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The Effect of Salt Concentration on Some Characteristics in Herby Cheese
Zekai Tarakci,Emrullah Sagun,Hakan Sancak,Hisamettin Durmaz
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: Herby cheese is a salted traditional cheese manufactured from sheep`s and cow`s milk in the Eastern and South-eastern of Turkey. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different salt concentrations (4, 5 and 6%) on the ripening characteristics of Herby cheese. Pasteurized whole cow`s milk (3.7% fat) was used for Herby cheese manufacture. The cheese samples were ripened under soil at 7 1oC for 90 days. The samples were characterized in terms of microbiological, chemical and sensory properties. The ripening time had a significant (P<0.05) effect on all parameters except for protein, fat, total aerobic bacteria (TAB), appearance and colour, body and texture, and flavour. In addition, salt concentration had a significant influence on dry matter, salt, titratable acidity, micrococci and staphylococci, proteolytic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, appearance and colour, and saltiness. As a result, we concluded that increasing the salt concentration in cheese samples contributed to reducing the number of microorganisms and increased the acceptability in terms of appearance and colour, and body and texture from sensory properties.
Nutritional Comparison of Cow and Buffalo Milk Cheddar Cheese
Mian Anjum Murtaza,Salim - Ur - Rehman,Faqir Muhammad Anjum,Muhammad Anjum
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: Cheddar cheese was manufactured from cow and buffalo milk using commercially available starter cultures (Lactococcus lactis ssp. Cremoris and Lactococcus lactis ssp. Lactis). Cheese was analyzed for proximate composition, pH, acidity, lactose and mineral contents and sensory perception (flavor, aroma and texture) after 2 and 4 months of ripening. All the chemical composition was significantly influenced by cow and buffalo milk. Buffalo milk cheese was found considerably superior in nutritional profile. Lactose content and pH decreased and acidity increased significantly during ripening of 120 days. On sensory evaluation, buffalo milk cheese was ranked appreciably higher for all the sensory parameters as compared to that of cow milk.
Effects of Casing Materials and Ripening Period on Some Microbiological Properties of Tulum Cheese
M. Sengul,H. Turkoglu,S. Cakmakci,A. H. Con
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Microbiological contents of Tulum cheese samples made from raw and pasteurized milk and ripened in goatskin, wooden box and plastic were compared. The casing materials affected yeast and mould counts significantly (P<0.01). The yeast and mould counts in wooden box ripened cheese (5.61 log fu/g) was significantly lower then those of tulum and plastic box ripened cheese. Pasteurization of milk resulted in a decrease in number of coliform bacteria. Casing material had significant effect on Tamb, yeast, moulds, coliform and E.coli counts. Ripening period had also influenced the microorganism in cheese. Mostly the count of all above mentioned microorganisms were decreased at longer ripening period (90th day).
Effect of Freezing Conditions on the Ripening Process and the Quality of Cheese
Arnold Reps,Krystyna Wisniewska,Irmina Jarmul,Anna Brakoniecka-Sikorska
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2005,
Abstract: Kortowski cheese (M nster type) was salted for 100, 75, 50 and 25% of their standard salting time, which is 48 hours. Cheese after 3 weeks of ripening and cheese immediately after salting were stored for 6 and 12 months at -27°C. Cheese of lower salting level ripened faster, both after salting and after frozen storage. The process of protein degradation occurred during frozen storage of ripe cheeses. The content of N-amino acid in ripe cheese after frozen storage and in cheese ripening after storage was almost twice as high as in the cheese that ripened after salting. Separations on Sephadex gel confirm the process of protein degradation during frozen storage of cheese. The conducted research indicated that frozen storage is recommended for Kortowski cheese of reduced salt content and the most favourable solution is to conduct the process of cheese ripening after thawing.
The influence of ripening process on trapist cheese abatement  [cached]
Slavko Kirin
Mljekarstvo , 2002,
Abstract: In this paper the influence of ripening process on Trapist cheeseabatement, taken into account on cheese yield calculation, was investigated. Three different ripening processes were investigated: ripening process with rind washing and without protecting coating application, ripening process with protecting coating application and cheese ripening in plastic shrinkable pouch. The highest abatement was found in the case of cheese ripening on traditional way i.e. without protecting coating applied and with rind washing during ripening period. Slightly lower abatement value showed cheeses with protecting coating applied, while the negligible abatement was noticed in cheese packaged into a pouch. The highest abatement values were noticed during the first 10 days of cheese ripening process with and without protective coating applied. After that time the steady state of abatement value was reached. In this case slightly higher values were obtained in the case of cheeses with protective coating. It is evident that the highest influence on abatement value is during the first phase of Trapist cheese ripening process.
