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Effect of Tramadol on Medetomidine and Ketamine Anesthesia in Dogs
W. Choi, H. S. Jang, S. H. Yun, J. S. Park, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The analgesic effects of three different doses of tramadol as a preanesthetic in medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in dogs were compared. Twenty-eight healthy adult mongrel dogs were used. The dogs were divided into four groups at random; 1 ml kg-1 of normal saline, 1, 2 or 4mg kg-1 of tramadol premedication (group Control, TRA1, TRA2 and TRA4) was then administered intravenously followed by medetomidine and ketamine anesthesia. The behavioral changes, the duration of surgical anesthesia, blood gas parameters (pH, pO2, and pCO2), heart rate, and systolic/diastolic pressure were observed. Tramadol (4mg kg-1) pretreatment significantly increased the degree of sedation when compared with the control, TRA1 and TRA2 groups at 15 min after tramadol administration (P<0.05). The duration of surgical anesthesia was significantly increased by tramadol (4mg kg-1) pretreatment when compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in behavioral changes, blood gas parameters (pH, pO2 and pCO2), heart rate, and arterial pressure among the groups. Tramadol at 4mg kg-1 did not affect the cardiovascular system and recovery of anesthesia, but significantly increased the duration of surgical anesthesia with medetomidine and ketamine. This result suggests that intravenous tramadol at 4mg kg-1 is a useful preanesthetic agent for extending the surgical level of anesthesia in medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in dogs.
Histopathology and biochemistry analysis of the interaction between sunitinib and paracetamol in mice  [cached]
Lim Adeline YL,Segarra Ignacio,Chakravarthi Srikumar,Akram Sufyan
BMC Pharmacology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2210-10-14
Abstract: Background Sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to treat GIST and mRCC may interact with paracetamol as both undergo P450 mediated biotransformation and P-glycoprotein transport. This study evaluates the effects of sunitinib-paracetamol coadministration on liver and renal function biomarkers and liver, kidney, brain, heart and spleen histopathology. ICR male mice (n = 6 per group/dose) were administered saline (group-A) or paracetamol 500 mg/kg IP (group-B), or sunitinib at 25, 50, 80, 100, 140 mg/kg PO (group-C) or coadministered sunitinib at 25, 50, 80, 100, 140 mg/kg PO and paracetamol IP at fixed dose 500 mg/kg (group-D). Paracetamol was administered 15 min before sunitinib. Mice were sacrificed 4 h post sunitinib administration. Results Group-A serum ALT and AST levels were 14.29 ± 2.31 U/L and 160.37 ± 24.74 U/L respectively and increased to 249.6 ± 222.7 U/L and 377.1 ± 173.6 U/L respectively in group-B; group-C ALT and AST ranged 36.75-75.02 U/L and 204.4-290.3 U/L respectively. After paracetamol coadministration with low sunitinib doses (group-D), ALT and AST concentrations ranged 182.79-221.03 U/L and 259.7-264.4 U/L respectively, lower than group-B. Paracetamol coadministration with high sunitinib doses showed higher ALT and AST values (range 269.6-349.2 U/L and 430.2-540.3 U/L respectively), p < 0.05. Hepatic histopathology showed vascular congestion in group-B; mild congestion in group-C (but lesser than in group-B and D). In group-D, at low doses of sunitinib, lesser damage than in group-B occurred but larger changes including congestion were observed at high sunitinib doses. BUN levels were higher (p < 0.05) for group-B (33.81 ± 5.68 mg/dL) and group-D (range 35.01 ± 6.95 U/L to 52.85 ± 12.53 U/L) compared to group-A (15.60 ± 2.17 mg/dL) and group-C (range 17.50 ± 1.25 U/L to 26.68 ± 6.05 U/L). Creatinine remained unchanged. Renal congestion and necrosis was lower in group-C than group-B but was higher in group-D (p > 0.05). Mild cardiotoxicity occurred in groups B, C and D. Brain vascular congestion occurred at high doses of sunitinib administered alone or with paracetamol. Hepatic and renal biomarkers correlated with histopathology signs. Conclusions Paracetamol and sunitinib coadministration may lead to dose dependent outcomes exhibiting mild hepatoprotective effect or increased hepatotoxicity. Sunitinib at high doses show renal, cardiac and brain toxicity. Liver and renal function monitoring is recommended.
