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Household Endowments and Poverty Reduction in Rural Nigeria: Evidence from Rice Farming Households
Bola Amoke Awotide,Aliou Diagne,Timothy Taiwo Awoyemi,Vivian Ebiohomon Titilayo Ojehomon
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.274.284
Abstract: This study empirically investigated the role of household endowments in determining poverty among the rice farming households in Nigeria. A total of 600 rice farmers selected through multistage random sampling techniques were interviewed with the aid of well structured questionnaires. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, FGT and logit model. Household endowments were classified into human assets, physical assets and financial assets. The results of the logistic regression revealed education of the household heads, access to mobile phone, amount of credit obtained, farm size, irrigation facility, possession of livestock, television set, radio set and number of rooms in a house have a poverty decreasing effect. Although, only number of rooms in the house is statistically significant. This implies that as these variables increase the probability of being poor will decrease. The result of the marginal effects also revealed that an additional increase in the number of rooms will reduce the probability of being poor by 3%. Other variables such as toilet facility and household size were also significant and positively related to the probability of being poor. Strategies, policies and programs that will lead to increase in the household endowments should be put in place. The introduction of good toilet facilities and sanitation should be embarked upon and education on the need for family planning should be increased if poverty is to be reduced or eliminated in the study area.
Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia  [cached]
Bersissa Kumsa,Kebede Beyecha,Mesula Geloye
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2012,
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to des
Assessment of the Prevailing Handling and Quality of Eggs from Scavenging Indigenous Chickens Reared in Different Agro-Ecological Zones of Ethiopia
Aberra Melesse,Zemene Worku,Yosef Teklegiorgis
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjpscience.2012.64.70
Abstract: The importance of scavenging poultry production in the national economy of developing countries and its role in improving the nutritional status and income of many smallholders has been very significant. A survey based experiment was conducted in 196 households to assess the production system and egg qualities of scavenging chickens reared in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones of Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. For egg quality determination, among 196 households 30 of them who keep only local chicken ectypes were identified from each agro-ecology from which 588 eggs (196 eggs from each agro-ecology) were collected. The results indicated that about 95 and 70% of the respondents fumigate day old chicks with smoke and clip tail feathers, respectively. The flock size in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies was 8.5, 7.4 and 8.4 chickens, respectively. The average age at first egg lay was 6.94, 6.43 and 6.57 months for highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies, respectively. The survivability of chickens in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones was 55.0, 61.4 and 55.1%, respectively. On the average 79.1% hatchability, 58.3% chick survivability was found in the study area. The observed values of egg weight, egg length, egg width, yolk height, albumen height and Haugh unit were significantly different (p<0.05) between the investigated agro-ecologies. Accordingly, all these traits were (p<0.05) higher in midland than highland and lowland agro-ecological zones. However, agro-ecology did not show any significant effect on shape index, shell thickness, yolk width and yolk index. The respective average egg weight, shell thickness and shape index values were 39.6 g, 0.296 mm and 73.2%. The average values of yolk height, yolk width and Haugh unit were 16.1, 36.8 and 73.2 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the midland agro-ecological system appears to favor the survivability and expression of both external and internal egg quality traits of scavenging rural chickens.
Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria
Yakubu, A.,Kaankuka, FG.,Ugbo, SB.
Tropicultura , 2011,
Abstract: Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05) body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05) in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.
Factors Influencing Transient Poverty Among Agro-Pastoralists in semi-arid areas of Kenya
A Yazan Elhadi, DM Nyariki, VO Wasonga, WN Ekaya
African Crop Science Journal , 2012,
Abstract: In Africa, many pastoral households are increasingly settling in response to curtailed mobility and shrinking grazing areas. Households in pastoral areas are characterised by few resources, low income, low level of human and social capital, and limited access to markets and service institutions like credit institutions, extension and plant protection. This study was conducted to determine the factors that influence transient poverty among agro-pastoral communities in semi-arid areas of Kenya using the Njemps Flats in Baringo district as a representation of the study area. The land-use practice in the Njemps Flats is livestock and crop production (agro-pastolism). Regression techniques were used to determine the relationship between poverty and hypothesized explanatory variables. The number of livelihood sources, household size, distance to the nearest market, ownership of enclosures and household herd size were the most influential factors that determined poverty among agropastoral communities. The number of livelihood sources, education level of the household head, relief food, extension service and distance to the nearest markets were positively related to per capita daily income. A negative relationship was observed between per capita daily income and household size. Since poverty shows declining with positive influential factors, reduction of transient poverty can be achieved through enhancing and providing of livelihood alternatives to reduce over-reliance on livestock and land as primary sources of livelihood.