Ripening of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara) Cheese Manufactured from Raw or Pasteurized Milk: Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on the Physicochemical Properties  [PDF]
Mohamed O. E. Altahir,Elgasim A. Elgasim,Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed
International Journal of Food Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/698263
Abstract: The objective of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of heat treatment (raw or pasteurized milk), ripening in salted whey (SW) and storage period for up to 3 months on the physicochemical properties of Sudanese braided cheese (SBC). Braided cheeses were manufactured from raw (BCRM) and pasteurized (BCPM) milk and ripened in SW (0%, 5%, and 10% salt) for up to 90 days. All the treatments significantly ( ) affected the physicochemical characteristics of SBC. The total solid, protein, and fat contents of BCRM or BCPM decreased ( ), whereas their TA, SN, and salt contents increased significantly ( ) as storage period and the salt level of the whey were elevated. Both FRI and SRI of BCRM and BCPM increased with the increase in storage period and the salt level of the whey. For SN, FRI, SRI, pH, and moisture contents the magnitude of the change was more pronounced in BCRM than in BCPM, while for protein, fat, salt, and TS contents, the opposite was true; that is, the magnitude of the change was more pronounced in BCPM than in BCRM. Further studies are required to standardize muddaffara cheese manufacturing procedure particularly in rural areas. 1. Introduction Cheese is a dairy product that has played a key role in human nutrition for centuries. It is the most popular dairy product in Sudan. Among cheese varieties available on the market, braided cheese is gaining popularity and became second to the white soft cheese (Gibna Bayda) as far as per capita consumption is concerned. The ripening process of cheese is very complex and involves microbiological [1] and biochemical [2–5] changes to the curd resulting in the flavor and texture characteristic of the particular variety. The ripening process of cheese is influenced by the ripening conditions like salt concentration and ripening duration. Salting was probably the most common and reliable traditional method used in combination with lactic acid fermentation for the production and preservation of cheese [6]. It was achieved by adding salt to milk before fermentation, sprinkling of dry salt on the surface of the cheese after moulding, and/or dipping the cheese in brine (pickling). The concentration and distribution of salt in cheese mass are important parameters affecting its quality and acceptability [7]. The low salt cooked cheese is more acceptable and has a low microbial count than low salt uncooked cheese [8]. Sodium chloride influences cheese ripening principally through its effect on water activity, control various enzyme activities in cheese, synergies of the curd, and physical changes in
Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae
Nusantara Bioscience , 2010,
Abstract: Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC), and time (7 days, 14 days). The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT) at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis), Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.
Colour traits in the evaluation of the ripening period of Asiago cheese  [cached]
Giorgio Marchesini,Stefania Balzan,Severino Segato,Enrico Novelli
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.412
Abstract: The research was carried out on Asiago d’Allevo cheese samples produced in a single farm located in the Altopiano dei Sette Comuni (above 1000m a.s.l.). After 6-12-18 and 36 months of ripening, samples were analyzed for quality traits, in order to evaluate the effect of ripening on colour and gross composition. As expected crude protein and fat significantly increased through the considered period. Ripening led to a significant decrease of L*, a* and b* values. Lightness showed a negative relationship with crude protein, meanwhile a* and b* were both negatively related to fat content. Concerning L*, the trend could be explained by water loss and N-soluble compounds concentration, which could alter protein matrix. a* and b* reduction was probably related to degradation processes such as lipolysis, which seemed to be extensive in hard and long ripened cheese. Ripening affected significantly the light reflectance at all λ with green cheese having the higher values.
Zekai Tarakci,Erdogan Kucukoner
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2007,
Abstract: The vacuum-packed Turkish Kashar cheese ripening was evaluated in the medium and internal zones of cheese throughout a 90 day storage period. The parameters analyzed were; lipolysis level, water soluble nitrogen (WSN), total nitrogen, ripening index (RI), trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen (TCA-SN), moisture, salt and salt in moisture, fat values and sensorial properties. The moisture values, acidity, salt and salt in moisture was less internal section. The lipolysis level, RI, TCA-SN ratios of internal section of cheese was less than medium section. Lipolysis level, RI, TCA-SN values, salt content and salt in moisture of the cheese samples increased continuously until end of the ripening but total nitrogen and fat content shown no signifi cant changes with ripening, as moisture values decreased slightly. The ripening period was the main factor affecting sensory properties of cheese in medium and internal zones.
Changes in the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of Serrano cheese during manufacture and ripening
Souza, Claucia Fernanda Volken de;Dalla ?Rosa, Tiziano;Ayub, Marco Ant?nio Zachia;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822003000300016
Abstract: changes in the microbial flora present in six serrano cheese batches (3 ripened in summer and 3 in winter) were studied during production and ripening, to microbiologically characterize this cheese, which is traditionally manufactured by farmers in the south of brazil, using raw cow milk, without the addition of starter cultures. the levels of several microbial groups were enumerated in the milk, curd and different stages of the 60-day long ripening period. values of some physicochemical parameters, such as ph, titratable acidity, water activity, moisture and nacl content were also determined. the correlation coefficients between these parameters and the microbial groups throughout ripening were determined. the influence of the season of the year was also studied. results demonstrated that the microflora and the physicochemical characteristics of serrano cheese changed significantly during the 60-day ripening period, especially in summer. almost all microbial groups reached their highest counts after the 7th day of maturation, steadily decreasing towards the end of the process. higher microbial counts during the first week of ripening was accompanied by lactic acid production and, as a consequence, a sharp drop in the ph of cheese was observed. lactic acid bacteria comprised the main microbial group present in serrano cheese and their counts were similar to the total viable counts at all sampling points. the abundance of lactobacilli during the manufacture and ripening suggests that these microorganisms may play an important role in the production of serrano cheese. in conclusion, this work shows the importance of ripening time being longer than 30 days to allow for microbiological stabilization of this artisanal product. also, except for halotolerants and moulds counts, and for moisture content, there were no significant differences observed either for microbial counting or for physicochemical characteristics of the cheese concerning the season of the year in which
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