Effect of Tramadol for Prevention of Shivering after Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section
S. Atashkhoyi,S. Negargar
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Shivering during spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients is one of the leading causes of discomfort for those patients. Tramadol is effective in the prevention and treatment of shivering after general anesthesia. The aim of this placebo-controlled study, was to investigate whether 1 mg kg-1 tramadol i.v. administered after spinal anesthesia would reduce the incidence and severity of shivering in patients undergoing cesarean section. In a randomized and double-blind clinical trial 70 healthy obstetric patients were scheduled for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Immediately, after spinal anesthesia 35 patients received 1 mg kg-1 tramadol in saline and 35 patients received saline normal. An anesthesiologist blind to the solution injected recorded incidence and intensity of shivering and pain and other parameters. The incidence of shivering was significantly lower in patients, who received tramadol than those who received placebo (28.57% v.s 65.71; p<0.0001). In the placebo group 26 (74.28%) patients had postoperative pain, compared to 4 (11.42%) in the study group (p<0.0001). There was no difference in the incidence of pharmacologic side effects. The results of this study revealed that tramadol 1 mg kg-1 i.v. is effective in prevention of shivering after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.
Effect of Tramadol for Prevention of Shivering after Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section
S. Atashkhoyi,S. Negargar
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Shivering during spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients is one of the leading causes of discomfort for those patients. Tramadol is effective in the prevention and treatment of shivering after general anesthesia. The aim of this placebo-controlled study, was to investigate whether 1 mg kg-1 tramadol i.v. administered after spinal anesthesia would reduce the incidence and severity of shivering in patients undergoing cesarean section. In a randomized and double-blind clinical trial 70 healthy obstetric patients were scheduled for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Immediately, after spinal anesthesia 35 patients received 1 mg kg-1 tramadol in saline and 35 patients received saline normal. An anesthesiologist blind to the solution injected recorded incidence and intensity of shivering and pain and other parameters. The incidence of shivering was significantly lower in patients, who received tramadol than those who received placebo (28.57% v.s 65.71; p<0.0001). In the placebo group 26 (74.28%) patients had postoperative pain, compared to 4 (11.42%) in the study group (p<0.0001). There was no difference in the incidence of pharmacologic side effects. The results of this study revealed that tramadol 1 mg kg-1 i.v. is effective in prevention of shivering after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.
Tramadol versus meperidine in the treatment of shivering during spinal anesthesia in cesarean section  [cached]
R Talakoub,Sh Noori Meshkat
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of tramadol comparing with meperidine on post-spinal shivering in cesarean section. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial 73 ASA-I pregnant patients candidates of cesarean section under spinal anesthesia who had shivering postoperatively were selected and classified into two groups receiving tramadol or meperidine to control postoperative shivering. Spinal anesthesia was done by injection of epinephrinized 5% lidocaine at L3-L4 or L4-L5 segment. Pruritis, somnolence, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and the duration of shivering control were evaluated and recorded. All data were analyzed by using Fisher and Chi-square tests. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between two groups in age (P = 0.1) and weight (P = 0.8) of patients. There was no significant difference in response rate after injection of both drugs (P = 0.3). The time elapsed from treatment to ceased shivering was significantly less (P = 0.001) but frequency of somnolence (P = 0.001), nausea (P = 0.001) and vomiting (P = 0.005) were significantly more in tramadol group. Dizziness was significantly more common in meperidine group (P = 0.001) and pruritis was not seen in any group. CONCLUSION: Tramadol is more effective in controlling post-spinal shivering but results in more frequent nausea, vomiting and somnolence in comparison with meperidine. KEYWORDS: Shivering, meperidine, tramadol, spinal anesthesia, cesarean section.
