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The Modulatory Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine Supplementation on Hepatic Glutathione Concentration and Lipid Peroxidation Status in Old Rats Fed a Low-Protein Diet
Rasha A Alfawwaz,Adel A Alhamdan
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2006,
Abstract: There is growing evidence in the literature linking oxidant molecules and the degenerative and physiological changes that occur with advancing age. It is now well documented that oxidant molecules cause cell injury and have been shown to be a common factor in many of the age-associated diseases. On the other hand, the body has many antioxidant compounds that minimize oxidant molecules toxic effects. However, with advanced age, oxidant molecule production may overwhelm the antioxidant defenses, thus contributing to many degenerative diseases of aging. Aging is also a risk factor for protein-energy malnutrition; which was shown to be common among elderly populations. Insufficient intake of protein is frequently found in elderly populations. Glutathione (GSH) is one of the major antioxidant compounds in tissue. The presence of GSH in adequate amount may help in reducing the development of aging process and lead to healthy life. One of the most effective compounds used to serve as a cysteine delivery agent is N-acetyle-cysteine (NAC). The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of NAC and dietary protein on hepatic GSH and lipid peroxidation status in old rats. Rats fed a normal-protein (NP) diet, a low-protein (LP) diet, or a low-protein diet supplemented with the NAC (LP+NAC). GSH concentration in liver, serum albumin concentration and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as an indication of oxidative tissue damage, were measured. Furthermore, a liver sample of each group was histologically examined using electron microscope. There was an increase in the weight gain of rats fed the LP+NAC diet compared to the rats fed the LP diet, despite the similarity of the daily food intake. Dietary supplementation of NAC to the LP diet restored GSH concentration in the liver to that level seen in rats fed the NP diet. The increase in hepatic GSH concentration in the LP+NAC group was parallel to the decrease in the plasma TBARS level. Furthermore, albumin level was increased in animals fed the LP+NAC diet. The study shows the effectiveness of NAC in restoring hepatic GSH concentration and in reducing plasma TBARS concentration in old rats fed low-protein diet.
Long-term vitamin E supplementation fails to reduce lipid peroxidation in people at cardiovascular risk: analysis of underlying factors
Chiara Chiabrando, Fausto Avanzini, Claudia Rivalta, Fabio Colombo, Roberto Fanelli, Gaetana Palumbo, Maria Roncaglioni, PPP Collaborative Group on the antioxidant effect of vitamin E
Trials , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1468-6708-3-5
Abstract: We examined the in vivo antioxidant effect of vitamin E (300 mg/day for about three years) in 144 participants in the Primary Prevention Project (females and males, aged ≥ 50 y, with at least one major CV risk factor, but no history of CVD). Urinary 8-epi-PGF2α (isoprostane F2α-III or 15-F2t-isoP), a validated biomarker of lipid peroxidation, was measured by mass spectrometry.Urinary excretion of 8-epi-PGF2α [pg/mg creatinine, median (range)] was 141 (67–498) in treated and 148 (76–561) in untreated subjects (p = 0.10). Taking into account possible confounding variables, multiple regression analysis confirmed that vitamin E had no significant effect on this biomarker. Levels of 8-epi-PGF2α were in the normal range for most subjects, except smokers and those with uncontrolled blood pressure or hyperglycemia.Prolonged vitamin E supplementation did not reduce lipid peroxidation in subjects with major cardiovascular risk factors. The observation that the rate of lipid peroxidation was near normal in a large proportion of subjects may help explain why vitamin E was not effective as an antioxidant in the PPP study and was ineffective for CVD prevention in large scale trials.The "oxidative hypothesis" of atherosclerosis proposes that oxidative modification of lipids in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) contributes to atherogenesis [1,2]. Antioxidants that are effective against lipid peroxidation should therefore reduce atherosclerosis and hence afford protection from cardiovascular diseases (CVD)[1]. In contrast to a) epidemiological evidence that antioxidants taken with the diet or as supplements reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk [3], and b) experimental data supporting its anti-atherogenic properties [4], vitamin E failed to show any beneficial effect in recent large intervention studies [5]. In two large-scale trials, long-term supplementation with vitamin E (300–400 lU/day) failed to reduce cardiovascular events in post-myocardial infarction patients (GISSI-Prevenzione [6])
