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Singh Ranu, Agarwal Pragya and Dhagat Monika
International Journal of Microbiology Research , 2012,
Abstract: Water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is a noxious aquatic weed. In India,it has infested more than 200,000 ha of water surface. During the course of present investigation it was proposed to make an extensive, planned and systematic survey of fungal pathogens that destroy the water hyacinth from the ponds of M.P. The study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of two or more fungi for integrated management of water hyacinth. Results clearly indicate that except Alternaria eichhorniae all the pathogens are compatible to each other. In vivo the lesion diameters were greater on water hyacinth leaves when combination of pathogens were used than individual pathogens. The Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium pallidoroseum combination resulted in maximum disease development followed by A. alternata with C. lunata, A. alternata with F. pallidoroseum and C. lunata with F. pallidoroseum. Thus, it can be concluded that better management of the weed can be achieved by using combination of pathogens.
Bioactivity and biochemical analysis of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)  [PDF]
Bikash Baral,Geeta Shrestha Vaidya,Nabin Bhattarai
Botanica Orientalis: Journal of Plant Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/botor.v8i0.5556
Abstract: Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) is an invasive aquatic weed causing serious threats to water ecosystems throughout the world. Recently, considerable attention has been given at harvesting the plant for practical uses. An experiment on the bioactivity of water hyacinth was conducted using the soxhlet extraction (hot method) and cold percolation method in chloroform and ethanol in order to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the plant. Plant samples were also analyzed for the presence of major pharmacologically active compounds. The antimicrobial assay was performed using well diffusion method against nine different clinical bacterial strains and six phytopathogenic fungal strains. The chloroform hot extract showed activity against 22.22% (Zone of Inhibition, ZOI < 13mm) bacteria and 66.66% (ZOI < 12mm) fungi; while the cold extract showed activity against 50% (ZOI < 13mm) fungi, but no activity against bacteria. Similarly, the ethanol hot extract showed activity against 77.77% (ZOI < 19mm) bacteria and 66.66% (ZOI < 20mm) fungi, while the cold extract showed activity against 77.77% (ZOI < 10mm) bacteria and 50% (ZOI < 14mm) fungi. The ethanolic hot and cold extract proved to be far better than the chloroform fraction showing more antibacterial activity, while they share the same value and possess same effectiveness against the different fungi. Chemical analysis indicated that the major components in these extracts were saponins, polyoses, alkaloid salts, and reducing compounds. The present study showed that the devastating aquatic weed, with strong antimicrobial potentials and presence of biologically active phytochemicals, may be useful for developing alternative compounds to treat infectious diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/botor.v8i0.5556 Botanica Orientalis – Journal of Plant Science (2011) 8: 33-39
Ecological and socio-economic utilization of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart Solms)
N Jafari
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: Around the world, there is an increasing trend in areas of land, surface waters and groundwater affected by contamination from industrial, military and agricultural activities due to either ignorance, lack of vision, or carelessness. In the last three decades a special interest in the world is aroused by the potential of using the biological methods in the waste water treatment. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) constitutes an important part of an aquatic ecosystem. Water hyacinth as a very promising plant with tremendous application in wastewater treatment is already proved. Water hyacinth is used to treat waste water from dairies, tanneries, sugar factories, pulp and paper industries, palm oil mills, distilleries, etc. All the efforts of scientists and technocrats all over the world to eliminate these weeds by chemical and biological means have met with little success. The water hyacinth have been found to have potential for use as phytoremediation, paper, organic fertilizer, biogas production, human food, fiber, animal fodder.
Uptake of Cadmium and Zinc from Synthetic Effluent by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)  [PDF]
Hafidzatul Husna Mohamad
EnvironmentAsia , 2010,
Abstract: In this study was conducted on aquatic plant; water hyacinth (Eichchornia crassipes) which has been successfully utilized for the removal of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from aqueous solutions. The overall metal uptake by the plant was dependent upon the concentration of the metal and the duration of exposure. In general, the metal content in plants increased with the increase in metal concentrations in solution and the metal accumulation in roots was always significantly higher than that in shoots for both metals in water hyacinth. Water hyacinth treated with 4 mg/L of cadmium accumulated the highest concentration metal in shoots (148 μg/g) and roots (2006 μg/g) and water hyacinth treated with solution containing 40 mg/L zinc accumulated the highest zinc concentration in shoots (1899 μg/g) and roots (9646 μg/g).
Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed
Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed

LU Jianbo,FU Zhihui,YIN Zhaozheng,
LU Jianbo
,FU Zhihui,YIN Zhaozheng

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2008,
Abstract: Nowadays, intensive breeding of poultry and livestock of large scale has made the treatment of its waste and wastewater an urgent environmental issue. which motivated this study. A wetland of 688 m2 was constructed on an egg duck farm, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)was chosen as an aquatic plant for the wetland and used as food for duck production. The objectives of this study were to test the role of water hyacinth in purifying nutrient-rich wastewater and its effects on the ducks' feed intake, egg laying performance and egg quality. This paper shows that the constructed wetland removed as much as 64. 44%of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 21. 78%of total nitrogen(TN)and 23. 02%of total phosphorus(TP). Both dissolved oxygen(DO)and the transparency of the wastewater were remarkably improved, with its transparency 2. 5 times higher than that of the untreated wastewater. After the ducks were fed with water hyacinth, the average daily feed intake and the egg-laying ratio in the test group were 5. 86%and 9. 79%higher, respectively, than in the control group; the differences were both significant at the0. 01 probability level. The egg weight in the test group Was 2. 36%higher than in the control group(P<0. 05), but the feed conversion ratios Were almost the same. The eggshell thickness and strength Were among the egg qualities significantly increased in ducks fed with water hyacinth. We concluded that a water hyacinth system was effective for purifying wastewater from an intensive duck farm during the water hyacinth growing season, as harvested water hyacinth had an excellent performance as duck feed. We also discussed the limitations of the experiment.