Control of shivering with clonidine, butorphanol, and tramadol under spinal anesthesia: a comparative study
Bansal P, Jain G
Local and Regional Anesthesia , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/LRA.S15366
Abstract: ntrol of shivering with clonidine, butorphanol, and tramadol under spinal anesthesia: a comparative study Original Research (4184) Total Article Views Authors: Bansal P, Jain G Published Date August 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 29 - 34 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/LRA.S15366 Pranav Bansal, Gaurav Jain Department of Anaesthesiology, Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College Moradabad, India Introduction: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine, butorphanol, and tramadol in control of shivering under spinal anesthesia, and to compare their side effects. Methods: This randomized, prospective study was conducted in 90 patients who developed shivering under spinal anesthesia during various abdominal or orthopedic surgery procedures. On shivering, patients were randomly allocated to receive an intravenous, 1 mL bolus dose of 50 mg tramadol, or 1 mg butorphanol, or 150 μg clonidine, in a double blinded manner. Control of shivering, time taken for cessation, recurrence, hemodynamic changes, axillary temperatures, and side effects were noted and compared for all 3 groups. Collected data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Butorphanol and tramadol were more effective than clonidine in suppressing shivering. Butorphanol, tramadol, and clonidine completely controlled rigors in 83%, 73%, and 53% of cases, respectively, and incompletely suppressed rigors in 16%, 26%, and 46% of cases, respectively. Time taken to terminate rigors was significantly higher for clonidine (3.3 ± 0.9 minutes)than for butorphanol and tramadol (2.1 ± 1.0 minutes and 1.8 ± 0.5 minutes; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Butorphanol had an edge over tramadol in controlling shivering with lower chances of recurrence, though both were superior to clonidine for this purpose with an early onset of action. We conclude that both these opioids control rigors better than α-2 agonists.
Control of shivering with clonidine, butorphanol, and tramadol under spinal anesthesia: a comparative study  [cached]
Bansal P,Jain G
Local and Regional Anesthesia , 2011,
Abstract: Pranav Bansal, Gaurav JainDepartment of Anaesthesiology, Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College Moradabad, IndiaIntroduction: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine, butorphanol, and tramadol in control of shivering under spinal anesthesia, and to compare their side effects.Methods: This randomized, prospective study was conducted in 90 patients who developed shivering under spinal anesthesia during various abdominal or orthopedic surgery procedures. On shivering, patients were randomly allocated to receive an intravenous, 1 mL bolus dose of 50 mg tramadol, or 1 mg butorphanol, or 150 μg clonidine, in a double blinded manner. Control of shivering, time taken for cessation, recurrence, hemodynamic changes, axillary temperatures, and side effects were noted and compared for all 3 groups. Collected data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests.Results: Butorphanol and tramadol were more effective than clonidine in suppressing shivering. Butorphanol, tramadol, and clonidine completely controlled rigors in 83%, 73%, and 53% of cases, respectively, and incompletely suppressed rigors in 16%, 26%, and 46% of cases, respectively. Time taken to terminate rigors was significantly higher for clonidine (3.3 ± 0.9 minutes)than for butorphanol and tramadol (2.1 ± 1.0 minutes and 1.8 ± 0.5 minutes; P < 0.001).Conclusion: Butorphanol had an edge over tramadol in controlling shivering with lower chances of recurrence, though both were superior to clonidine for this purpose with an early onset of action. We conclude that both these opioids control rigors better than α-2 agonists.Keywords: perioperative shivering, spinal anesthesia, tramadol, clonidine, butorphanol, thermoregulatory center
Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in the grey partridge Perdix perdix: outbreak description, histopathology, biochemistry and antioxidant parameters
Frantisek Vitula, Lucie Peckova, Hana Bandouchova, Miroslav Pohanka, Ladislav Novotny, David Jira, Jiri Kral, Karel Ondracek, Jitka Osickova, Dagmar Zendulkova, Katerina Rosenbergova, Frantisek Treml, Jiri Pikula
BMC Veterinary Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-7-34
