlarge first and then become diminished or gradually keep increasing. Spraying AFD had a significantly promoting effect on formation of bolls but an inhibitory effect on the appearance of new buds. This led to the yield of pre-summer bolls to be increased significantly and the yield of autumn bolls to be decreased greatly, consequently causing seed cotton yield decreased and fiber quality improved a little.
THE INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEMS ON WEED COMMUNITIES IN THE COTTON FIELDS OF JIANGSU PROVINCE
种植制度对江苏省棉田杂草群落影响的研究

QIANG Sheng,SHEN Jun_Ming,ZHANG Cheng Qun,SHAO Geng_Yun,HU Jin_Liang,WANG Feng_Liang,
强胜
,沈俊明,张成群,邵耕耘,胡金良,王凤良

植物生态学报 , 2003,
Abstract: The overall weed infestation indexes and density of all weed populations occurr ing in both the rice_cotton crop rotation and continuous dry_cropping sys tems of the main cotton belts in Jiangsu Province were surveyed over five years continuously. The succession patterns of weed communities and weed occurrence we re studied through statistical analysis in space and time. The results showed th at there was a close relationship between the structure of weed community and th e level of weed infestation and cropping systems. Under the rice_cotton crop rot ation system, the density of hydrophilous weeds such as Echinochloa crusgalli, Alternanthera philoxeroides and Malachium aquaticum was the highest, whi le that of xerophilous weeds (e.g., Digitaria sanguinalis) was lowest. Ho wever, there was marked linear relationship between abundance and time, with abu ndance of hydrophilous weeds (e.g., E. crusgalli) decreasing, and that of x erophilous weeds as (e.g., D. sanguinalis) increasing with time, when cott on was gro wn continuously in the fields with the rice_cotton rotation system. After four years continuous cotton growing, the structure of weed community seemed to tend to stable condition. In the cotton fields with cotton cropping system, there wer e dense density of xerophilous weeds as dominants and no marked change of weed c ommunity structure between different years. Moreover, the marked difference of w eed community structure and weed density occurred between two different cropping systems. The influence of cropping systems on weed community was much more sign ificant than that of geographical factors.
不同机采棉种植模式对棉花主要植株形态影响效应分析
Characteristics of plant morphological parameters and correlation analysis for machine picking cotton in the different planting models
 [PDF]

李健伟,吴鹏昊,石洪亮,李春艳,崔建平,张巨松
- , 2018, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2018.05.13
Abstract: 机采棉农艺与机艺高度配套是解决机采棉品质下降和降低植棉成本问题的关键。为了比较不同机采棉种植模式对棉花主要植株形态的影响效应,本研究以新陆中54号和新陆中75号为试验材料,采用目前大田条件下3种常用的机采棉种植模式,分别在花铃期、吐絮期对9个主要植株形态特征指标进行测定,研究机采棉种植模式植株形态指标间的相关性以及对其形态特征的影响。结果表明:不同机采棉种植模式对7个植株形态特征指标影响显著。相同机采棉种植模式下不同品种间始果节高度、始果节位和果枝长度等农艺性状差异显著。通过多重比较发现一膜四行较一膜六行机采棉种植模式棉花生育进程提前4~6 d,霜前花率提高2%~4%,单株结铃多1~2个。相关性分析结果表明机采种植模式下株高与始果节高度、果枝台数、叶形指数显著相关,相关系数分别为0.834、0.730、0.560,茎粗与单株结铃数呈显著正相关性,相关系数为0.735。因此,增加植株高度可使植株形态更符合机采要求,增加茎粗可使单株结铃数增加并且可减少倒伏,降低机采损失。植株过矮和过密已经法适应机采棉种植要求,需打破传统的棉花“矮”“密”“早”高产栽培思维模式。
It is vital to increase quality of cotton picking and reduce the cost of cotton planting. Three machine cotton modes in the current field conditions were explored to assess their effects on plant morphology of cotton varieties Xinluzhong No. 54 and Xinluzhong No. 75. The morphological characteristics of nine main cotton varieties were measured respectively in the boll setting stages and in the boll opening stage to evaluate effects of mechanical sampling pattern on the morphological characteristics of cotton varieties and their morphological indexes. The results showed that different planting patterns had a significant effect on the main seven morphological characteristics of cotton varieties. Agronomic traits, such as first fruit node height, first fruit node and fruit length among different varieties varied significantly.The reproductive process in the four-line model was 4 to 6 days earlier, the pre-frost rate increased by 2% to 4%, and the number of the Boll per plant improved 1 to 2 by multiple comparison. It would be more suitable for the machine piking as the average spacing increased and the density decreased. In addition, Xinluzhong No. 75 was more suitable for machine piking. The correlation analysis showed that the cotton height was significantly correlated to fruit height, fruit number and leaf index.The correlated coefficients were 0.834, 0.730 and 0.560 respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between stem diameter and boll number and the correlation coefficient was 0.735. It would be benefit to Nanjiang machine picking cotton by increasing height to meet machine picking requirements,thickening stem to improve boll numbers per plant, decreasing lodging and machine picking loss. It was difficult for the short and high density plants to adapt to the machine picking. The traditional “low-dense-early” cultivation pattern was out of date.
精细化水氮运筹对机采棉个体发育及产量的影响
Effect of Fine Management of Water and Nitrogen on Ontogenesis and Yield in Machine harvested Cotton
 [PDF]

