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Macrostructure of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)
Gholamreza Najafi,Farhad Soltanalinejad,Hossein Dehghani
Veterinary Research Forum , 2011,
Abstract: The autonomic nervous system consists of a vast range of nerves and ganglions. Anatomical studies have demonstrated that the sympathetic innervations of the head and neck are affected by the neurons that ramify from the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG). The CCG is the end of the sympathetic cervical trunk, which runs with the vagal nerve during its cervical course. In this study sixteen adult (2 - 5 year) river buffalo of both sexes (eight male, eight female) weighing around 250 - 450 kg were dissected to investigate the weight, situation and arrangement of nerve branches of the cranial cervical ganglion bilaterally. The ganglions showed a fusiform shape and reddish in color. The cranial cervical ganglion covered by the digastricus muscle. It lies in dorsal region of the base of epiglottic cartilage, ventromedial to tympanic bulla and ventrally to atlantic fossa, and medial of the occipital artery. This study showed that the cranial cervical ganglions in river buffalo were well-developed structure. The main branches of cranial cervical ganglion included the internal carotid, external carotid and jugular nerves.
Macrostructure of the cranial cervical ganglionar complex and distal vagal ganglion during post natal development in dogs
Guidi, Wanderley Lima;Oliveira, Priscila Carvalho de;Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel;
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-95962003000300006
Abstract: twelve specimens of head and neck of the domestic dog (canis familiaris) were dissected to study the situation, arrangements and branches of the distal vagal ganglion and the cranial cervical ganglion. the ganglions showed a fusiforme shape, covered by the m. digastricus. the main branches of the cranial cervical ganglion included the internal carotid and external carotid branches and of distal vagal ganglion included the cranial laryngeal nerve. this study showed that the cranial cervical ganglion and the distal vagal ganglion in dogs are well developed structure. there were no obvious anatomical differences between the same ganglions presented in both antimeres.
Ganglion  [PDF]
Sevda S?ker
Dicle Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The celebrated 2nd century Greek physician Galen who lived and worked in Rome first used the word ganglion to denote a nerve complex. Ganglion still is used to refer to an aggregation of peripheric nerve cell bodies. In this article, structures and functions of ganglion is reviewed.
Simultaneous EEG-fMRI in Patients with Unverricht-Lundborg Disease: Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization and Hemodynamic Response Analysis  [PDF]
Elisa Visani,Ludovico Minati,Laura Canafoglia,Isabella Gilioli,Lucia Salvatoni,Giulia Varotto,Patrik Fazio,Domenico Aquino,Maria Grazia Bruzzone,Silvana Franceschetti,Ferruccio Panzica
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/164278
Abstract: We performed simultaneous acquisition of EEG-fMRI in seven patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) and in six healthy controls using self-paced finger extension as a motor task. The event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis showed a greater and more diffuse alpha desynchronization in central regions and a strongly reduced post-movement beta-ERS in patients compared with controls, suggesting a significant dysfunction of the mechanisms regulating active movement and movement end. The event-related hemodynamic response obtained from fMRI showed delayed BOLD peak latency in the contralateral primary motor area suggesting a less efficient activity of the neuronal populations driving fine movements, which are specifically impaired in ULD. 1. Introduction The analysis of the EEG recorded during motor performance (self-paced movement) provides information about the movement-related changes in oscillatory cortical activity. In normal subjects, an amplitude attenuation of specific frequency components (event-related desynchronization, ERD) in the - and -bands precedes a voluntary movement and reflects cortical activation concurring with movement planning. At the end of the movement, event-related synchronization (ERS) in the -band replaces ERD [1]. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisition during performance of a motor task enables the identification of changes of brain activity in motor areas and provides information on the source of the event generator. In Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) patients, voluntary movements are selectively impaired by the presence of action myoclonus [2]. In these patients, ERD/ERS changes highlight increased and diffuse activation of the motor cortex during movement planning and severely reduced postexcitatory inhibition of the motor cortex [3]. We simultaneously acquired EEG and fMRI in order to study the spatiotemporal pattern of ERD/ERS resulting from self-paced extension of the index finger in ULD patients and to explore the correlation with hemodynamic changes. 2. Material and Methods We enrolled 7 right-handed patients (mean age: 29.1 10 years; four women) with ULD, whose main clinical features are reported in Table 1 and 6 right-handed healthy controls (mean age: 29.1 6.7 years; five women). In all patients, the diagnosis of ULD was established on the basis of the typical electroclinical presentation and of the genetic finding of dodecamer expansion at cstb gene [4]. Table 1: Patient data. 2.1. Motor Task Inside the bore of the scanner, subjects laid supine with their arms relaxed; their head was
γ-干扰素受体在山羊颈前神经节的表达
Expression of IFNGR in the Cranial Cervical Ganglion of Goat
 [PDF]

,,王志豪,金秀芳,徐永平,陈文东,,,,
- , 2015, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2015.01.002
Abstract: 旨在探索山羊颈前神经节是否具备接受γ-干扰素(interferon-γ,IFN-γ)作用的条件,是否有IFN-γ受体(interferon-γ receptor,IFNGR)的存在,进而明确神经调节与免疫调节之间的关系。分别取雌雄成年山羊颈前神经节各5对,用免疫组化SP法和PCR方法检测IFNGR在颈前神经节的表达情况。结果表明,在山羊颈前神经节的神经元、卫星细胞和神经纤维均有IFNGR免疫阳性产物分布,但主要分布于神经元胞体,IFNGR在神经元胞体的相对表达量显著高于非神经细胞结构(P<0.05)。在山羊颈前神经节扩增到 IFNGR1基因的cDNA片段全长376 bp,与绵羊、牛、野猪、家兔、褐家鼠 IFNGR1基因同源性分别为98%、97%、84%、73%、66%。在山羊颈前神经节中IFNGR主要在交感节后神经元表达与分布,具备对IFN-γ刺激做出反应的条件,提示山羊颈前神经节可能作为IFN-γ对靶器官免疫内分泌调节途径和自主神经对靶器官调节的神经途径之间相互协调的关键点。
This experiment was conducted to detect the existence of IFNGR in the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) in goat, and to research the relationship between nerve regulation and immune regulation. Five pairs of CCG were taken from mature female and male goats, respectively. The expression of IFNGR was detected by PCR method and immunohistochemical SP staining. The results showed that: IFNGR immunoreactive substances were distributed in neurons, satellite cells and passing fiber, and mainly in the neurons. The relative expression of IFNGR was significantly higher than that of non-neuronal cells (P<0.05). The full length of IFNGR1 gene amplified by PCR method was 376 bp, and IFNGR1 gene of goat homology with sheep (98%) was the highest, followed by cattle (97%),Sus scrofa (84%),Oryctolagus cuniculus (73%) and Rattus norvegicus (66%). The results suggested that the IFNGR in CCG of goat mainly expressed and located in sympathetic postganglionic neurons which were provided with the conditions for the role of IFN-γ, which implied that CCG may act as the critical point to coordinate the immune endocrine regulation of IFN-γ and neuroregulation of autonomic nerve on target organ.
Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia
Siéssere, Selma;Vitti, Mathias;Sousa, Luiz Gustavo de;Semprini, Marisa;Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki;Regalo, Simone Cecílio Hallak;
Brazilian Oral Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-83242008000200002
Abstract: having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve), the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa), the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve), and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen). the aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. the proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. with this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. we also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.
Facial nerve neurinoma presenting as middle cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle mass : a case report.
Devi B,Panigrahi M,Jaiswal V,Bhat D
Neurology India , 2000,
Abstract: Facial nerve neurinomas are rare. The tumours arising from the geniculate ganglion may grow anteriorly and superiorly and present as a mass in the middle cranial fossa. Only a few cases of facial nerve neurinomas presenting as middle cranial fossa mass have so far been reported. These tumours present with either long standing or intermittent facial palsy along with cerebellopontine angle syndrome.
The fetal pterygopalatine ganglion in man  [PDF]
Rusu MC
Neuroanatomy , 2006,
Abstract: The pterygopalatine ganglion lies deep in the pterygopalatine fossa, being morphologically attached to the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve and functionally belonging to the facial nerve. The topographical relations of this deeply located ganglion are rather difficult to study and the specific morphology, in fetal life and adults, is lacking in references. To study the macroscopic appearance and the topographical relations of the fetal pterygopalatine ganglion five fetuses with crown-rump length (CRL) longer than 25 cm. were used. Drawn ganglia from the dissected specimens were submitted to silver staining with the Bielschowsky technique (on blocks). In the last trimester of the fetal life the pterygopalatine ganglion is configured and its topographical relations reproduce those described in adults. Structurally, the microscopic study revealed a constituted autonomic ganglion, with the preganglionic fibers entering the ganglionic core and configuring an intraganglionic plexus intermingled with eccentric neurocytes of 6–12 microns size.
Histochemical Features of the Extracellular Matrix in Rattus rattus norvegicus Otic Ganglion
Chagas,M. A.; Babinski,M. A.; Abidu-Figueiredo,M.; Costa,W. S.;
International Journal of Morphology , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022006000100015
Abstract: the otic ganglion is a cranial component of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ans). similar to other parasympathetic ganglia, otic ganglion presents multipolar neurons that are completely surrounded by satellite cells and intercellular substance as well, which allow us to use this ganglion as a good experimental model for studying the relationship neuron / extracellular matrix. we have studied rat otic ganglion in 10 animals through light microscopy. after routine histological methods, 5 μm sections were obtained and coloured by gomori`s trichrome, periodic acid-schiff (pas), alcian blue ph 2.5 and ph1.0, acetylation + pas, acetylation + deacetylation + pas, acid hydrolysis + pas, phenylhydrazine + pas and thiosemicarbazide + pas. the presence of neutral glycoproteins was demonstrated by pas reactivity. pas inhibition following alcian blue staining in ph 2.5 and 1.0 showed the presence of a small quantity of acid glycoprotein. the extracellular matrix analysis showed the presence of neutral and acid glycoconjugates. these findings suggests a mutual interaction and a complex role in ganglionic physiology
Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.  [cached]
Sylaja P,Cherian P,Das C,Radhakrishnan V
Neurology India , 2002,
Abstract: Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis is a rare form of fibrosing chronic inflammatory process of unknown etiology, which causes thickening of the intracranial dura mater. We present four patients with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis who presented with chronic headache and cranial nerve palsies. The diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis was based on neuroimaging findings of thickened enhancing dura, exclusion of known causes and histopathologic findings compatible with nonspecific inflammation in the meningeal biopsies. Corticosteroid therapy was effective in all cases in inducing a complete or partial remission of the neurologic symptoms and signs. We describe the clinical, radiological and pathological features of idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis and discuss the relationship of this entity with other inflammatory fibrosclerotic disorders to explain the pathogenesis. A high index of suspicion, prompt confirmation of the diagnosis by meningeal biopsy, and early institution and long-term maintenance of steroid therapy may help to prevent irreversible neurologic sequelae, especially blindness.
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