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细菌菌影作为新型疫苗和递送载体的研究进展  [PDF]
杨慧,焦红梅
中国生物工程杂志 , 2014,
Abstract: 细菌菌影(bacterialghost,bg)是革兰阴性菌在噬菌体phix174的裂解基因e的作用下形成不含核酸、核糖体等胞质内容物的细菌空壳。这种细菌空壳保留了与天然细菌一样的完整外膜结构,且不具有活菌样的致病作用,可作为疫苗无需佐剂就能诱导机体产生体液免疫应答和细胞免疫应答。菌影内部及外膜上可装载dna、抗原和药物等异源物质,易被机体免疫细胞识别捕获,使其成为一种新型的生物递送载体。另外,菌影具有制备简单,易于保存等优点。细菌菌影在疾病预防和治疗方面具有广阔的应用前景。
林木外生菌根菌研究进展及应用前景
Research Progress and Application Prospect of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi of Forest
 [PDF]

张珍明, 张家春, 刘盈盈, 贺红早
Hans Journal of Soil Science (HJSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.12677/HJSS.2015.34004
Abstract:
菌根学理论研究日新月异,已引起世界各国学者的广泛关注。菌根化应用技术研究逐渐发展,大量文献表明:菌根研究在农、林生产上的具有广泛的应用前景,尤其促进林木生长发育具有不可替代的作用,为此,本文在较为全面的介绍了我国外生菌根真菌资源研究状况,并从菌根营养学、菌根生态学与环境生态效益,以及应用技术等方面的研究进展进行综合论述,同时探讨了我国菌根研究与应用等方面存在的主要问题,并展望今后的研究的热点与趋势,以期为我国菌根学在林木研究提供下一步发展的目标和思路。
The theory of Mycorrhizology is changing for the better day by day, which has caused wide attention of scholars in the world. The research on the application technology of mycorrhizal is gradually developed, and a lot of literatures show that the application prospect of mycorrhizal research in the development of agriculture and forestry is wide. In particular, the function that promotes growth and development for forest is not substituted. And that the research status of Ectomycorrhizal fungi in China is comprehensive introduced in this paper. And the research progress of mycorrhizal nutrition, mycorrhizal ecology and environmental ecological benefits and Application Technology and so on was comprehensively discussed. At the same time, the main problems existing in our country’s about mycorrhizal research and application etc. were analyzed. The study of focus and trends in the future was prospected, in order to provide the objective and thinking of the next step development of the mycorrhiza in Forest Research for our country.
Resource and ecological distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi under pine forests of Huangshan Mountain district
黄山地区松树林外生菌根菌资源及生态分布

KE Lixia,LIU Birong,
柯丽霞

应用生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis are the most common and important tree species in the Huangshan Mountain district, and ectomycorrhizae plays an important role in their forestation. Our investigations in 1998-2003 showed that under the pine forests of this district, there were 43 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 10 families and 17 genera, of which, 43 were under Pinus massoniana forest, and 12 under Pinus taiwanensis forest. Only a few species were found under young Pinus massoniana forest, with the dominant of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coken and Rhizopogon spp., but under mature Pinus massoniana forest, there were plentiful species, with the dominant of Russulaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Canthurellaceae. The relationships between woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and between fungi distribution and temperature, moisture and soil condition were discussed in this paper, which would benefit to the further studies on the effects of different ectomyrrhizal fungi to Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis forests.
Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the seedlings growth of Korea spruce
红皮云杉外生菌根菌单接种及混合接种对苗木生长的影响

