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In vitro Antioxidant, Xanthine Oxidase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Balanitaceae)  [PDF]
N.T.R. Meda,A. Lamien-Meda,M. Kiendrebeogo,C.E. Lamien
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The present study aimed to test the validity of Balanites aegyptiaca remedies used for the treatment of rheumatisms and mental disorders by examining the antioxidant, xanthine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of galls and leaves extracts and fractions. The total phenolics and flavonoids were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 reagents, respectively. Two methods i.e., FRAP and ABTS were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the plant materials. The FRAP and ABTS antioxidant activities showed that among all extracts and fractions tested, the best antioxidant activities were found with the galls dichloromethane and the leaves ethyl acetate fractions. The antioxidant activities did correlated significantly with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The study also showed that B. aegyptiaca galls and leaves fractions exhibited a moderate xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity comparatively to the acetylcholinesterase which was weakly inhibited by the tested extracts and fractions.
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK  [PDF]
Gupta Satish Chand,Shenoy Sumanth,Kotecha Mita
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae).The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Hingot): A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties  [cached]
Yadav J,Panghal Manju
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca is an evergreen, woody, true xerophytic tree of tremendous medicinal importance. It belongs to the family Balanitaceae and is distributed throughout the drier parts of India. B. aegyptiaca has been used in a variety of folk medicines in India and Asia. Various parts of the plant are used in Ayurvedic and other folk medicines for the treatment of different ailments such as syphilis, jaundice, liver and spleen problems, epilepsy, yellow fever and the plant also has insecticidal, antihelminthic, antifeedant, molluscicidal and contraceptive activities. Research has been carried out using different in vitro and in vivo techniques of biological evaluation to support most of these claims. This review presents the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of this medicinal plant.
Antifertility efficacy of the plant Balanites roxburghii (balanitaceae) in female rats  [cached]
Padmashali B,Vaidya V,Vagdevi H,Satyanarayana N
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and distilled water extracts of the fruits of the plant Balanites Roxburghii (Balanitaceae) were tested for antifertility activity in female albino rats at a dose of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight orally. Among these, the ethanol extract was found to be most effective in causing significant abortifacient activity. The antifertility activity was found to be dose dependent and reversible on withdrawal of the treatment. Phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract showed positive tests for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavones, and phenolic compounds. The histological studies of the uterus and ovary were carried out to confirm the estrogenic activity. Acute toxicity studies of the crude extracts in mice revealed the non-toxic nature of the crude extracts.
Use and Management of Balanites aegyptiaca in Drylands of Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Paul Okiror,Joseph Obua,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2011.15.24
Abstract: There is strong evidence across the drylands of Africa that local communities have utilized Indigenous Fruit Trees (IFTs) including Balanites for generations. IFTs have however, received limited recognition from research and development community. It is now widely accepted that IFTs research needs to embrace local knowledge since this can be a useful resource in solving local problems and contribute to meaningful development. This study explored local use and management of the Balanites aegyptiaca among two contrasting dryland communities in Uganda. A survey involving 150 respondents was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to capture detailed information on various aspects of Balanites use and management. The results revealed a wealth of information on local use and management of B. aegyptiaca tree and its products. Besides being a market commodity, several uses of the tree products were reported, especially among women and children. Contrary to its early reference as famine food, B. aegyptiaca products were used by most households. The young leaves and ripe fruits were regarded as dependable dry season food sources in both years of food scarcity and plentiful harvest. However, institutional arrangements for management of Balanites and other IFTs are weak and trees are increasingly being cut for fuelwood. There is a need to build on the local peoples knowledge, especially on processing of products so as to realise increased contribution of Balanites to rural livelihoods in the drylands of Uganda and other areas where the species grows.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Balanites aegyptiaca in experimental animal models  [cached]
Gaur Kalpesh,Nema R,Kori M,Sharma C
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2008,
Abstract: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca were evaluated in experimental animals. We have determined the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of dried aerial parts of Balanites aegyptiaca by oral administration at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. The extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0 and 3h after injection. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts were also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and tail-flick method in albino rats. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, significantly (P< 0.05) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by Eddy′s hot plate method and tail-flick method in albino mice. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts showed a greater anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect comparative to the standard drugs, indomethacin and diclofenac sodium respectively. The present results indicated the ethanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited more significant activity than petroleum ether in the treatment of pain and inflammation.
