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Metazoan Parasites of Bleak (Alburnus alburnus), Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) and Golden Carp (Carassius auratus) in Enne Dam Lake, Turkey  [PDF]
Mustafa Koyun,F. Naci Altunel
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2007,
Abstract: Three species of fish, namely bleak (Alburnus alburnus), Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and golden carp (Carassius auratus) were collected from Enne Dam Lake (Turkey) and examined for parasitic infections. The most common fish species was A. alburnus followed by C. carassius and C. auratus. Three species of Monogenea (Dactylogyrus fraternus, Dactylogyrus alatus and Paradiplozoon homoion) were recorded from the gills of A. alburnus whilst the monogeneans Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus katherineri and the nematode Contracaecum sp. were found infecting C. carassius and C. auratus. There was a significant positive correlation between fish length, fish weight and infection rate in Crucian carp. However, no clear correlation existed between length, weight and parasite infections in bleak. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between water temperature and Contracaecum sp. infections in golden carp.
Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)  [PDF]
Qingda Huang, Yurong Zhang, Shuting Liu, Wen Wang, Yiping Luo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082837
Abstract: The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling.
Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus) in natural waters
Jun Xiao, Tuomi Zou, Yubao Chen, Lin Chen, Shaojun Liu, Min Tao, Chun Zhang, Rurong Zhao, Yi Zhou, Yu Long, Cuiping You, Jinpeng Yan, Yun Liu
BMC Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-12-20
Abstract: We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC.In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates.Taxonomically, crucian carp (Carassius auratus L., abbreviated CC) belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It is widely bred across Eurasia and America, because of its good survival rate, high reproduction rate and good disease resistance. In China, the species has been found in most provinces, except for the western plateau. It is one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture especially in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. Although Carassius auratus gibelio (superspecies auratus) has been reported co-existence of three types of different ploidy [1-4], CC (Cara
Prevalence of Two Monogenean Parasites on Different Length Groups of Crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linneus, 1758)  [cached]
Mustafa KOYUN,Faik Naci ALTUNEL
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2011,
Abstract: Dactylogyrus anchoratus Dujardin, 1857 and Gyrodactylus katharineri Malmberg, 1964 were identified on crucian carp, Carassius carassius L., 1758 in the present study, which was carried out between February 1999 and January 2000. A total of 117 fish specimens were examined. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity levels for G. katharineri was 37.61%, respectivly 27.75±2.203 and for D. anchoratus was 24.78%, 4.69±1.730 per fish, respectively. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity levels were higher during spring and sumer, for the both parasites. No statistically significant preference for either sex of the fish was determined. In this study, we examined a total of 117 fish, out of which 44 (38%) were infested by 1221 G. katharineri, and 29 (25%) infested by a total of 136 D. anchoratus.
The Swimming Capacity and Energy Expenditure of Juvenile Crucian Carp Carassius auratus at Low Temperature  [PDF]
ZHAO Wen-wen,CAO Zhen-dong,XIAO Yue-ji,FU Shi-jian
Journal of Chongqing Normal University , 2011,
Abstract: The critical swimming speed(*),endurance time at high swimming speed(1.5,1.8and 2.1*)and the oxygen consumption rate at different swimming speeds * of the juvenile crucian carp(Carassius auratus ) ware measured at *. Then calculated each cost of transport at different swimming speed respectively. The results showed that ; the absolutely critical swimming speed of juvenile crucian carp(*)was * and the relative critical swimming speed* was *; enduarance time at * of the juvenile crucian carp was *, respectively. The oxygen cosumption rate increased exponentially with the increasing of swimming speed * and the oxygen consumption rate at critical swimming speed was *. The relationship between the cost of transport(COT) and the swimming speed was :* The results indicated that the critical swimming speed of juvenile crucian carp was lower than those of the fishes which live in cold water. The COT of crucian carp was lowest * when swimming at 19.64cm*.(* Indicates a formula, please see the full text)
Identification of two metallothionein isoforms by molecular cloning of their cDNAs in fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius-cuvieri)
Hongwei Ren,Muto Norio,Itoh Norio,Meimin Yu,Binggeng Ru,Tanaka Keiichi
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/BF03183209
Abstract: Generally, there are two major isoforms of metallothionein (MT) in mammals. In this study two cDNAs of metallothionein, MT-A and MT-B, in a fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), were cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The homology of their reading frame is about 92.3%. The sequence analysis of both cDNAs gave the structures of coding regions corresponding to 60 amino acid residues, and the structures of complete 3′-untranslated regions in which a significant difference in the size of their 3′-untranslated regions (130 bp for MT-A and 280 bp for MT-B) exists. The results of amino acid sequencing of both MT-1 and MT-2 purified by HPLC are identical to those deduced from MT cDNA genes, indicating that MT-1 is from MT-A gene and MT-2 is from MT-B gene respectively. No blocking in the N-terminal of MT-2 isoform was the first case found in vertebrates, most of which were blocked by acetylation. These results suggest that there were differential controls at the transcription level and after translation of these two MT isoforms. And this gives a clue to understand the diversities of their functions.
Mutation rate and pattern of microsatellites in gynoge-netic silver crucian carp (Carassius autatus gibeblio)