SONG Rui-qing,WANG Feng,JI Rui-qing,QI Jin-yu,
宋瑞清
,王锋,冀瑞卿,祁金玉

微生物学报 , 2007,
Abstract: To enhance the effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi to promote the growth of Korea spruce seedlings, based on previous research, the combinations of different ectomycorrhizal fungi strains were screened by dual culture method. 3 years transplanting seedlings of Korea spruce were inoculated by different combinations of ectomycorrhizal fungi strains using lister inoculating method in the field, and those were inoculated by different single strains were designed as control respectively. Thus the effects of different combinations and different single fungus strains to promote the growth of Korea spruces were studied. The results showed that all single strains and combinations in this experiment can promote the growth of Korea spruce seedlings. The growth characteristics of seedlings were observed 100 days after inoculation. The growth promoting effect of strain L15 was the best in all combinations and single strains. Comparing with control, the average height of seedlings inoculated by strain L15 was increased 30.88%, the average collar diameter of these was increased 15.29%. The growth promoting effect of combinations L15/025 or L15/009 were better than strain 009 or 025. Comparing with control, the leaf chlorophyll contents of seedling inoculated by strain 010 and combination L15/025 were increased significantly, the contents of chlorophyll a were increased 59.15% and 54.61% respectively, and the contents of chlorophyll b were increased 76.34% and 67.78% respectively. Except seedling inoculated by strain 010, the activities of hydrogen peroxidase of other treated seedlings were lower than one of control. The root activities of all treated seedlings were lower than one of control. In conclusion, inoculation by the mixture of high-effect strain and other single strain weakens the effect of high-effect strain to promote the growth of Korea spruce seedlings, the activity of hydrogen peroxidase and the root activity of seedling are not correlated with its biomass.
GROWTH INHIBITION OF PATHOGENIC ROOT FUNGI BY EXTRACTS OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI OR Picea glehnii INOCULATED WITH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI  [cached]
MARIA CATARINA MEGUMI KASUYA,SATOSHI TAHARA,TSUNEO IGARASHI
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 1996,
Abstract: This work sought to verify the presence of compounds with antimicrobial properties in extracts of ectomycorrhizal fungi or in Picea glehnii inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Extracts from Pisolithus tinctorius, Scleroderma flavidum, Amanita pantherina and Paxillus sp., grown in liquid culture media, and from P. glehnii seedlings inoculated or not with the above ectomycorrhizal fungi and cultivated in in vitro condition, were processed to obtain two fractions, water and ethyl acetate solubles. These fractions were tested for the presence of inhibitory constituents against Fusarium roseum, Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Direct bioautography technique on TLC or paper disc technique was used, depending on the extract and pathogenic fungi tested. The results showed the production on inhibitory components, not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi, but also by P. glehnii inoculated or not with ectomycorrhizal fungi. The sensitivity varied considerably according to the type of fungus or extract.
Diversity of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand
Thalisa Yuwa-Amornpitak,Taweerat Vichitsoonthonkul,Morakot Tanticharoen,Supapon Cheevadhanarak
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Mycorrhizae are symbiotic association between specialized soil fungi and plants. Trees of Dipterocarpaceae have long been known for their ability to associate with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Apart from modifying the lateral root system of their host, ECM fungi benefit their host plant in many ways, such as: protecting against root pathogens, providing mineral nutrients, increasing drought tolerance and enhancing seeding growth in the nursery. In this study, DNA from ectomycorrhizal roots was successfully amplified from 15 species in 6 genera of regular type. These included Anisoptera (1 species), Cotylelobium (1 species), Dipterocarpus (5 species), Hopea (3 species), Parashorea (1 species) and Shorea (5 species). Molecular techniques were used to identify the ECM. ITS (internal transcribed spacer) fragments located between the 18 S and 28 S rRNA genes in the nuclear genome were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of ITS were compared with sequences in the GenBank. The results revealed that the 33 mycobionts participating in the symbioses in ECM roots were in 8 families including Thelephoraceae (13), Russulaceae (6), Amanitaceae (1), Cortinariaceae (3), Sclerodermataceae (4), Agaricaceae (1), Pisolitaceae (3) and Boletaceae (2). The observed host specialization showed that these fungi could associate with more than one host plant species.
EFFECTS OF INOCULATION OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON THE SEEDLING GROWTH OF MONGOL SCOTCH PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS VAR. MONGOLICA)
外生菌根菌不同接种方法对樟子松苗木生长的影响