In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase  [PDF]
Peter Kusch,Susanne Deininger,Sabine Specht,Rudeka Maniako,Stefanie Haubrich,Tanja Pommerening,Paul Kong Thoo Lin,Achim Hoerauf,Annette Kaiser
Journal of Parasitology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/368692
Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1?:?2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26? . Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a of 2.35? and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a of 4.8? . Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29? and 47.82? , respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. 1. Introduction Traditional medicine is still the first point of healthcare for many people in sub-Saharan Africa, where there has been a long and rich tradition of obtaining treatments from herbs and trees. In the case of malaria, Africa’s traditional healers use hundreds of indigenous plants for remedies. Until the 1950s, when synthetic chemistry began to dominate drug research and development (R and D) efforts, most drugs developed and registered in the pharmacopoeia were in fact based on natural products. Plant alkaloids, quinine among them, were the first components of natural herbal remedies to be extracted and refined for more effective use in the early 19th century. Some 150 years later, quinine is still used as front-line therapy for severe malaria, even if it is not the recommended drug for this use when artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are available. In this context, it seems to be quite surprising that no African lead has emerged so far. Meanwhile, there are efforts to assess plant remedies against malaria for their application in health care systems [1]. B. aegyptiaca (L.) (Balanitaceae) is a woody tree growing in various ecological conditions (from 100?mm to 1000?mm annual rainfall), but mainly distributed in semiarid and arid zones in tropical Africa [2]. This tree reaches 10?m (33?ft)
Nematocidal Compounds from the Seeds of Balanites aegyptiaca Isolation and Structure Elucidation  [PDF]
C. Gnoula,P. Guissou,P. Duez,M. Frederich
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2007,
Abstract: The research aims are to characterize this anthelmintic activity and to isolate the main nematocidal agent of Balanties aegyptiaca plant. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated in vitro by means of an original anthelmintic assay using Caenorhabditis elegans as a biological model. Fluorescence microscopy was used for the determination of the percentage of worms death. The structure elucidation was based on NMR, mass spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. A bioassay-directed fractionation of the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca led to the isolation of balanitin-7 (also named diosgenin 3β-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside), as being the principal nematicidal agent. These data indicate that balanitin-7 has an appreciable nematocidal activity, which is not mediated by inducing an anti-acetylcholinesterase activity.
Reproductive biology in Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., a semi-arid forest tree
Mansor Ndoye, Isma la Diallo, Yaye Kène Gassama/Dia
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) is an important tree in the semi-arid ecosystem with beneficial attributes. However, very little information is available in its reproductive biology. In order to better control the reproduction system of B. aegyptiaca, three experimental approaches are used: floral morpholgy, fluorochromatic procedure and hand pollination. The floral morphology shows that B. aegyptiaca flowers are hermaphrodite and gathered in several types of inflorescence (clusters, fascicles or glomerules). They blossomed asynchronically and nectar is exuded by the flowers. Top ovary holds five anatropous ovules. The second approach consisting in fluorochromatic procedure reveals a pollen with 3 apertures and a viability rate of 92%. This viability decrease down to 50% after a storage at -5°C for 7 days. Finally, the hand pollination proves that B. aegyptiaca is a partially auto-compatible plant and the main vectors of pollination are Halictidae (Hymenopterae) and Dipterae. Key Words: Balanites aegyptiaca, fluorochromatic test, pollen, pollination, auto-compatible. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 30-46
Enhancing the Chemical Composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Seeds through Ethanol Extraction for Use as a Protein Source in Feed Formulation  [cached]
Lohlum S. A.,Forcados E. G.,Agida O. G.,Ozele N.
Sustainable Agriculture Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/sar.v1n2p251
Abstract: Over dependence on conventional feedstuff has contributed to a continuous rise in the prices of feeds. Balanites aegyptiaca is a perennial tree and its seeds, if properly processed could be a cheaper alternative source of protein for livestock feed formulation. In this study, Balanites aegyptiaca seeds were subjected to ethanol extraction, to examine the effect on the nutrient, phytochemical, organoleptic as well as textural properties of the seed kernel. The result showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in lipid content from 37.11% to 9.98% and a significant (P<0.05) increase in protein content from 31.73% to 37.68%. There was a reduction in the level of tannin from 0.0690 to 0.0043 mg/100g, phytic acid 108.65 to 36.65 mg/100g and oxalate 30.01 to 15.03 mg/100g. The results show that ethanol extraction is an effective processing technique for enhancing the suitability of Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernel as an alternative protein source in animal feeding.
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