Effect of Vitamins C and E Intake on Blood Lipid Concentration, Lipid Peroxidation, Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities in Rabbit Fed Petroleum Contaminated Diet  [PDF]
Fidelis I. Achuba
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2005,
Abstract: The effect of exposure to petroleum contaminated diet on the blood antioxidant defence system, lipid peroxidation and lipid profile as well as possible protective roles of vitamins E and C were studied in rabbits. Oxidative stress induction by crude oil was indicated by significantly (P<0.05) increased lipid peroxidation and a non-significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. A similar pattern was also detected in the lipid profile: total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol insignificantly increased while HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride significantly decreased relative to rabbits fed normal diet. The reciprocal relationship between HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in addition to compromised antioxidant enzymes could predispose exposed animals to coronary heart disease. However, pre-treatment of the diet with vitamins C and E exhibited a protective role on the toxic effect of crude oil on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant enzymes. The order of protection was vitamins E + C > vitamin E > vitamin C. These observations seemed to suggest that the protective role of vitamins C and E is synergistic. The protective role of the vitamins is probably time-dependent as significant (P<0.05) restoration of lipid profile as well as antioxidant enzymes activities to control values was effected after four weeks of exposure. It is therefore suggested that toxic effect of petroleum may be reduced by dietary supplementation of vitamins C and E.
Effect of Long Term Supplementation of Vitamin E Attwo Different Doses on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Enzymes Activity During Aging in Rats
A.H. Noor Aini,I. Illyana,M. Musalmah,W.Z. Wan Ngah
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Vitamin E a biological lipid antioxidant has been reported to influence the aging process while antioxidative enzymes activity have been postulated to be affected with age. The aim of our study is to look at the changes in the Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (the product of lipid peroxidation) in plasma and activities of erythrocyte antioxidative enzymes such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (Cat) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in rats supplemented with two different doses of vitamin E during aging. Twenty-four Wistar rats aged 6 months, weighing 250-300 grams were divided into three groups. Control group was fed with basal diet, while treated groups were supplemented with -tocopherol at 60 and 120 mg kg 1 diet. The MDA levels and erythrocyte enzyme activities were determined every 10 weeks for 70 weeks. The results showed that MDA levels increased progressively until the rats were 16 months old (week 40) where it reached its peak value of 5.79 0.54 nmol mL-1. During subsequent 30 weeks, lower MDA levels were observed. This decrease in MDA levels was statistically significant compared to the peak value (p<0.05). In the treated groups, similar patterns were observed. However, the values attained were different. Rats supplemented with 60mg kg 1 diet of vitamin E had a significant lower peak value (5.53 0.49 nmol mL-1) compared to control. While those treated with 120 mg kg 1 diet of vitamin E attained a significantly higher peak value (7.72 0.43 nmol mL-1) as compared to control (p<0.05). GPx activity increased rapidly (p<0.05) until week 30 but subsequently the increase in activity was not as rapid. The group supplemented with 120-mg kg 1 diet showed a higher activity as compared to the lower dose and control group. Similarly, cat activity was found to decrease after 30 weeks, but supplementation with vitamin E did not cause significant changes in Cat activity compared to control group. Activity of SOD showed a different pattern, where its activity in control group peaked at week 40. Its activity initially reduced with vitamin E supplementation but increased significantly (p<0.05) after 40 weeks treatment. In conclusion, the study had shown that higher dose of vitamin E supplementation (120 mg kg 1 diet) generally increased the antioxidative enzymes as compared to the control however supplementation at lower dose (60mg kg 1 diet) reduced lipid peroxidation during aging in rats.