Abstract: Morbidity and mortality rates were 100% and 60%, respectively. Necropsy revealed an accumulation of caseous exudate within the infraorbital sinuses, tracheitis, pneumonia and airsacculitis. There were significant increases in activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and amylase, and levels of total protein and glucose in Mycoplasma-infected birds when compared to control. Catalase showed significantly lower activity in the heart, lungs, liver and gonads of Mycoplasma-infected birds. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was elevated in the eye and the associated infraorbital sinus and kidneys, and decreased in the liver. Decreased levels of reduced glutathione were found in the heart, kidneys, liver and gonads. The activity of glutathione reductase was lower only in the lungs. Compared to healthy birds, mycoplasmosis in the grey partridge caused significant differences in the level of lipid peroxidation in lungs and plasma (p < 0.05), while the ferric reducing antioxidant power was lower in the heart and kidneys (p < 0.01). Significant correlations among responses of the antioxidant parameters were found namely in the heart, lungs, spleen, liver and plasma. There were also numerous significant inter-tissue correlations of all the studied antioxidant parameters.The present study demonstrates the high susceptibility of grey partridges to natural infection by M. gallisepticum, the severity of the disease based on histopathology, and the modulation of blood chemical profiles and oxidative stress-associated parameters in the avian hosts, thus enhancing the understanding of the pathogenesis of mycoplasmosis in birds. Moreover, the reported reference values can be useful for the evaluation of the state of health in grey partridges.The grey partridge Perdix perdix, a famous bird native to Europe and introduced to many parts of the world, has shown a marked population decline throughout Europe since the second half of the 20th century [1]. Factors driving this decli
Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and metabolites after injective administrations in dogs
M. Giorgi , S. Del Carlo , B. ebkowska-Wieruszewska , C. J. Kowalski , G. Saccomanni
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10181-010-0027-y
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its main metabolites after IV and IM injections. The pharmacokinetic cross-over study was carried out on 6 healthy male beagle dogs. Tramadol was administered by intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) injection at 4 mg/kg. Tramadol and its main metabolites O-desmethyl-tramadol (M1), N-,N-didesmethyl-tramadol (M2) and N-,O-didesmethyl-tramadol (M5) concentrations were measured in plasma samples by a HPLC coupled with fluorimetric detection; pharmacokinetic evaluations were carried out with a compartmental and non-compartmental model for tramadol and its metabolites, respectively. The bioavailability of the drug, ranging between 84-102% (mean 92%), was within the generally accepted values for a positive bioequivalence decision of (80-125%). After the IM injection the mean plasma drug concentration peak was reached after a Tmax of 0.34 h with a Cmax of 2.52 μg/mL. No therapeutic relevant differences were observed between IM and IV administration. The minimal effective plasma concentration was reached after a few minutes and maintained for about 6-7 h in both administrations. M1 plasma concentration was low and the amounts of the other metabolites produced were analogous in both routes of administration. In conclusion, tramadol was rapidly and almost completely absorbed after IM administration and its systemic availability was equivalent to the IV injection. The different onset time and duration of action observed were very small and probably therapeutically irrelevant. The IM injection is a useful alternative to IV injection in the dog.
TRAMADOL VIA EPIDURAL EM C?ES SUBMETIDOS à SUBSTITUI??O DO LIGAMENTO CRUZADO CRANIAL
Guedes, Alonso Gabriel Pereira;Natalini, Cláudio Corrêa;Alves, Simone Dias de Lima;Oliveira, Simone Tostes;
Ciência Rural , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000200027
Abstract: ten dogs were submitted to an experimental replacement of the cranial cruciate ligament and received epidural tramadol (1mg/kg) as a trans and post-operative analgesic technique. cardiovascular and respiratory functions, halothane consumption and post-operative analgesia were evaluated. cardiovascular and respiratory stability, suitable analgesia during and after the surgery as well as the possibility of reducing the inhalant analgesic consumption were observed. epidural tramadol is effective as an adjuvant anesthetic in dogs submitted to cranial cruciate ligament replacement.
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