龚双凤,马兴旺,索俊宇,,,陈宝燕,牛新湘,何万义
- , 2016, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2016.01.007
Abstract: 为研究机采棉种植模式下水氮运筹对棉花塑型的影响,采用机采棉种植模式(66 cm+10 cm)田间试验,在总灌溉量和总施肥量相同条件下,研究不同生育期灌溉量(W1、W2、W3)和追氮量(N1、N2、N3)对棉花个体生长发育特征的影响。结果表明,灌溉与氮肥处理对棉花7个农艺性状和产量性状的影响差异显著,其中,高产处理W1N2的株高79.9 cm、株宽42.4 cm、茎粗9.67 mm、每株果枝数9.1、单铃质量5.90 g、单株有效铃数5.8、籽棉产量7 845.88 kg/hm。精细化水(W)氮(N)运筹对棉株内围铃、外围铃的构成比例以及上、中、下部棉铃分布比例影响不显著,高产处理W1N2的下、中、上部棉铃分配比例达到36%、33%、31%。通过机采棉膜下滴灌精细化水肥运筹,可对棉花植株农艺性状进行有效调控,实现优化棉花产量结构,增加籽棉产量的目的。
To explore the effect of water and nitrogen application on cotton molding plant type suitable for machine harvesting,the field test of cotton planting mode (66 cm+10 cm) was conducted with different irrigation (W1,W2,W3) and chasing nitrogen (N1,N2,N3) strategy under the same total amount of irrigation and fertilizer to analyze their influence on machine picked cotton ontogenesis. The results showed that seven agronomic and yield traits had significant difference among water and nitrogen treatments,in which,higher yielding treatment W1N2 was characterized as plant height of 79.9 cm,plant width of 42.4 cm,stem diameter of 9.67 mm,9.1 branches number per plant,first fruit height of 21.5 cm,5.90 g per boll,5.8 effective bolls per plant,yielding 7 845.88 kg/hm seed cotton; Fine water (W) and nitrogen (N) management had no significant effect on proportion and distribution of cotton bolls in horizontal and vertical positions,in high yielding treatment W1N2,bolls distributed for 36%,33% and 31% at the upper,middle and lower part of cotton plant,respectively. In conclusion,the fine management of nitrogen fertilization and drip irrigation under membrane can modulate agricultural traits of cotton plant and yield composition factors,resulting in seed yield gain in machine harvested cotton production.
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