Effect of Long Term Supplementation of Vitamin E Attwo Different Doses on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Enzymes Activity During Aging in Rats
A.H. Noor Aini,I. Illyana,M. Musalmah,W.Z. Wan Ngah
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Vitamin E a biological lipid antioxidant has been reported to influence the aging process while antioxidative enzymes activity have been postulated to be affected with age. The aim of our study is to look at the changes in the Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (the product of lipid peroxidation) in plasma and activities of erythrocyte antioxidative enzymes such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (Cat) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in rats supplemented with two different doses of vitamin E during aging. Twenty-four Wistar rats aged 6 months, weighing 250-300 grams were divided into three groups. Control group was fed with basal diet, while treated groups were supplemented with -tocopherol at 60 and 120 mg kg-1 diet. The MDA levels and erythrocyte enzyme activities were determined every 10 weeks for 70 weeks. The results showed that MDA levels increased progressively until the rats were 16 months old (week 40) where it reached its peak value of 5.79±0.54 nmol mL-1. During subsequent 30 weeks, lower MDA levels were observed. This decrease in MDA levels was statistically significant compared to the peak value (p<0.05). In the treated groups, similar patterns were observed. However, the values attained were different. Rats supplemented with 60mg kg-1 diet of vitamin E had a significant lower peak value (5.53±0.49 nmol mL-1) compared to control. While those treated with 120 mg kg 1 diet of vitamin E attained a significantly higher peak value (7.72±0.43 nmol mL-1) as compared to control (p<0.05). GPx activity increased rapidly (p<0.05) until week 30 but subsequently the increase in activity was not as rapid. The group supplemented with 120-mg kg-1 diet showed a higher activity as compared to the lower dose and control group. Similarly, cat activity was found to decrease after 30 weeks, but supplementation with vitamin E did not cause significant changes in Cat activity compared to control group. Activity of SOD showed a different pattern, where its activity in control group peaked at week 40. Its activity initially reduced with vitamin E supplementation but increased significantly (p<0.05) after 40 weeks treatment. In conclusion, the study had shown that higher dose of vitamin E supplementation (120 mg kg-1 diet) generally increased the antioxidative enzymes as compared to the control however supplementation at lower dose (60mg kg-1 diet) reduced lipid peroxidation during aging in rats.
The effects of preparing methods and enzyme supplementation on the utilization of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium) meal in the diet of laying hens  [cached]
Mohammed A. Al-Harthi,Ahmed A. El-Deek
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2011.e48
Abstract: Brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium) were collected from Jeddah on the shores of the Red Sea and sun dried at an average daily temperature of 40°C until constant weight was obtained. Part of the sun dried brown marine algae was subsequently processed by boiling (BBMA;boiled brown marine algae) in water and by autoclaving (ABMA; autoclaved brown marine algae). The SBMA, BBMA and ABMA were included in laying hen diet during weeks 23-42 of age at concentrations of 0.0%, 3.0% and 6.0%. The diets were given with or without enzyme supplementation. This resulted in 3 (preparation methods) × 2 (concentrations of supplemented BMA, i.e. 3 and 6 %) × 2 (with and without enzyme supplementation) diet programs plus two control groups (with and without enzyme supplementation) for a total of 14 treatments. Each treatment was represented by six replicates of five hens each. Sun dried or autocalved brown marine algae at 3% without enzyme supplementation in the laying hen diet could be fed to laying hens without any adverse effect on laying performance. However, enzyme supplementation to a diet containing 6% autocalved brown marine algae improved productive performance and eggshell quality.
Dietary supplementation of mannanoligosaccharides to turkey hens on their growth performance and antioxidant status in the blood
K Ognik, M Krauze
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2012,
Abstract: The research focused on the effect of a prebiotic additive, mannanoligosaccharides (Bio-Mos), in the diet of turkey hens on their growth performance and measurements of pro-oxidation and antioxidation systems in their blood. The investigation was performed on 240 six-week-old turkey hens of the heavy Big-6 breed, randomly divided into two groups. Group I was the control group, whereas the birds in group II were fed the control diet with a 0.5% addition of Bio-Mos. Bio-Mos did not increase the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, peroxide H2O2 and malone dialdehyde. However, it contributed to the increased concentration of some antioxidation parameters such as vitamin C, iron and zinc in the blood. Moreover, it led to an improved growth performance. The study suggested that mannanoligosaccharides can be used in practice as a dietary additive for turkeys, stimulating the mechanisms of the birds’ antioxidation defence and improving their growth performance.