The feeding activity of Colossoma macropomum larvae (tambaqui) in fishponds with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) fertilizer
Sipaúba-Tavares, LH.;Braga, FMS.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842007000300010
Abstract: analysis of macrophyte water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) as an organic fertilizer of colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) larvae in ponds is provided. water hyacinth produce an organic fertilizer at the ratio of 100 g.m-2 in tambaqui ponds. two groups of 5,000 larvae were transferred to two fishponds with and without water hyacinth fertilizer and reared until day 43. the fertilized pond evidenced more plankton abundance during the entire production period when compared with the control pond (p < 0.001). the phytoplankton community in the pond was not significantly different than in gut contents (p > 0.05) in both ponds (with and without organic fertilizer). fish larvae failed to show any preference or selectivity in relation to the different algae (p > 0.01) in the pond, but exhibited high ingestion selectivity for zooplankton (p < 0.05). application of fertilizer increased (p < 0.05) the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the treatment pond. since water hyacinth fertilizer is quite cheap and easily available, it may be conveniently used to enhance fish yield in ponds.
Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Soil Leachate by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)  [cached]
Luke N. Ukiwe,Ubaezue U. Egereonu,Paul C. Njoku,Christopher I. A. Nwoko
International Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v4n5p55
Abstract: The ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to adsorped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil leachate was examined. Results obtained from analysis using GC/FID indicated that naphthalene (8.350 ?g/g) was the overall highest polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorped at pH 4.0, while pyrene (0.057 ?g/g) was the least adsorped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon overall at pH 6.0. In ascending the pH from 2.0 to 6.0, there wasn’t any trend observed in PAH degradation, though, it was noted that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation increased from pH 2.0 to 4.0, and then, sharply decreased at pH 6.0. This results thus lend credence to the fact that E. crassipes is a potential phytoremediator in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated waste streams.
Tariq Mahmood,Salman Akbar Malik,Syed Tajammul Hussain
BioResources , 2010,
Abstract: Heavy metal’s release without treatment poses a significant threat to the environment. Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and persistent. In the present study the ash of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), was used to remove six metals from aqueous solutions through biosorption. Results of batch and column experiments showed excellent adsorption capacity. Removal of lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel was 29.83, 1.263, 1.575, 3.323, 2.984 and 1.978 μgg-1, respectively. The biosorptive capacity was maximum with pH >8.00. Desorption in μgg-1 of ash for lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel was 18.10, 9.99, 11.99, 27.54, 21.09, and 3.71 respectively. Adsorption/desorption of these metals from ash showed the potential of this technology for recovery of metals for further usages. Hydrogen adsorption was also studied with a Sievert-type apparatus. Hydrogen adsorption experiments showed significant storage capacity of water hyacinth ash.
Kinetic and equilibrium study for the sorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous phase by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Genson Murithi, Charles O. Onindo, Gerald K. Muthakia
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2012,
Abstract: This paper reports the kinetic and equilibrium studies of Eichhornia crassipes root biomass as a biosorbent for Pb(II) ions from aqueous system. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as the pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration, temperature and agitation speed on the metal ion uptake. Uptake of Pb(II) ions on the E. crassipes roots showed a pH-dependent profile. The maximum metal uptake values were 164 μg/mL. Langmuir model fitted the experimental sorption equilibrium data with a good fit (R2 > 0.99). The biosorption kinetics was described by the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.99). KEY WORDS: Water hyacinth, Biosorption, Kinetics, Water treatment, Pb(II) removal Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2012, 26(2), 181-193. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.3
Studies on biomethanation of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) using biocatalyst
Santanu Sarkar, Saikat Banerjee
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2013,
Abstract: Water hyacinth is a huge source of biomass in tropical countries. That can be used for biogas production. The aim of this conversion process is to improve the quality, specific energy content, transportability, etc. of the raw biomass source or to capture gases which are naturally produced as biomass is micro biologically degraded. An experimental study on catalytic biomethanation of Water Hyacinth has been carried out in a semi batch digester at different substrate concentration using cow urine as an organic catalyst under controlled pH with in the range of 6.9 to 7.2. The rate of bio gas production varies with different conditions and parameters like temperature, stirring speed, feed concentration, catalyst concentration, etc. It has been found that the catalyst mainly increases the production rate of biogas from water hyacinth. Mathematical analysis of the experimental data on catalytic biomethanation has been done in the present study. Mathematical equations relating maximum specific growth rate and kinetic parameter at different substrate and catalyst concentration have been developed.
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