LIU Xiao-Feng,LU Cui-Yun,CAO Ding-Chen,SUN Xiao-Wen,LIANG Li-Qun,

遗传 , 2008,
Abstract: The natural gynogenetic triploid silver crucian carp (Carassius autatus gibeblio Bloch) provides a good system for studying evolutional genetics of the unisexual and polyploidy vertebrate. Microsatellites are abundant across genomes and show high levels of polymorphism and mutational rate, so they have been widely used for studying evolutional biology. In this study, the mutation rate and pattern at 33 microsatellite loci of silver crucian carp were investigated. As a result, it was found that the only one of 22 offspring had 18 mutant alleles at 15 microsatellite loci. The overall mutation rate of the 33 loci was 1.16x10(-2)/locus/generation (95% confidence interval 6.87x10(-3) and 1.83x10(-2)). The mutation rate in the gynogenetic triploid silver crucian carp was obviously higher than other fish, which was closely related to the transitional phase of parthenogenesis and gamogenesis in the natural gynogenetic fish. The repeat numbers had more than 10 times at 13 loci of the mutant alleles, and there was no obviously different in the mutant rate between the 11 compound microsatellite loci (1.31x10(-2) )and the 21 perfect microsatellite loci(1.00x10(-2)) (P = 0.67). The mutant rate had affinity with repeat numbers instead of repeat types and GC content in flanking sequences of microsatellite. The mutation pattern of silver crucian carp was very complexional, as well as some loci did not follow the Stepwise Mutation Model.
The Kinematic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus)

JING Jun,LI Sheng,LU Xi-yun,YIN Xie-zhen,

实验力学 , 2004,
Abstract: Fast-starts are an important maneuver capability for most fish to escape from predators and for some fish to capture prey. The fast-starts can be divided into two main types, C-start and S-start. In this paper, the distance-time performance in escape response of startled Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) was investigated by employing high-speed digital video (1000Hz). All escape response observed are C-type fast-starts, in which the fish assumes a C shape at the end of the initial body contraction (stage 1). Examination of filmed sequences of turning fish shows that the C-type fast-start process includes three stages, distinguished by different movements of the centre of mass and motions of the caudal fin. In the first stage the centre of mass keeps the position, and the fish body turns a C shape, which leads the tail moves quickly. Next, the fish tail starts moving with large amplitude in the counter direction and the fish head turns into the final direction. At the last, the centre of mass moves in straight line of swimming. The curved figures of backbone of fish in all stages are given by using the special software. Distribution of the velocity along the backbone of fish and angle velocity of fish body around the center of mass are also obtained. Then, the whole escape response process is qualitatively analyzed from the point of view of hydrodynamics.
Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)
Qingjiang Wu,Yuzhen Ye,Xinhong Dong
Science China Life Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.1360/02yc0198
Abstract: A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.
Transcriptome Analysis of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus), an Important Aquaculture and Hypoxia-Tolerant Species  [PDF]
Xiaolin Liao, Lei Cheng, Peng Xu, Guoqing Lu, Michael Wachholtz, Xiaowen Sun, Songlin Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062308
Abstract: The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO) category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.
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