Long-term quercetin supplementation reduces lipid peroxidation but does not improve performance in endurance runners
Scholten SD, Sergeev IN
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S39632
Abstract: ng-term quercetin supplementation reduces lipid peroxidation but does not improve performance in endurance runners Original Research (363) Total Article Views Authors: Scholten SD, Sergeev IN Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 53 - 61 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S39632 Received: 27 October 2012 Accepted: 24 January 2013 Published: 12 March 2013 Shane D Scholten,1 Igor N Sergeev2 1Department of Natural Sciences, University of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, SD, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic quercetin supplementation on endurance performance and antioxidant status in long distance runners. We hypothesized that an improved antioxidant status can be associated with enhanced performance. Methods: During 6 weeks of supplementation utilizing a double blind, randomized design, young male subjects received quercetin (1000 mg/day) or placebo while maintaining their current training schedules. Results: Following the end of the supplementation period, there was a significant time × supplement interaction for serum malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation. There were no significant pre- to post-supplement changes in parameter values employed for measuring total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, and protein oxidation (protein carbonyl) in serum. There were also no significant pre- to post-supplement differences in VO2peak, running economy, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the 10 km time trial. Conclusion: The findings obtained indicate that there is a relationship between quercetin supplementation and the statistically significant decreasing trend in MDA levels following 6 weeks of supplementation and training. This evidence suggests that quercetin can reduce oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation). However, performance improvements were not significant (as measured by VO2peak, running economy, heart rate, and RPE).
Status of Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Tissues of Rats Fed Low – Protein Diet  [PDF]
F.O. Jimoh,A.A. Odutuga,A.T. Oladiji
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2005,
Abstract: The effect of low-protein diet on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Superoxide dismutase) and the status of lipid peroxidation as assessed by malondialdehyde levels in the brain, liver kidney, lungs and heart of rats were studied. Male weanling rats were maintained on low protein diets (2% of protein in diet instead of 25%) for a period of four weeks. Malondialdehyde contents (levels) of tissues of animals fed low - protein diet was significantly increased (P<0.05) when compared with the control. The heart recorded the highest level of malondialdehyde when compared with other tissues. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased in the brain and liver of rats fed low protein diet while a significant reduction was observed in the kidney and lungs. It may therefore mean that the ingestion of low- protein diet might led to increased tissue lipid peroxidation (oxidative stress) and altered the activity of antioxidant enzymes.
Effects of Boron Supplementation Fed with Low Calcium to Diet on Performance and Egg Quality in Molted Laying Hens
Osman Olgun,Yusuf Cufadar,Alp Onder Yildiz
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted to different levels of dietary Calcium (Ca) with Boron (B) supplementation effect on performance and egg quality in molted laying hens. Two hundred and eighty, 78 weeks old, White Leghorn LSL laying hens were assigned to 8 groups with 7 replicates. Experiment had a 2x4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of Ca diet (4.0% control and 3.5% low Ca) and 4 levels of B (Borax Pentahydrate) preparation (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1) were used. Laying hens were fed to eight dietary treatments during the 78-90 weeks periods. The different levels of dietary Ca and B as a main factor did not significantly effect on initial body weight, final body weight, egg production, feed conversion ratio, specific gravity, egg shell weight, damaged egg and egg shell breaking strength except for egg weight, feed intake, egg mass, haugh unit and albumen index. There was no interaction effect of Ca and B levels on the parameters except for egg yolk index, egg shape index and egg shell thickness (p<0.01; p<0.05). It is concluded that molted laying hens to the diet were not added B when the laying hens consumed adequately feed and Ca.
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