Rural Poultry Populations and Strains in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria  [PDF]
I.I. Dafwang,U. Musa,P.A. Abdu,J.U. Umoh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: A study was conducted in Plateau State of Nigeria which has two distinct agro-ecological zones; a humid sub-temperate region in the North and a sub-humid hotter region that is part of the Northern Guinea Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria in the South. A sample of 1240 farmers from two Local Governments in each of the two ecological zones were surveyed to assess the poultry population and strains of birds as a prelude to the introduction of interventions for control of Newcastle Disease and other programs for improving rural poultry productivity. Results showed that the farmers owned an average of 20 chickens, 6 ducks, 0.3 turkeys, 1 pigeon and 1.2 guinea fowls per household. Each household reared two or more strains of chicken and most had different types of poultry in the same backyard. There were more Naked neck and long legged chickens in the hotter ecological zone but more Barred plumage strains in the cooler ecological zone.
Epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites in three agro-ecological zones of Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia
D Sheferaw, H Degefu, D Banteyirgu
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: An epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted in three selected agro-ecological zones of Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia, from November 2007 to April 2008. A total of 352 sheep and 376 goats were examined for mange mites infestation, of which 7 (1.98%) and 22 (5.85%) sheep and goats were found positive respectively. The genuses of mange mites identified with this study were Demodex (1.23%) and Sarcoptes (2.61%) of these the genus Sarcoptes was more prevalent in the study area. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (F=7.141, P=0.008). But age (X2 =0.108, P=0.743) and sex (X2 =0.007, P=0.79) of the host animals not affected the prevalence of mange mite (There was higher infestation of small ruminant in the lowland area (F=7.463, P=0.006).
Ad Alta : Journal of Interdisciplinary Research , 2012,
Abstract: The article seeks to establish whether asset-based policy would be useful inBaltic states. A brief outlook of current social situation in Baltic states is made and thesocial policy in place is evaluated. Then, a new direction for social policy - Asset-Based Policy is presented. Various asset-based policy models implemented in othercountries are overviewed and compared. Taking into consideration identified benefits,inefficiency of current social policy, economic crisis and austere fiscal policy it isstated that the asset-based policy should be implemented in Baltic states.
Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study  [PDF]
Esmael Habtamu?,Tariku Wondie?,Sintayehu Aweke?,Zerihun Tadesse?,Mulat Zerihun?,Zebideru Zewdie?,Kelly Callahan?,Paul M. Emerson?,Hannah Kuper?,Robin L. Bailey
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004228
Abstract: Background Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a) A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b) Self-rated wealth, and (c) Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified ‘Stylised Activity List’ developed for the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06–3.78; p<0.0001), self-rated wealth (OR, 4.41, 95%CI, 2.75–7.07; p<0.0001) and peer-rated wealth (OR, 8.22, 95% CI, 4.59–14.72; p<0.0001). Cases had less access to latrines (57% v 76.5%, p = <0.0001) and higher person-to-room density (4.0 v 3.31; P = 0.0204) than the controls. Compared to controls, cases were significantly less likely to participate in economically productive activities regardless of visual impairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth. Trachoma is a good proxy of inequality within communities and it could be used to target and evaluate interventions for health and poverty alleviation.
The role and impacts of small-scale, homestead agro-forestry systems (“pekarangan”) on household prosperity: an analysis of agro-ecological zones of Java, Indonesia
Arifin et al.
International Journal of AgriScience , 2012,
Abstract: A survey of very small-scale homestead gardens in three Javanese provinces was conducted to analyze the potential beneficial effects on household’s quality of life. Aspects included: (1) diet and nutrition, (2) income, (3) level of goods and material assets, (4) family status, (5) credit access, and (6) the role of women in managing production and marketing. The survey encompassed sites on West, Central and East Java, representing a range of agro-ecological zones, watersheds (6), elevations, socio-cultural conditions and development stages. The plot sizes evaluated ranged from < 120 m2 with no other agricultural land (OAL) to 120-400 m2 with < 1,000 m2 OAL. The average household plot size was about 240 m2 (with open space of at least 140 m2) and OAL of 500 m2. Around 5.7% of the sample villages were, by national standards, considered to be at an advanced development state, with 82.9% at a medium state, and with the rest least developed.On average, very small homestead plots reduced food expenses by 9.9%. Nutritional benefits are primarily in the form of vitamin A and C – providing 2.4% and 23.6% of recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively and only 1.9% of either carbohydrates or protein. As contribution to total household income, average homestead output provides about 11% of total farm income, about 80% of which was derived from animal products such as chicken, eggs, fish and meat. As expected, plot size and value of household assets appear closely correlated and increase based on access to other agricultural land. About 55% of the households feel that social status would decline if the household lost access to their homestead land. The need for credit access is especially critical for the smallest lot owners. Women play the most important role in plot maintenance and plant-, animal- and fish production, and also manage family expenses for food, clothes, child health care and education. It appears that their role is less significant in managing family debt, and the purchase of agricultural inputs or other family expenditures. Overall, homestead gardens also perform an important social function. They help establish family and territorial identity, and facilitate neighborhood cohesion and beneficial communal interaction. It is suggested that agrarian reform programs that includes the distribution of land to landless people and small-scale homestead farms should be carried out in relation to the prevailing agro-ecological conditions and associated land carrying capacity and productivity ratings. Overall, such initiative should be within the framew
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