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Method of Evaluation in Respect of Negative and Positive in Issues of Modern Biotechnology: An Islamic Perspective
Abdul Basir Bin Mohamad,Anwar Fakhri Bin Omar,Siti Fairuz Binti Sujak
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2012.84.91
Abstract: The development of modern biotechnology of plants through genetic engineering techniques is a method to improve the quality of crops in terms of quality and quantity. However, the debate among scientists and Islamic scholars in regarding with benefits and risks of injury and the limits allowed by the religion may hinder the development of modern plant biotechnology in Malaysia and also in other countries. The objective of this study is to examine methods of assessment of negative and positive in relation to issues of modern biotechnology. It is important to understand that everything that existed on this earth whether it occurs naturally or is present through the efforts of research and human expertise, all have advantages and disadvantages. In Islamic law if a result of biotechnology is clear and bright can be categorized as illegal then it becomes forbidden and vice versa. But however there are many results that are processed through biotechnology are unclearly able to decide easily whether they are lawful or unlawful for consumption by consumers. As such, it s status of legal judgment cannot be decided until requiring to look into the result of biotechnology whether it is heavier towards good or evil. So, this study is a study in general to provide input related to the method of assessment of any matter over which is better or worse because each item is not out of the two main effects, i.e., positive or negative effects.
Awareness of Modern Biotechnology and Media Coverage
Latifah Amin,Nurul Ilyana Rezali,Mus Chairil Samani,Noor Ayuni Ahmad Azlan
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2011.421.426
Abstract: Modern biotechnology has expanded rapidly around the world and it has been considered as a very important industry in helping Malaysia to achieve its goal of becoming a highly industrialized nation by 2020. Thus, assessment of people s awareness on biotechnology is very important and according to a theory on decision making, people only form attitudes about technologies when they have acquired relevant information. The purpose of this study is to study the awareness level of the Malaysia public in the Klang valley region to analyze the coverage of biotechnology issues in four mainstream Malaysian newspapers and to relate the media coverage with Malaysian public awareness. A survey was carried out in the Klang valley region to 434 respondents stratified according to stakeholder s groups. Results of the survey showed that the overall mean score for awareness on modern biotechnology were moderate with a mean score of just slightly above the mid-point value. Content analysis was carried out on four Malaysian mainstream newspapers Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, New Straits Times and The Star. The level of media coverage on the real content of biotechnology issues were considered to be low. This explains the moderate level of awareness by the respondents.
Developing legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology: The possibilities and limits in the case of GMOs
AA Pamela
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: This paper looks at attempts that have been made to develop legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology. The discussion is limited to the regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) technology by the two leading producers and exporters of GMOs in Africa: South Africa and Kenya. The international and regional regulatory regimes are analysed for comparative purposes since the two countries have partially based their regulatory frameworks on these regimes. The methodology used is analytical; the challenges that are posed by GMO technology are analysed from public policy and legal perspectives. The main argument that is advanced is that the challenges that are frequently viewed merely as problems ought to be considered as indicators of possibilities and limits in regulating this fluctuant field. Ideas on the factors to be considered in developing appropriate regulatory frameworks for biotechnology are put forth to serve as a wake up call to policy makers and legislators that have to deal with such issues. It is concluded that a holistic approach should be used in addressing the pressing issues that are raised by biotechnology generally and GMOs in particular.
Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme production
RL Howard, E Abotsi, EL Jansen van Rensburg, S Howard
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: This review is written from the perspective of scientists working in lignocellulose bioconversion in a developing country and the aim of this review is to remind ourselves and other scientists working in related areas of lignocellulose research of the enormous economic potential of the bioprocessing of residual plant materials generally regarded as “waste”, and secondly to highlight some of the modern approaches which potentially could be used to tackle one of the major impediments, namely high enzyme cost, to speed-up the extensive commercialisation of the lignocellulose bioprocessing.
Welfare issues of modern deer farming  [cached]
Silvana Mattiello
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s1.205
Abstract: This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision), transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes) and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation). Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.
MODERN NETWORK SECURITY: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
SHAILJA PANDEY
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Secure Network has now become a need of any organization. The security threats are increasing day by day and making high speed wired/wireless network and internet services, insecure andunreliable. Now – a - days security measures works more importantly towards fulfilling the cutting edge demands of today’s growing industries. The need is also induced in to the areas like defense, where secure and authenticated access of resources are the key issues related to information security. In this paper Author has described the important measures and parameters regarding large industry/organizational requirements for establishing a secure network. Wi-Fi networks are very common in providing wirelessnetwork access to different resources and connecting various devices wirelessly. There are need of different requirements to handle Wi-Fi threats and network hacking attempts. This paper exploresimportant security measures related to different network scenarios, so that a fully secured network environment could be established in an organization. Author also has discussed a case study to illustratethe minimal set of measures required for establishing network security in any organization.
Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in Holistic Strategy in West Africa
JJ Baidu-Forson, R Lewis-Lettington
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2008,
Abstract: Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of biodiversity resources which, with the appropriate application of biotechnological tools for conservation and use, can serve as sources of wealth creation. Proper harnessing of the linkages between biotechnology and the diversity of biological resources is required to meet challenges of food security, health, poverty and wealth creation in West African countries. The paper explores some of the key applications of biotechnology for conservation of agricultural biodiversity resources, and considers the potential threat of biotechnology to diversity of genetic resources. It also explores complex issues that inform current policy debates. It concludes that Government support is required for the conservation and breeding of farmers’ varieties, or landraces by public breeding programmes, and the design of private and public mechanisms to ensure that the pursuit of biotechnology does not compromise the diversity in biological resources. It would be strategic for West African countries to establish and explore beneficial linkages between the subregional genetic resources conservation initiative and biotechnology programmes. Some pertinent questions are raised on how to best manage the strategic interplay between biotechnology and diversity in agricultural biodiversity resources. The provision of adequate information is highlighted to inform decisions and choices based on the real value and potential risks of biotechnology.
A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues
Ezezika,Obidimma; Thomas,Fiona; Lavery,Jim; Daar,Abdallah; Singer,Peter;
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27242009000300003
Abstract: there is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects in the developing world, leading to the possibility of failure. the source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology's implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. we posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating the risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-saharan africa. we introduce a social audit model, which we term ethical, social, cultural and commercialization (esc2 ) auditing, and that we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. we lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by public private partnerships. we argue that the implementation of the audit model can help build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. the model also provides evidence on how esc2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.
A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues  [cached]
Obidimma Ezezika,Fiona Thomas,Abdallah Daar,Peter Singer
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2009,
Abstract: There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2) auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help to build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.
Modern Biotechnology—Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa
E. Jane Morris
Sustainability , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/su3060809
Abstract: Modern biotechnology, including the application of transgenic techniques to produce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), can play a significant role in increasing agricultural production in a sustainable way, but its products need to be tailored for the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to develop GMOs and ensure they meet stringent regulatory requirements is somewhat limited. Most African governments contribute little to science and technology either financially or through strong policies. This leaves the determination of research and development priorities in the hands of international funding agencies. Whereas funding from the United States is generally supportive of GM technology, the opposite is true of funding from European sources. African countries are thus pulled in two different directions. One alternative to this dilemma might be for countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region to develop stronger South-South collaborations, but these need to be supported with adequate funding. African governments as well as external funding agencies are urged to consider the important role that biotechnology, including GM technology, can play in contributing to sustainable development in Africa, and to provide adequate support to the development of capacity to research, develop and commercialize GMOs in the region.
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