宋瑞清,李喜梅,祁金玉
植物生态学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 以提高外生菌根真菌对樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)苗木促生长效果为目的,在前期研究的基础上,采用菌株配对培养的方法对获得的樟子松外生菌根真菌进行混合接种菌株组合筛选;采用苗木截根-菌液浸根和沟施接种方法分别对2年生和3年生樟子松苗木进行野外单接种及混合接种.研究外生菌根真菌不同接种方法、菌株单接种及混合接种对樟子松苗木生长的影响.试验结果表明:供试菌株及菌株组合对樟子松苗木生长均有一定的促进作用.菌株GT005和菌株035为供试菌株中对樟子松苗木促生长效果最佳的菌株.采用苗木截根-菌浸根方法接种2年生樟子松苗木130 d,GT005接种的苗木高生长提高54%,地径生长提高15%,过氧化氢酶活性提高48%,而根系活力降低3%;菌株035接种的苗木高生长提高42%,地径生长提高56%,过氧化氢酶活性提高47%,根系活力提高11%.沟施接种方法接种3年生樟子松苗木100d,GT005接种苗木高生长提高10%,地径生长提高15%,过氧化氢酶活性提高90%,而根系活力降低34%;菌株035接种苗木高生长提高7%,地径生长提高9%,过氧化氢酶活性提高6%,而根系活力降低46%;菌株组合044/GT001和GT001/GT005接种的苗木高生长仅比对照提高3.47%和2.07%,而菌株组合044/025和0441009接种的苗木高生长低于对照:混合接种的苗木其地径生长高于对照0.16%~7.98%.综上所述,苗木截根.菌液浸根接种方法对苗木的促生长效果显著高于沟施接种方法:外生茵根菌高效菌株与一般菌株混合接种会弱化高效菌株自身接种效果;苗木过氧化氢酶活性、苗木根系活力与苗木的生物量间无相关性.
Adhesion of ectomycorrhizal bacteria to plant cells: an in vitro evidence  [cached]
B Citterio,V Patrone,B Baldelli,M Malatesta
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2004, DOI: 10.4081/887
Abstract: In this study we have investigated, by combining microbial and microscopical techniques, the adhesion ability of bacteria present in Tuber borchii ectomycorrhizosphere. Our data demonstrate that a common pool of bacteria — Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Moraxella — occurs in all ectomycorrhizal homogenates and that most of these bacteria are able to attach in vitro to plant cells.
Influences of excessive Cu on photosynthesis and growth in ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings
HUANG Yi,TAO Shu,
HUANG Yi
,TAO Shu

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2004,
Abstract: Growth and photosynthesis responses were measured for Scots pine( Pinus sylvestris L. cv.) inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi( Suillus bovinus ) under 6 5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments to evaluate ectomycorrhizal seedlings' tolerance to heavy metal stress.Results showed that excessive Cu can significantly impair the growth and photosynthesis of pine seedlings, but such impairment is much smaller to the ectomycorrhizal seedlings. Under 25 mg/L Cu treatment, the dry weight of ectomycorrhizal seedlings is 25% lower than the control in contrary to 53% of the non mycorrhizal seedlings, and the fresh weight of ectomycorrhizal roots was significantly higher than those of non mycorrhizal roots, about 25% and 42% higher at 6 5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments respectively. Furthermore, ectomycorrhizal fungi induced remarkable difference in the growth rate and pigment content of seedlings under excessive Cu stress. At 25 mg/L Cu, the contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were 30% higher in ectomycorrhizal plants than those in non mycorrhizal plants. O 2 evolution and electron transport of PSI and PSII were restrained by elevated Cu stress. However, no significant improvement was observed in reducing the physiological restraining in ectomycorrhizal seedlings over the non mycorrhizal ones.
响叶杨(populusadenopoda)种子的形成及其寿命  [PDF]
吴琼美,樊汝汶
南京林业大学学报(自然科学版) , 1984, DOI: 10.3969/j.jssn.1000-2006.1984.01.014
Abstract: <正>用显微技术及软x射线摄影,定位观察响叶杨种子发育过程中的形态变化与胚胎发育的对应关系。根据观察、试验的结果,讨论了环境条件与种子寿命的关系;还测定了响叶杨种子寿命的变化规律及其影响因素,探索延长这种子寿命的方法。
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